Page images

The desolations


of Juduh.

Anno Olymp.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

A. M. cir. 3244.
13 Therefore my people are and the eyes of the lofty shall

. 4B.M.Cor.324. B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. gone into captivity, y because be humbled :

Quintæ I.
Ante Urbem they have no knowledge : and 16 But the LORD of hosts
Conditam 7.

z their honourable men are fa- shall. be exalted in judgment, mished, and their multitude dried up with and b.God that is holy shall be sanctified thirst.

in righteousness. 14 Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and 17 Then shall the lambs feed after their opened her mouth without measure : and their manner, and the waste places of a the fat ones glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and shall strangers eat. he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.

18 Wo unto them that draw iniquity with 15 And a the mean man shall be brought cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart: down, and the mighty man shall be humbled, rope :

.. Heb. their


* Hos. iv. 6. — Chap. i. 3; Luke xix. 44.

glory are men of famine.

Chap. ii. 9, 11, 17. -b Or, the holy God. —Heb. the God the

holy:- -d Chap. X 16.

“ Ye that put far away the evil day,

But, in Isaiah, Hades is introduced to much greater And affect the seat of violence;

advantage, in person ; and placed before our eyes in Who lie upon beds of ivory,

the form of a ravenous monster, opening wide his And stretch yourselves upon your couches ; immeasurable jaws, and swallowing them all together : And eat the lambs from the flock,

“Therefore Sheol hath dilated her soul, she hath opened And calves from the midst of the stall ;

her mouth beyond limit.” Destruction expects more Who chant to the sound of the viol,

than a common meal, when God visits Jerusalem for And like David invent for yourselves instruments of her iniquities. This seems to refer to the ruin brought music;

on the Jews by the Romans. Our blessed Lord reWho quaff wine in large bowls,

peats this parable, and applies it to this very transacAnd are anointed with the choicest ointments : tion, Matt. xxi, 33. But are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph.” Verse 17. The lambs-—"And the kids"] Jinge

rim, “strangers.” The Septuagint read, more agreeKimchi says, " they consider not the heavens nor

ably to the design of the prophet, Din carim, apves, their hosts : they pray not the morning nor the evening the lambs.” O'na gedayim, " the kids," Dr. Durell ; prayer unto the Lord.”

nearer to the present reading : and so Archbishop Follow strong drink] Theodoret and Chrysostom

Secker. The meaning is, their luxurious habitations on this place, both Syrians, and unexceptionable wit- shall be so entirely destroyed as to become a pasture nesses in what belongs to their own country, inform us

for flocks. that 10 shechar (olkepa in the Greek of both Testa

After their manner Without restraint"] 09373 ments, rendered by us by the general term strong drink) kedobram, secundum ductum eorum; i. e., suo ipsorum meant properly palm wine, or date wine, which was ductu ; as their own will shall lead them. and is still much in use in the Eastern countries. Ju

Verse 18. With a cart-rope—"As a long cable") dea was famous for the abundance and excellence of The Septuagint, Àquila, Sym., and Theod., for bana its palm trees; and consequently had plenty of this bechabley, read osankechabley, oxouviu, or oxouviois; wine. “Fiunt (vina) et e pomis; primumque e pal- and the Septuagint, instead of siv shav, read some mis, quo Parthi et Indi utuntur, et oriens totus : matu- other word signifying long; ç oxolvi paxpw; and so rarum modio in aquæ congiis tribus macerato expres, likewise the Syriac, x'w arecha. Houbigant consoque." Plin. lib. xiv. 19. “Ab his cariolæ (palmæ) jectures that the word which the Septuagint had in maxime celebrantur; et cibo quidem, sed et şucco, their copies was you sarua, which is used Lev. xxi. uberrimæ. Ex quibus præcipua vina orienti ; iniqua 18, xxii. 23, for something in an animal body supercapti, unde pomo' nomen." Id. xiii, 9. Καρος sig

fluous, lengthened beyond its natural measure. And pifies stupefaction: and in Hebrew likewise the he explains it of sin added to sin, and one sin drawing wine has its name from its remarkably inebriating

on another, till the whole comes to an enormous length quality.

and magnitude ; compared to the work of a rope-maker Verse 13. And their honourable men—"And the still increasing and lengthening his tope, with the connobles”] These verses have likewise a reference to tinued addition of new materials.

