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Consurgunt geminæ quercus, intonsa que cælo
Et præceps animi Tmarus, et Mavortius Hæmon, 685 686. Totis agminibus Agminibus totis aut versi terga dedêre, hostium
Aut ipso portæ posuere in limine vitam.
Ductori Turno diversâ in parte furenti,
Dardaniam ruit ad portam, fratresque superbos. 695 696. Et primum, ja- Et primùm Antiphaten, is enim se primus agebat, culo conjecto, sternit Thebanâ de matre nothum Sarpedonis alti, Antiphaten, nothum alti Sarpedonis' de Thebana Conjecto sternit jaculo. Volat Itala cornus matre, enim
Aëra per tenuem, stomachoque infixa sub altum
Non jaculo; neque enim jaculo vitam ille dedisset;
681. eminc aëriæ quercus : as two aëri- one here alluded to was in Asia Minor : the al oaks rise around, &c. This is a fine si- sovereignty of which was long disputed bemile. It is taken from Homer, Iliad xi. tween the Lydians and Mysians. Nothum :
685. Præceps. Ruæus says, temerarius. an illegitimate son.
688. Tum iræ : then rage increases more 698. Cornus : the corneil-tree-also, a and more in the hostile minds of the Tro- javelin or dart made of the wood of that jans. Discordibus : in the sense of hostili- tree, by meton. brus. Ruæus says, infensis.
700. Specus atri vulneris : the cavity of 690. Conferre manum: to engage in close the dark wound emits, &c. Specus is procombat: a phrase.
perly a den or cave, which is usually dark 692. Turbanti : routing-driving before and gloomy. This idea the poet transfers him.
to the wound made by the javelin of Tur693. Fervere: rage with uncommon slaugh- nus. Some copies have sanguinis in the ter. Fervere signifies to be hot—to be busi- rojm of vulneris. In this case, atri sanguily engaged-also, to rage. Nova : 'uncom- nis must be governed by undam, and not by mon-unusual. Ruæus says, recenti. But specus ; which would signify the wound ithe takes fervere, in the sense of animari : to self. The common reading is vulneris. Valbe animated-encouraged. Præbere: in the py takes specus for the wound itself—the sense of offerre vel dare.
gaping wound. Undum : a stream--tide of 694. Deserit : in the sense of relinquit. blood. Reddit : in the sense of emittit.
695. Superbos fratres : Pandarus and Bi- 701. Fixo: in the sense of transfixo. tias, mentioned above, the sons of Alcanor. 703. Ardentem : flashing fire with his eyes.
696. Agebat se: presented himself-took 704. Non jaculo enim, &c. The meaning himself along.
of this line is : that Turnus did not kill him 697. Sarpedonis. Sarpedon was the re- with an ordinary javelin, for he would not puted son of Jupiter. Hence the epithet have yielded his life to a javelin—it would alti, high, or nobly born. He was king of 'have had no effect on him. The others he killLycia, and assisted Priam against the Greeks. ed with his hand—with an ordinary weapon. 'Thebana: an adj. from Thebes. There were 705. Falarica. This was an oblong kind several cities of that name; one in Egypt, of javelin, bound about with wild fire. It ine in Beotia, and one in Thessaly. The was usually shot out of an engine against
Fulminis acta modo ; quam nec duo taurea terga,
710 eum. Saxea pila cadit, magnis quam molibus antè
711. Quam construc
tam antè homines jaConstructam jaciunt ponto : sic illa ruinam
ciunt Prona trahit, penitusque vadis illisa recumbit.
712. Sic illa cadens Miscent se maria, et nigræ attolluntur arenæ.
prona Tum sonitu Prochyta alta tremit, durumque cubile 715 Inarime Jovis imperiis impôsta Typhæo.
