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1796.) Original Anecdotes.-Dumont. . . Laclos. . . Degrave, &c. 479 is likely to become a member of the Di- land, there is some reason to suppose, rectory.

that her opinion respecting this gentle

man was somewhat tinctured by party DUMONT,

prejudice.

M. Degrave lives in the neighbourhood A native of Geneva, and, consequently, a of Kensington, and consoles himself, republican by birth, was the editor of a amidst his misfortunes, by means of his newspaper, termed " Le Republicain.” books. It is but justice to say, that the It was published on the king's flight to French bear calamity with a fortitude Varennes, and considered, on account of truly heroic : if they' are apt to triumph, the title, as a phenomenon. At that period perhaps, a little too much, in prosperity, there were but eight republicans in they evince a noble constancy in adversity, France-I mean eight native citizens ! that would have reflected honour on the Here follow the names of four of them : Atoics of ancient times ! Perion, mayor of Paris ; Condorcet, so celebrated for his attainments in the sci

SAINT-JUST ences; Briffot, who died in an honourable poverty, a martyr to his principles ; and Was first a deputy for the department of Du Chatelet, whom Louis XVI, in vain, L'Aisne, and afterwards a representaendeavoured to convert by all the blan- tive of Nievre. He was one of the most dihments of royal favour. Robespierre, violent of the mountain-party, and, duon being entrusted with their secret de- ring the trial of Louis XVI, made a very fign, asked, with a sneer, Ce que c'étoit celebrated ?peech on the 13th November, qu’une république ?!!

1792 ; in the course of which, he incul

cated the extraordinary maxim, that it LACLOS,

was criminal to be a king; On ne peut

point regner innocement." A man of extraordinary talents, great

Hitherto, St. Just had maintained the vices, and the author of Les Liaisons dane reputation of virtue, but his conduct togereuses, was the bosom friend, and constant wards the Gironde, and during his miscompanion, of M. d'Egalité, the ci-devant fion into the south, rendered his name duke of Orleans. On the flight of the

at once odious and terrible. After this king, he repaired to the society of Ja. period, he was usually termed l'ame damcobins, and endeavoured to procure a pe; née de Robespierre. When the Tbermidotition from them, requesting the National reans overcame the Terrorists, St. Juft, Assembly to dethrone Louis, and declare who had, of course, taken part with the Philip conftitutional monarch of France. latter, was outlawed, arrested, and put Being defeated in this attempę, by Brissot, to death, in the Place de la Revolution, on he tried to gain over the people, whom he the 10th Thermidor, (28th July) 1794, had assembled for that purpose : and it

as one of the accomplices of the tyrant. was this circumstance that induced Bailly, then mayor of Paris, to proclaim martial

M. DE

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD law, and Le Fayette to give orders for

LIANCOURT what has ever since been termed the maffacre of the Champ de Mars.

This nobleman, acknowledged for

merly by the title of Duc de Liancourt, M. DEGRAVE

although he does not now claim it, even

by courtesy, for he is a modest, as well Was the minister at war, when Roland as a good man, was one of the members presided over the home department. The of the States-General, and joined the inost accomplished woman that France has, majority of the clergy, and the minority perhaps, ever produced, describes him of the nobles, when they met--for they

as a little man in every sense of the never united with the tiers état or Comword; for nature having formed him Notwithstanding this, the duke gentle and timid, his prejudices tempting was personally attached to the king; and him to be lofty, and his heart inspiring it was he who, at one o'clock of the him with the desire of being amiable, by morning, of the 15th of July 1789, firft an endeavour to reconcile all these, he be informed Louis XVI of the capture of the came, in reality, nothing !”