« Eos propheta the two preceding. They that indulged in feasting similes facit homini restiario, qui funem torquet, canand drinking shall perish with hunger and thirst; and nabe addita et contorta, eadem iterans, donec funem in Hades shall indulge his appetite as much as they had longum duxerit, neque eum liceat protrahi longius.” done, and devour them all. The image is strong


• An evil inclination,” says Kimchi on this place, from expressive in the highest degree. Habakkuk, chap. the ancient rabbins, " is at the beginning like a fine ii. 5, uses the same image with great force :—the am

hair-string, but at the finishing like a thick cart-rope." bitious and avaricious conqueror

By a long progression in iniquity, and a continued ac“Enlargeth his appetite like Hades ;

cumulation of sin, mon arrive at length to the highest And he is like Death, and will never be satisfied.” | degree of wickedness; bidding open defiance to God,

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The crimes of


Judah enumerated. A. M. cir. 3244.

19 • That say, Let him make and take away the righteousness M. cir. 3244 B. C. cir. 760.

B. C. . Anno Olymp. speed, and hasten his work, that of the righteous from him! Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ I. Ante Urbem we may see it:, and let the 24 Therefore las m the fire Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. counsel of the Holy One of devoureth the stubble, and the Israel draw nigh and come, that we may flame consumeth the chaff, so their root shall know it!

be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go 20 Wo unto thein that call evil good, and up as dust : because they have cast away the good evil; that put darkness for light, and light law of the Lord of hosts, and despised the for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and word of the Holy One of Israel. sweet for bitter !

Therefore is the anger of the LORD 21 Wo unto them that are wise in their kindled against his people, and he hath own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! stretched forth his hand against them, and

22 i Wo unto them that are mighty to drink hath smitten them : and P the hills did tremble, wine, and men of strength to mingle strong and their carcasses were torn in the midst of drink :

the streets. For all this his anger is not 23 Which " justify the wicked for reward, turned away, but his hand is stretched out still. Chap. Ixvi. 5; Jer. xvii. 15; Amos v. 18; 2 Pet. iii. 3, 4. I Exod. xv. 7.

um Heb. the tongue of fire. Job xviii. 16; ! Heb. that say concerning evil, It is good, &c.—Prov. ini. 7; Hos. ix. 16; Amos ii. 9.402 Kings xxii. 13, 17. — Jer. iv. Rom. i. 22; xii. 16.- Heb. before their face..-- Verse 11. 24. - Or, as dung.--Lev. xxvi. 14, &c.; chap. ix. 12, 17, * Prov. xvii, 15; xxiv. 24.

21; x. 4. and scoffing at his threatened judgments, as it is finely frequently used. Virgil very elegantly intimates, rather expressed in the next verse. The Chaldee paraphrast than expresses, the image :explains it in the same manner, of wickedness increas

Ecce levis summo de vertice visus Jüli ing from small beginnings, till it arrives to a great mag

Fundere lumen apex; tactuque innoxia molli nitude. -L.