716. Inarimeque imHìc Mars armipotens animum viresque Latinis pôsta Typheo quasi du
rum cubile imperiis JoAddidit, et stimulos acres sub pectore vertit:
vis, tremit. Immisitque fugam Teucris, atrumque timorem. Undique conveniunt, quoniam data copia pugnæ ; 720
720. Lalini conveni
unt undique, quoniam Bellatorque animo Deus incidit.
copia pugnæ data est Pandarus, ut fuso germanum corpore cernit,
ipsis Et quo sit fortuna loco, qui casus agat res, Portam, vi multâ converso cardine, torquet,
wooden towers for the purpose of setting to us, would be a novel way of making a them on fire. To show the prodigious dam or pier in the water. strength of Turnus, the poet intimates that 714. Miscent se: in the sense of turbantur. it was cast by him. To express the rapi- 715. Prochyta: an island lying to the south dity of its flight, he says, it flew like a thun- of the promontory Misenus, and formerly der-bolt : modo fulminis.
separated from the main land, by an earth706. Acta : driven-sent. Modo : in the quake, according to Pliny. Its name is of sense of more.
Greek origin. Hodie, Procida. Alta : high, 707. Duplici squamâ. The plates of a in reference to its surface. Or, alta may coat of mail were called squamæ, from their be taken in the sense of altè vel profundě. resemblance to scales. Squama et auro : for Ruæus says, intima. Heyne observes, that aurea squama, by hend. Fidelis : trusty- alta may be considered as an epithet proper faithful. It had hitherto protecíed him in for all islands, inasmuch as they are elevadanger.
ted or raised above the sea, or surface of 708. Ruunt : in the sense of cadunt. Col- the water : alta, epitheton commune omnium lapsa : failing-losing their strength, insularum, quatenùs mari eminent.
709. Intonat, &c. These words may be 716. Inarime. This is a high and elevated rendered : he, falling upon his mighty shield, island, laying to the west of Prochyta. This thunders; or, his mighty shieid falling upon passage is taken from Homer, Iliad ii. 283. him, &c. Clypeum : the same with clypeus. Typhæo. Typhæus was one of the giants This passage is imitated from Hoiner, Iliad that attempted to scale heaven, and was V. 42.
signally punished by Jove for the audacious 710. Eubożco litore Baiarum. Baia was attempt. a place in Campania, famous for its foun- 718. Vertit acres : he turns his sharp tains of warm water, situated in the upper spurs under their breast. This is a metapart of the Sinus Neapolitanus, near the phor taken from the application of the spur promontory Misenus. A colony from Chal- to the sides of the horse, to increase his cis, on the island Eubea, hodie, Negropont, speed and courage. founded the city Cumæ, not far from this 719. Atrum : in the sense of horridum : place. Hence the shore is called Eubaan. grim-ghastly. Qualis, &c. The meaning is: that Betias 720. Copia : in the sense of opportunitas, fell like a mass of rocks, which had been 721. Incidit : in the sense of subiit vel built up to a great height, and cast into the illabitur. sea, for the purpose of forming a dam or 722. Corpore fuso : with his body stretchbarrier to the water.
ed on the ground. Ut: in the sense of 711. Molibus: for a dam or pier.
quando. 713. Prona : in the sense of cadens. Illi- 723. Casus : misfortune-danger, Agat : sa : dashing upon the water. Penitùs : in attends their affairs-rules-governs. Ru. the sense of profundè. Recumbit: it sinks æus says, impellat. deep to the bottom---it rests, &c. This, 724. Torquet: he shuts the gate.
Obnixus latis humeris · multosque suorum
Demens ! qui Rutulum in medio non agmine regem
Agnoscunt facier invisam atque immania membra
Nec muris cohibet patriis media Ardea Turnum. 739. Est nulla potes- Castra inimica vides : nulla hinc exire potestas. Olli subridens sedato pectore Turnus :
740 Incipe, si
qua animo virtus, et consere dextram :
Effugies : neque enim is teli nec vulneris auctor.
Et mediam ferro gemina inter tempora frontem 750
726. Duro : in the sense of mortifero. nus, and, with her, the kingdom of Latium.
731. Continuò nova lux, &c. Davidson The verb est is to be supplied. refers this to the eyes of the Trojans, and 738. Ardea. The capital city of the Runot to those of Turnus. The comeliness of tuli. Media : the middle or centre of your his person and the brightness of his arms dominions. Cohibet : in the sense of tenet. rendered him easy to be distinguished by Patriis : paternal walls. the enemy. New light struck their eyes. 741. Consere dextram : engage hand to Both Dr. Trapp and Ruæus refer it to Tur- hand with me.
Ruæus says, novum lumen emicuit 742. Etiam : also—as well as among the ex oculis Turni,
Greeks. 732. Tremunt : wave.