Bastille! His majesty was absolutely igI have heard a very different character norant of the event, when his ministers of the ex-minister, from a good judge of left him,at eleven o'clock on the preceding mankind; and however much I may be evening; they carefully concealed it (for it inclined to defer to the discrimination of is ridiculous to suppose them unacquaintthe amiable and unfortunate Madame Ro- ed with so important a transaction) from

the

mons.

the deluded monarch. The duke having band-writing, in which he freely depicted learned the particulars, by means of two his own character, and particularised his deputies, who had been present, instantly good qualities, and even his faults ; in fiew from the Allembly to the palace, and which he recounted the obstacles he had entering the privy chamber, disclosed the met with, and endeavoured to surmount, fatal secret to the king. "Qu'a-je donc in his own disposition; the views with fait pour que le peuple s'élève contre moi ?” which he ascended the throne ; the plans dil-il avec une douleur profonde mais calme. he had resisted ; those he was enabled to " Qu'il lıfe avec moi dans ma conscience, & il execure, and those he did not dare to unverra fi jamais il a eu un meilleur ami, si dertake. To fuch a disposition, had he depuis que j'ai le droit de m'occuper de jun either added fortitude, or been lucky bonheur, mon coeur a jamais eu une autre enough to have been surrounded by a pensée."

prudent confort and virtuous counsellors, This would have done great honour to he might have rivalled the only two good his majesty's heart, were it not one of the princes of his family, Henry IV and best ascertained facts in history, that he Louis XII ; while all the crimes of the had prepared an army, at this very mo

other Bourbons would have been effaced ment, under

M. de Broglio, on purpose to by his glory. chastise the Parisians, and stifle the infant

LINDET. cry of liberty.

On being brought back a prisoner, after The second edition of the Jacobins, and his Aight to Varennes, he exclaimed, in the first edition of the Emigrants, were the same strain, to the duke, Ab! fi proverbially violent. Robert Lindet apj'eus atteint le but de mon voyage, le peu- pertained to the former class, and was one ple auroit ou si je meritois ses foupçons & of the most clamorous members in the for injustice !"

Now, it seems evident, Convention for the arrest of the thirty-two that le but de voyage was to throw himself Girondist deputies. into the hands of the Austrians and Emi. In the committee of public safety, he grants, as his brother, Monsieur, did, who displayed great energy of character: and ħed at the same time, and escaped by it must be acknowledged, notwithstandtaking a different road.

ing the odium itill attached to their name, M. de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt soon that the Jacobins saved France, and estaafter left France, and was lucky enough blished the foundation of the republic. to arrive safe in England. Preferring the Les Pbilosopbes, as the Briffotins were country to the capital, he took up his re- . termed, entertained a laudable abhorrence fidence at Bury St. Edmund's, in Suffolk; of bloodshed, rapine, and injustice ; elobut he has fince gone over to America, quent, metaphysical, dilatory, timid--they whence a publication of his has appeared, were not calculated to on the improvement of the Criminal

66 Ride in the whirlwind, and direct the storm!" code in Pennsylvania.

When Louis XVI, like our Charles I, They were admirably fitted, however, to was doomed to undergo a public trial, the succeed the tempest; and those who have duke addressed a letter to Barrere, then survived it, after forming a junction with president of the Assembly, dated Novem- Carnot, the ableft man France---perhaps ber 19th, in which he offered to become Europe, has ever produced, they seem his defender, at the bar of the National prepared to alter the lot of nations, and Tribunal. On the 20th of December, the destiny of mankind ! 1792, he wrote a letter to M.Malesherbes, By some of the southern departments, who had been chosen, by Louis, as his whither he was sent on mission, Robert advocate, in which he endeavoured to de. Lindet has been accused of sanguinary pict his character, as that of an amiable proceedings, but, by others, his innocence and philanthropic sovereign ;, exclaiming has been asserted, even after the 10th at the fame time, “ Ab ! fi la facrifice de ma Thermidor, when the colleagues of Rovie est utile au bonheur de la France, j'y bespierre were arrested. fuis preparé !" The truth is, that Hen He fat in the Convention, as a deputy rietta Maria, consort of Charles I, and from the departmment of Eure; but was Maria Antoinette, the partner, not only not one of the two-thirds, or in other words, of the bed, but the occupier of the throne he was not re-elected. of Louis XVI, occasioned the catastrophe He has lately been implicated in the of both. Louis was not unacquainted conspiracy said to have been meditated with his own foibles, for the duc de by Babæuf, Drouet, &c. and is now in Liancourt has seen a M$. in his majesty's confinement.