Lambere flamına comas, et circum tempora pasci. I believe neither the rabbins nor Bishop Lowth have

Æn. ii. 682. hit on the true meaning of this place; the prophet seems to refer to idol sacrifices. -- The victims they offered

“Strange to relate! from young lulus' head were splendidly decked out for the sacrifice. Their

A lambent flame arose, which gently spread

Around his brows, and on his temples fed." horns and houfs were often gilded, and their heads dressed out with filets and garlands. The cords of And more boldly of Ætna darting out flames from its vanity may refer to the silken strings by which they top : were led to the altar, some of which were unusually

Interdumque atram prorumpit ad æthera nubem, thick. The offering for iniquity was adorned with fil

Turbine fumantem piceo, et candente favilla : lets and garlands; the sin-offering with silken cords,

Attollitque globos flammarum, et sidera lambit. like unto cart-ropes. Pride, in their acts of humilia

Æn. iii. 574. tion, had the upper hand. Verse 19. Let the counsel of the Holy One] Try

By turns a pitchy cloud she rolls on high,

By turns hot embers from her entrails fly, phiodorus has an expression something like this :

And flakes of mountain flames, that lick the sky." επει Διος ηλυθε βουλη. .'

The disparted tongues, as it were of fire, Acts ii. 3, Tryph. Il Ercid. 239..

which appeared at the descent of the Holy Spirit, on Because the counsel of Jupiter was come.

the apostles, give the same idea ; that is, of flames

shooting diversely into pyramidal forms, or points, like « This expression, navde Bovan, is, I believe, something tongues. It may be farther observed that the prophet uncommon; but it is exactly paralleled and explained in this place has given the metaphor its full force, in by a passage in Isaiah, chap. v. 19. The Septuagint applying it to the action of fire in eating up and dehas expressed it in the very same words with Tryphi-vouring whatever comes in its way, like a ravenous odorus: και ελθοι ή βουλη του αγιου Ισραηλ, ένα animal whose tongue is principally employed in taking yvoplev.”—Merrick's note, ad loc.

in his food or prey ; which image Moses has strongly Verse 22. Mighty to drink wine] “They show not,” exhibited in an expressive comparison : “And Moab says Kimchi, “ their strength in combating their ene- said to the elders of Midian, Now shall this collection mies, but in drunkenness and debauchery.”

of people lick up all that are round about us, as the ox Verse 23. The righteous) p'as tsaddik, singular, licketh up the grass of the field,” Num. xxii. 4. See Sept., Vulg., and two editions.

also 1 Kings xviii. 38. Verse 24. The flame—“The tongue of fire”] “ The Their root shall be as rottenness) po cammak, like flame, because it is in the shape of a tongue ; and so mak; whence probably our word '

muck, dung, was it is called metaphorically.” Sal. ben Melec. The derived. metaphor is so exceedingly obvious, as well as beauti

Verse 25. The hills did tremble" And the mounful, that one may wonder that it has not been more tains trembled") Probably referring to the great earth

B. C. . .

The judgments of the


Lord against Judah. A. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760. 26 And he will lift up an like flint, and their wheels like 4. M. cir

. 3241. Anno Olymp. ensign to the nations from far, a whirlwind :

Anno Olymp. Quintæ L.

Quintæ I. Ante l'rbem and will hiss unto them from 29 Their roaring shall be like Ante Urbem Conditain 7. u the end of the earth : and, a lion, they shall roar like young

Conditam 7. behold, they shall come with speed lions : yea, they shall roar, and lay hold of the swiftly :

prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none 27 None shall be weary nor stumble among shall deliver it. them; none shall slumber nor sleep ; neither 30 And in that day they shall roar against shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor them like the roaring of the sea : and if one the latchet of their shoes be broken:

y look unto the land, behold darkness and 28 - Whose arrows are sharp, and all their 2 sorrow, a and the b light is darkened in the bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted heavens thereof.