743. Hastam rudem: a spear rough with 733. Micantia : gleaming-reflecting from knots, &c. his shield. Mittunt : in the sense of mit- 745. Vulnus : in the sense of ictum, by tunt se: throws-darts itself at a distance. meton. Davidson and Ruæus read mittit, referring 746. Detorsit : turned it aside. Veniens to Turnus. Heyne reads mittunt, agreeing in the sense of interveniens. with fulgura in the nom. If we read mittit, 748. Enim neque auctor teli : for neither fulgura will be the acc. plu. governed by the owner of the weapon, nor the author of that verb.
the stroke, is the same. He far excels you What follows of the feats of Turnus is in the strength of his body, and the nerve astonishingly grand. But it may be objects of his arm. Vulneris : in the sense of ictûs. ed, that the story is beyond probability. Is: in the sense of idem. We are to recollect, however, that it is al- 749. Consurgit: he rises upon his sword, lowable in poetry to go beyond real life: raised high. He lifts up his sword, and rises and, beside, he is assisted in his amazing ex- on tiptoe, to give greater force to the blow. ploits by a divine power.
Altè may be connected with consurgit, or sub737. Hæc non dotalis regia : this is not latum. The sense is the same in either case. the palace of Amata, promised as a dowry 750. Mediam .frontem : his head in the to thee. It was the purpose of Amata to middle between, &c. bestow her daughter Lavinia upon Tur- 751. Impubes : beardless-without beard.
Fit sonus : ingenti concussa est pondere tellus.
754. Atque caput peHuc caput atque illuc humeru ex utroque pependit. 755 pendit illi scissum in Diffugiunt versi trepidâ formidine Troës.
æquis partibus huc
759. Gentique TrojaSed furor ardentem cædisque insana cupido
760 norum. Egit in adversos. Principio Phalarim, et, succiso poplite, Gygen
763. Hinc ingerit has Excipit : hinc raptas fugientibus ingerit hastas
tas raptas ab occisis in
tergum In tergum: Juno vires animumque ministrat.
765. Comitem illis in Addit Halyn comitem, et confixâ Phegea parma : 765
morte, et Phegea, eus Ignaros deinde in muris, Martemque cientes,
parmâ confixa Alcandrumque Haliumque Noëmonaque Prytanimque. 766. Deinde occidit Lyncea tendentem contrà, sociosque vocantem, Alcandrumque, &c. igVibranti gladio connixus ab aggere dexter
naros ejus ingressûs in
muris Occupat: huic uno dejectum cominùs ictu
769. Connixus dexter Cum galeâ longè jacuit caput. Inde ferarum
ab aggere, Turnus occuVastatorem Amycum, quo non felicior alter
pat Lyncea Ungere tela manu, ferrumque armare veneno:
771. Inde occidit AmyEt Clytium Æoliden, et amicum Cretea Musis ;
774. Et occidit ClyCretea Musarum comitem: cui carmina semper Et citharæ cordi, numerosque intendere nervis ;
775. Cui carmina, et Semper equos, atque arma virûm, pugnasque canebat.
citharæ fuerant semper Tandem ductores, auditâ cæde suorum,
cordi Conveniunt Teucri, Mnestheus acerque Serestus ;
780. Receptum in mu
ris. Et Mnestheus inPalantesque vident socios, hostemque receptum. 780
quit : quo deinde diriEt Mnestheus, Quò deinde fugam ? quò tenditis ? inquit, gitis fugam ?
754. Illi : in the sense of illius. His head 771. Caput huic. The same as, hujus hung, &c. Sternit: he brings to the ground. caput: the dat. in the sense of the gen. Ruæus says, trahit.
772. Felicior: more skilful-expert. 757. subisset victorem : had the thought 773. Ungere : to anoint. Manu : artcome into the mind of the victor to burst, skill, by meton. The practice of poisoning &c. Claustra : the bars of the gate—the arrows, and other missive weapons, obtained
among some nations of antiquity. It is 761. Egit in adversos : drove him furious said to be done at the present day by some upon his foes.