CHAMPFORT

1796.] Original Anecdotes.-Champfort... Carra... Babæuf. 481 CHAMPFORT

fometimes worthless men, to the highest Is one of the men of letters of the old and most eminent situations. A prove b, jcbool, who declared themselves, from the well known to the aristocracy of every very beginning, for the revolution. On country, although illiberal, and, in genethe dismission of M. d'Ormesson, who had ral, unjust, is nevertheless, on some parbeen appointed by the king, he was made ticular occasions, true: “When the pot one of the joint keepers of the national boils, the scum gers to the top.” Colonel library, with a salary of 166l. 105.4d. per Pride, born in a church-porch, is a familiar annum; and put himself to death, in the instance of the justice of this, in our own old Roman manner, soon after, to avoid the history; and Babæuf, perhaps, in that of tyranny of Robspierre.--His colleague, France. The first, who was bred a drayCARRA,

man, actually dissolved that house of

commons which bridled Europe, and pu. Nominated at the same time with himself, nilhed its own king; the second, who, by Roland, had formerly been one of the under the ol.lgovernment, wore a shoulderadiftants in this grand establishment. He knot, was but lately the leader of a forconducted a small quarto journal, entitled midable conspiracy; whose object is said Les Annales Politiques & Littéraires, along to have been, to murder the Directory, with Mercier. Its circulation was infi- disolve the Legislature, and new model nitely greater than that of any of our France ! English newspapers : it became popular in Babæuf is a native of one of the difthe provinces, owing to a certain prophe- tant provinces ; from a footman be. tic cast which he contrived to infuse into came clerk to a procureur ; and from a it; and, in the armies, in consequence of clerk rose to be an attorney. His wife, that spirit of equality which it constantly at the same time, accompanied him from breathed.

the kitchen to the parlour; and as the While Champfort judged very wisely had shared in his indigence, so the very of the outrages of the Jacobins, and was justly partook of his prosperity. He pracaccustomed to exclaim, “ ces gens-se per- tised in the country for fome time; and dent par leurs propres excès !” Carra be. if we are to give implicit credit to his held every thing en colour de rose, and enemies, exhibited all the little tricks of boldly prognosticated the future happi-a petty-fogger. Certain it is, however, ness of his country, and the speedy en- that he was fitted, by a series of imprifranchisement of all Europe, by their fonments, and a long and intimate ac

In the midst of this dream, en- quaintance with all the minute particulars gendered by the union of a warm head and of the Revolution, both to act and to sufa good heart, he was arrested by order of fer; and there cannot be à doubt but king Robespierre, and executed, with the that he must have possessed some extraortwenty-one Girondist deputies, on the dinary talents, either in council, or in 31st of October, 1793.

action, elle it is not to be supposed that BAB@UF.

such men as Drouet, Robert Lindet, AnRevolutions produce extraordinary cha- toneile, and Felix Lepelletier, would racters, and elevate sometimes great, and have chosen him for their leader.

[To be continued.]

means.

A BRIEF RETROSPECT

OF THE STATE OF

DOMESTIC LITERATURE.

[To be continued every Six Months.] AL LTHOUGH we have not attempted necessarily be cursory—a fort of bird's.

in our Miscellany to unite the two eye view of the British land of letters ; characters of a Magazine and a Review - but, we trust, it will not be altogether an attempt which has never yet been unacceptable to our readers. made with success, and which, in the

THEOLOGY. present state of official criticism, is alto In THEOLOGY, new discoveries, or gether unnecessary; it may, perhaps, be great improvements, are not perhaps, useful, or, at least, amusing, if, accord to be expected; yet all the labourers in ing to our proposal, at the commence this vineyard have not been idle. The ment of our labours, we, at regular in- indefatigable industry of Dr. Macknight, tervals, take a general retrospect of the has added to the immense mass of bibstate of literature. Our survey must lical commentaries before extant, four MONTHLY MAG, NO. VI.