•Chap. xi. 12. Chap. vii. 18. « Deut. xxviii. 49 ; Psa. y Chap. viii. 22; Jer. iv. 23 ; Lam. ii. 2; Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8. lxxi. 8; Mal. i. 11. Joel ii. 7. * Dan. v. 6. Jer. 2 Or, distress. -a Or, when it is light it shall be dark in the dev. 16.

structions thereof.- Ezek. xxxii. 8, in the margin. quakes in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, in or not promises to unloose the loins of kings before Cyrus, long before the time of the prophet himself, recorded chap. xlv. 1. The girdle is so essential a part of a as a remarkable era in the title of the prophecies of soldier's accoutrement, being the last that he puts on to Amos, chap. i. 1, and by Zechariah, chap. xiv. 5. make himself ready for action, that to be girded, Sov

Verse 26. He will-hiss—" He will hist"] “ The vvotar, with the Greeks means to be completely armed metaphor is taken from the practice of those that keep and ready for battle :bees, who draw them out of their hives into the fields,

Ατρειδης δ' εβoησεν, ιδε ζωννυσθαι ανωγεν and lead them back again, ovplomaol, by a hiss or a

Aργειους. .

Iliad, xi. 15. whistle.”—Cyril, on this place; and to the same purpose Theodoret, ib. In chap. vii. 18, the metaphor is | Το δε ενδυναι τα όπλα, εκαλουν οι παλαιοι ζωννυσθαι. more apparent, by being carried farther, where the hos- Pausan. Bæot. It is used in the same manner by the tile armies are expressed by the fly and the bee :

Hebrews : "Let not him that girdeth himself boast

as he that unlooseth his girdle," i Kings xx. 11; that “ Jehovah shall hist the fly

is, triumph not before the war is finished. That is in the utmost parts of Egypt;

Verse 28. Their horses' hoofs shall be counted like And the bee, that is in the land of Assyria.” flint—"The hoofs of their horses shall be counted as On which place see Deut. i. 44 ; Psa. cxviii. 12 ; and adamant”} The shoeing of horses with iron plates nailGod calls the locusts his great army, Joel ji

. 25; known to the ancients, as appears from the silence of

ed to the hoof is quite a modern practice, and was unExod. xxiii. 28. See Huet, Quest

. Alnet. ii, 12. po the Greek and Roman writers, especially those that sharak or shrak, he shall whistle for them, call loud'and shrill ; he shall shriek, and they (their enemies) shall treat of horse medicine, who could not have passed come at his call.

over a matter so obvious and of such importance that With speed] This refers to the nineteenth verse. As now the whole science takes its name from it, being the scoffers had challenged God to make speed, and to called by .us farriery. The horse-shoes of leather hasten his work of vengeance, so now God assures

and iron which are mentioned; the silver and gold them that with speed and swiftly it shall come.

shoes with which Nero and Poppæa shod their mules, Verse 27. Noneamong them] Kimchi has well used occasionally to preserve the hoofs of delicate catillustrated this continued exaggeration or hyperbole, tle, or for vanity, were of a very different kind ; they as he rightly calls it, to the following effect : “Through enclosed the whole hoof as in a case, or as a shoc

For the greatness of their courage, they shall not be fa- does a man's foot, and were bound or tied on. tigued with their march; nor shall they stumble though this reason the strength, firmness and solidity of a they march with the utmost speed: they shall not horse's hoof was of much greater importance with them slumber by day, nor sleep by night ; neither shall they than with us, and was esteemed one of the first praises ungird their armour, or put off their sandals to take of a fine horse. Xenophon says that a good horse's their rest. Their arms shall be always in readiness, hoof is hard, hollow, and sounds upon the ground like their arrows sharpened, and their bow's bent. The

a cymbal. Hence the χαλκoποδες ιπποι, of Homer, hoofs of their horses are hard as a rock. They shall and Virgil's solido graviter sonat ungula cornu. And not fail, or need to be shod with iron : the wheels of Xenophon gives, directions for hardening the horses' their carriages shall move as rapidly as a whirlwind.” hoofs by making the pavement on' which he stands in

the stable with round-headed stones. For want of this Neither shall the girdle) The Eastern people, wearing long and loose garments, were unfit for action or artificial defence to the foot which our horses have, business of any kind, without girding their clothes Amos, chap. vi. 12, speaks of it as a thing as much about them. When their business was finished they impracticable to make horses run upon a hard rock as took off their girdles. A girdle therefore denotes to plough up the same rock with oxen : strength and activity; and 10 unloose the girdle is lo "Shall horses run upon a rock? deprive of strength, to render unfit for action. God Shall one plough it up with oxen ?"