He could not resist the tribes of Indians, and some of the barbatemptation of pursuing his revenge on his rous nations of Africa. Ferrum: the point enemies, when they were full in his view.
or barb. 763. Excipit : in the sense of interficit. 774. Æoliden. He was skilful at playing He receives or surprises them with death. on wind instruments. He is therefore called * Ingerit : in the sense of intorquet, vel jacit. metaphorically the son of Æolus. There
766. Ignaros: ignorant of his being within is a propriety, therefore, in joining him with their walls. Not thinking of danger, and Creteus, who was a distinguished musician, not imagining that Turnus and death were and consequently a friend and companion so near them. Cientes: rousing the martial of the muses. Cretea, Lyncea, Phegea, are courage of his friends-encouraging the Greek accusatives. fight.
776. Intendere numeros : to apply notes 768. Tendentem contrà : meeting him to the strings of the lyre to apply verse to coming opposite to him.
music. Ruæus says, edere sonos croordis. 769. Dexter: on the right hand: or, dex- Cordi : for a delight. Cithare, may here terous, skilful.
mean musical instrumer's in general. 770. Occupat : receives-takes. Interci- 781. Quò deinde fugam? where next will put, says Ruæus.
ye direct your flight? Servius says this
Quos alios muros, quæ jam ultrà mænia habetis ? 783. Unus homo, et Unus homo, vestris, ô cives, undique septus ille septus vestris agge- Aggeribus, tantas strages impunè per urbem ribus undique
Ediderit ? juvenum primos tot miserit Orco ?
Non infelicis patriæ, veterumque Deorum, 787. Non miseretque Et magni Æneæ, segnes, miseretque pudetque ? pudetque vos, o segnes, Talibus accensi firmantur, et agmine denso infelicis 789. Turnus paulatim
Consistunt. Turnus paulatim excedere pugnâ, incipit
Et fluvium petere, ac partem quæ cingitur amni. 791. Teucri incipiunt Acriùs hộc Teucri clamore incumbere magno, acrius học
Et glomerare manum. Ceu sævum turba leonem
Asper, acerbà tuens, retrò redit: et neque terga
Haud aliter retrò dubius vestigia Turnus
Nec contrà vires audet Saturnia Juno
Demisit, germanæ haud mollia jussa ferentem;
Ni Turnus cedat l'eucrorum manibus altis. 806. Ergò juvenis Ergò nec clypeo juvenis subsistere tantum, valet subsistere tantum Nec dextrâ valet: injectis sic undique telis impetum, nec clypeo, nec dextrâ
Obruitur. Strepit assiduo cava tempora circum
Tinnitu galea, et saxis solida æra fatiscunt: 810. Jubæ sunt dis- Discussæque jubæ capiti ; nec sufficit umbo
Ictibus : ingeminant hastis et Troës, et ipse
is a bitter sarcasm. It implies that they had 794. Acerbà : an adj. neu, plu. taken as already fled into their camp, and shut them- an adverb. This is common among the selves up through fear, within their in- poets. Tuens, a part, of tueor: looking trenchments. Tenditis : in the sense of fiercely. ibitis.
795. Tendere contrà: to go forward. 784. Aggeribus : in the sense of muris. 798. Improperata : slow-deliberate. Of 785. Ediderit : in the sense of effecerit. in, negativum, and properatus.
787. Segnes : cowards. Ruæus says, 0, 800. Confusa: confused--disordered. Ruinertes. It is better to consider segnes, as æus and some others read conversa. the voc. than the acc. agreeing with vos un- 801. In unum : against him alone. Coit: derstood, and governed by the verbs miseret unites. Of con, and eo. and pudet. It is more animated, and more 805. Ni Turnus. A thrcat is intimated in the spirit of address.
or implied in the words, haud mollia man. 788. Firmantur: in the sense of animan- data ; which would be put in execution, tur. By these words of Mnestheus the Tro- unless Turnus retired from the Trojan walls. jans were encouraged, and rallied; and 809. Tinnitu: ringing. Strepit : in the again returned to the attack.
sense of sonat. 790. Partem: the part of the walls which 810. Jubæ : the plumes or feathers in was bounded by the river.
his helmet. These were struck from his 791. Hôc acriùs, &c. This retreat of head. Umbo. The boss or extreme part Turnus gave courage to the Trojans, who of the shield, by synec. the whole shield. began to press upon him more closely, and This is not able to withstand the blows of to form a band about him with a view to the missive weapons. surround him, and take him prisoner.
812. Fulmineus: in the sense of ardens 792. Turba: a company of hunters.. The Trojans, with Mnestheus at their head,