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large volumes, containing a “Transla- from whose talents much might have tion of all the Apostolic Epistles, with been expected, has, in his “ Christian Notes, Commentaries,, and Disserta- Philosophy,” abandoned the evidences of tions ;" a learned but heavy work, of historical testimony, as insufficient; and, which it will, probably, soon be said with more zeal than judgment as every “ ruit mole fua." Though, after Mr. rational Christian must think) has rested Porson's decisive publication, on the long the belief of Christianity on the fanatidisputed verse, i John, v. 7. to at cal ground of immediate divine impulse. tempt any farther reply to the defenders The rest of Mr. Paine's respondents of its authenticity, is, “ to say the have, however, adhered to the old meNain,” Mr. Marth's “ Letter to Arch- thod of defence; and, while Dr. Audeacon Travis,” does great credit to the chincloss and Mr. Melham have discrewriter; and will be very useful to the dited themselves more than their cause ; scholar, as a guide in the study of ancient the former, by a weak, vulgar, and M$S.—The persevering labour of Dr. blundering—the latter, by a fippant, Holmes, of Oxford, in collating the hafty, and ceremonious, defence ; and the MSS. of the Septuagint, of which a re author of the “ Age of Infidelity,” has port and specimen have lately been given, injudiciously embarrassed the general in a “ Latin Letter to the Bilhop of Dur- question, by involving with it points of ham,” affords ground to expect, in due Polemic theology-Mr. Winchester, in time, a correct edition of that valuable his “Defence of Revelation," has given a version of the Hebrew scriptures; and, plain view of the arguments by which it unless it be prevented by the pertinacity is supported; Mr. Ellin, in a “Ser. of bigots, of which Mr. Burges's late mon on the Evidences of revealed Reli. “ Letter to the Bishop of Ely,” fur- gion," has treated the subject with pernishes a striking example, an accurate {picuity, animation, and liberality; Mr. translation of the bible, may, perhaps, Wakefield, in a “Reply,” too much in process of time, rise out of the joint- loaded with virtuperative language, and labours of our learned divines. Ac pre not sufficiently accommodated to the unfent, however, the attention of the derstandings of the unlearned, but ably clergy, of all denominations, is turned and ingeniously written, has detected towards an object of still more immediate and exposed many of his antagonist's erurgency: the defence of the common rors and misrepresentations; and Bishop

of revelation against the attacks of Watson, in his excellent “ Apology for infidels. The Unitarian controversy is the Bible,” without exhausting the subterminated, or left sub judice; and while, ject, or encumbering his work with in the established church, Mr. Veysie, in learned citation, has provided the public capacity of “ Bampton Lecturer,” has with an elegant and popular answer to been combating herefy without an op- Mr. Paine, well adapted to counteract ponent; and, among the sectaries, * a the effect of his publication on that class little sparring has passed between the of readers on whom it was likely to Pædo-baptists, and the Antipædo-bap- make the deepest impression. We should tists, the more general and fundamental mention, in this connection, Mr. Brya question has been revived, whether the ant’s elaborate “ Observations on the fupernatural facts related in the Jewish Plagues inflicted upon Egypt," if we and Christian scriptures, be entitled to did not consider this as a work more credit ? On the negative side of this im- adapted to enablish the writer's reputaportant question, Mr. Paine, with ex tion for erudition and ingenuity, than to treme deficiency in learning and modesty, obviate the difficulties which confessedly but with talents well suited to catch the hang upon this part of the Mosaic hispopular ear, has attract:d much atten tory. To counteract the unpleasant imtion, by his“ Age of Reason." This pression which the spread of infidelity attack upon revelation has been sup must have made upon the minds of beported with some degree of fhrewdness lievers in revelation, Dr. Priestley has in Dutton's “ Vindication of Paine ;" published “Observations” on this suband followed up by a modest exposition jeet, rather consolatory than argumenof certain difficulties attending this sub tative; the work is written with the ject, in Mr. Hollis's “ Sober and seri. author's usual perspicuity, sincerity, and ous Reasons of Scepticism.” On the zeal. Of the fermons of this period, atfirmative side, numerous advocates have few are entitled to particular attention. appeared, but with very different de. The Fast Sermons of the present year grees of ability and kill. Dr. Knox, have been uncommonly languid; per

haps

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POLITICS.