This is probably .ונבט לשמים למעלה ולארץ למטה cassuphah, like the stormy כסופה [Like a whirlwind

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The vision

of Isaiah. These circumstances must be taken into considera- this version, it stood thus in the Septuagint :-Kai tion in order to give us a full notion of the propriety εμβλεψονται εις τον ουρανον ανω, και εις την γην κατω ; and force of the image by which the prophet sets forth “ And they shall look unto the heavens above and unto the strength and excellence of the Babylonish cavalry, the earth beneath,” and so it stands in the Septuagint which made a great part of the strength of the Assy- MSS., Pachom. and 1. D. 11., according to which they rian army. Xenop. Cyrop. lib. ii.

must have read their Hebrew text in this manner :) . blast. Here sense and sound are well connected. the true reading, with which I have made the transla

Verse 30. If one look unto the land, f.—“And tion agree. Compare chap. viii. 22 ; where the same these shall look to the heaven upward, and down to the sense is expressed in regard to both particulars, which earth”) p19 0331 venibbat laarets. Kai eußlepov- are here equally and highly proper, the looking upται εις την γην. . So the Septuagint, according to the wards; as well as down to the earth : but the form Vatican and Alexandrian copies ; but the Compluten- of expression is varied. I believe the Hebrew text in sian and Aldine editions have it more fully, thus“:: that place to be right, though not so full as I suppose Kai eußaexovtal ÉLG Tov ovpavov avw, kal katw; and it was originally here ; and that of the Septuagint the Arabic from the Septuagint, as if it had stood there to be redundant, being as full as the Coptic ver.. thus :—Kai Eup2.exovTAL ELS TOV ovpavov, kal ELS TNU sion and MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. II. represent it in you katw, both of which are plainly defective; the this place, from which I suppose it has been interpowords Els TTV ynv, unto the earlh, being wanted in the lated. former, and the word avw, above, in the latter. But an Darkness—"The gloomy vapour”] The Syriac and ancient Coptic version from the Septuagint, supposed Vulgate seem to have read nowa bearphalach; but to be of the second century, some fragments of which Jarchi explains the present reading as signifying darkare preserved in the library of St. Germain des Prez ness; and possibly the Syriac and Vulgate may have at Paris, completes the sentence ; for, according to understood it in the same manner.

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This chapter, by a particular designation of Isaiah to the prophetic office, 1-8, introduces, with great solem

nity, a declaration of the whole tenor of the Divine conduct in reference to his people, who, on account of
their unbelief and impenilence, should for a very long period be given up to a judicial blindness and hard-
ness of heart, 9, 10; and visited with such calamities as would issue in the total desolation of their country,
and their general dispersion, 11, 12. The prophet adds, however, that under their repeated dispersions,
(by the Chaldeans, Romans, fc.;) a small remnant would be preserved as a seed from which will be raised
e people, in whom will be fulfilled all the Divine promises, 13.
A. M. 3245.

A. M. 3245.

2 Above it stood the seraphims : IN the year that · King Uzziah B. C. 759.

B. C. 759. Anno Olymp. died I b'saw also the Lord each one had six wings; with Anno Olymp. Quintæ 2.

Quintæ 2. Ante Urbem sitting upon a throne, high and twain he covered his face, and

Ante Urbem Conditam 6.

Conditam 6. lifted up, and chis train filled with twain he covered his feet, the temple.

and with twain he did fly. a 2 Kings xv. 7. 6 1 Kings xxii. 19; John xii. 41; Rev. iv. 2.- - Or, the skirts thereof. Ezek. i. 11. As this vision seems to contain a solemn designa- in regard to his people and the fates of the nation ; tion of Isaiah to the prophetic office, it is by most which are even now still depending, and will not be interpreters thought to be the first in order of his fully accomplished till the final restoration of Israel. prophecies. But this perhaps may not be so ; for In this vision the ideas are taken in general from Isaiah is said, in the general title of his prophecies, to royal majesty, as displayed by the monarchs of the have prophesied in the time of Uzziah, whose acts, East; for the prophet could not represent the ineffable first and last, he wrote, 2 Chron. xxvi. 22 ; which is presence of God by any other than sensible and earthly usually done by a contemporary prophet ; and the images. The particular scenery of it is taken from phrase, in the year that Uzziah died, probably means the temple. God is represented as seated on his after the death of Uzziah ; as the same phrase (chap. throne above the ark, in the most holy place, where xiv. 28) means after the death of Ahaz. Not that the glory appeared above the cherubim, surrounded by Isaiah's prophecies are placed in exact order of time. his attendant ministers. This is called by God himChapters ii., i.; iv., V., seem by internal marks to be self “ the place of his throne, and the place of the antecedent to chap. i. ; they suit the time of Uzziah, soles of his feet," Ezek. xliii. 7. "A glorious throne, or the former part of Jotham's reign ; whereas chap. exalted of old, is the place of our sanctuary,” saith the i. can hardly be earlier than the last years of Jotham. prophet Jeremiah, chap. xvii. 12. The very posture See note on chap. i. 7, and ii. 1. This might be a of sitting is a mark of state and solemnity : Sed et new designation, to introduce more solemnly a general ipsum verbum sedere regni significat potestatem, saith dedication of the whole course of God's dispensations | Jerome, Comment. in Eph. i. 20. See note on chap.

The vision

of Isaiah. A. M. 3245. 3 And one cried unto an- 4. And the posts of the i door

A. M. 3245. B. C. 759.

B. C. 759. Anno Olymp. other, and said, "Holy, holy, moved at the voice of him that

Anno Olymp.

Quintæ 2. Ante Urbem holy, is the LORD of hosts : cried, and k the house was filled Ante Urbem Conditam 6. & the h whole earth is full of with smoke,

Conditam 6. his glory.

5 Then said I, Wo is me! for I am e Heb. this cried to this. Rev. iv. 8. - Heb. his glory is the. Heb. thresholds. ck Exod. xl. 34 : 1 Kings viii. 10. Exod. fulness of the whole earth. - Psa. lxxii. 19.

iy. 10; vi. 30; Judg. vi. 22 ; xiii. 22 ; Jer. i. 6. üi. 2. St. John, who has taken many sublime images chi, the angels as flames of fire, that the depravity of from the prophets of the Old Testament, and in par- that generation might be exhibited, which was worthy ticular from Isaiah, hath exhibited the same scenery, of being totally burnt up. drawn out into a greater number of particulars ; Rev. iv. He covered his feet_“He covereth his feet”] By

The veil, separating the most holy place from the the feet the Hebrews mean all the lower parts of the holy or outermost part of the temple, is here sup- body. But the people of the East generally wearing posed to be taken away; for the prophet, to whom long robes, reaching to the ground, and covering the the whole is exhibited, is manifestly placed by the lower parts of the body down to the feet, it may hence allar of burnt-offering, at the entrance of the temple, have been thought want of respect and decency to ap(compare Ezek. xliii. 5, 6,) which was filled with the pear in public and on solemti occasions with even the train of the robe, the spreading and overflowing of the feet themselves uncovered. Kempfer, speaking of Divine glory. The Lord upon the throne, according the king of Persia giving audience, says, Rex in medio to St. John, (chap. xii. 41,) was Christ ; and the vision supremi atrii cruribus more patrio inflexis sedebat : related to his future kingdom, when the veil of separa- corpus tunica investiebat flava, ad suras cum staret tion was to be removed, and the whole earth was to profersa ; discumbentis vero pedes discalceatos pro be filled with the glory of God, revealed to all man- urbanitate patria operiens.—Amen. Exot. p. 227. kind : which is likewise implied in the hymn of the The king sat on the floor cross-legged, as is the seraphim, the design of which is, saith Jerome on the custom of the country. He was covered with a yelplace, Ut mysterium Trinitatis in una Divinitate demon- low garment, which reached down to the feet when strent; et nequaquam templum Judaicum, sicut prius, standing, but covered the feet for decency when sitting sed omnem terram illius gloria plenam esse testentur ; with his slippers off.” Sir John Chardin's MS. note “ That they may point out the mystery of the Trinity on this place of Isaiah is as follows : Grande marque in one Godhead ; and that the Jewish temple alone de respect en orient de se cacher les pieds, quand on should not be, as formerly, the place of the Divine est assis, et de baisser le visage. Quand le souvrain glory, for the whole earth should be filled with it.” It se monstre en Chine et à Japon, chacun se jette le relates, indeed, primarily to the prophet's own time, visage contre terre, et il n'est pas permis de regarder and the obduration of the Jews of that age, and their le roi ; “It is a great mark of respect in the East to punishment by the Babylonish captivity ; but extends cover the feet, and to bow down the head in the prein its full latitude to the age of Messiah, and the blind- sence of the king." ness of the Jews to the Gospel, (see Matt. xiii. 14; Verse 3. Holy, holy, holy] This hymn, performed John xii. 40; Acts xxviä. 26 ; Rom. xi. 8,) the deso- by the seraphim, divided into two choirs, the one lation of their country by the Romans, and their being singing responsively to the other, which Gregory Narejected by God. That nevertheless a holy seed-a zian., Carm. 18, very elegantly calls Evuowvov, avtiremnant, should be preserved ; and that ihe nation owvov, ayyehwv gradiv, is formed upon the practice should spread out and flourish again from the old of alternate singing, which prevailed in the Jewish stock.-L.

Church from the time of Moses, whose ode at the

Red Sea was thus performed, (see Exod. xv. 20, 21,) NOTES ON CHAP. VI.

to that of Ezra, ander whom the priests and Levites Verse 1. The Lord] Fifty-one MSS. of Kennicott's, sung alternately, and fifty-four of De Rossi's, and one edition ; 'in the “) praise Jehovah, for he is gracious ; 8th verse, forty-four MSS. of Kennicott's, and forty- For his mercy endureth for ever ;" sit of De Rossi's, and one edition ; and in the 11th Ezra iii. 11.' See De Sac. Poes. Hebr. Præl. xix., verse, thirly-three MSS. of Kennicoti's, and many of at the beginning. De Rossi's, and one edition, for "378 Adonai, “the Verse 5. Wo is me! for I am undone] 1972 Lord," read 0117" " Jehovah,” which is probably the nidmeythi, I am become dumb. There is something true reading ; (compare ver. 6 :) as in many other exceedingly affecting in this complaint. I am a man places, in which the superstition of the Jews has sub- of unclean lips; I cannot say, Holy, holy, holy! which stituted 37% Adonai for 77177. Yehovah. One of my the seraphs exclaim. They are holy; I am not so : own MSS., a very ancient and large folio, to which they see God, and live; I have seen him, and must the points and the masora have been added by a die, because I am unholy. Only the pure in heart later hand, has 1107Yehovah in the 1st and 8th shall see God; and they only can live in his presence verses, in the teeth of the masora, which orders it in for ever. Reader, lay this to heart; and instead of both places to be read 373 Adonai.

boasting of thy excellence, and trusting in thy might, Verse 2. Above il stood the seraphim) d'on sera- or comforting thyself in thy comparative innocence. phim, from 770 seraph, to burn. He saw, says Kim- thou wilt also be dumb before him, because thou last

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