1796.) Half Yearly Retrospect of English Literature. haps, from the disheartening state of pub- served to give Mr. Morgan an opportudic affairs. The Posthumous Sermons of nity of confirming his first representation Dr. Savage are sensible, methodical, and by « Additional Facts,” Mr. Morgan's evangelical ; those of Mr. Toller plain true alarm has been increased by Mr. and lerious, but without any marks of Paine's less accurate, but strongly imfuperior' talents: a volume of neat Dir. prestive, account of the perpetually accourses on Practical Subjects has been celerated progress of this nation towards published by Mr. Draper; but the mode- ruin, from the inevitable operation of rate merit of these publications has been the funding fyftem, given in his “Deeclipsed by the splendid excellence of cline and Fall of the English System of Mr. Fawcett's "Lectures at the Old Finange." The great question conJewry,” in which, without the aid of cerning a reform in the parliamentary systematic theology, moral truths are ex representation of this country, has not hibited with uncommon force, and adorn- been suffered, entirely, to sleep. A very ed with all the graces which a fertitle sensible and spirited" Letter" has apimagination could supply: if the style peared, addressed to Dr. Paley, on his be sometimes diffuse, it is the amplifica objections to this reform; and Mr. Lion not of dulness, but of genius. Wyvill, that upright, judicious, and

steady advocate for peaceable reform, In POLITICS, the most important has effectually exposed ministerial inconpublications have been those which cani listency, by publishing the first part of his not come under critical animadversion; correspondence with Mr. Pitt. - A Hifthe daily Registers and Chronicles of the tory of the Two Acts” (Mr. Pitt's, and times. On general questions of policy, Lord Grenville's) is a very copious and Mr. Malkin's “ Essays on Subjects con accurate compilation of all the transnected with Civilization,” are entitled to actions, both in and out of parliament, distinguished notice: the writer is an respecting those celebrated restrictions on ardent lover of liberty, and censures, English liberty, which may, hereafter, with great freedom, but without acribe of considerable use to the political hifmony, numerous errors at present' exist, torian of the present time. Its value is ing in society As nearly allied to this much augmented by the excellent and work, may be mentioned, Watkins's masterly preface by which the matter of “ Reflections on Governinent,” a small the work is introduced. The dispute tract, which clearly and forcibly incul- with France is now almost wholly left to cates principles favourable to liberty and be settled by the ultima ratio regum; and happiness. “ Principles of Legislation” few publications worth mentioning have have been published by Mr. Michel, appeared on this subject. Among the which contain many just observations ; more interesting political pamphlets, may but the writer is too much an alarmist to be mentioned, “ Considerations on the be capable, at present, of pur!uing his State of Public Affairs ;" “ Hints ad. own ideas into their obvious confe- dressed to the Electors of Great-Britain, quences. British politics, besides much by Charles Faulkener, containing a Reephemeral trash, have furnished several view of Mr. Pitt's Administration ;' interesting publications. Of these, un “ D'Ivernois's State of the Finances and questionably, the work which has the Refourc of France ;” and “A

Whig's most imperious demand upon public at. Apology for his Consistency.” To these tention, is Mr. Morgan's “ Facts,” in we must add, more on account of the ta. which is exhibited, not in loofe declama. lents displayed in the controversy, than tion, but in calculations, made by a mal- the importance of the subject, Mr. ter of political arithmetic, from the most Burke's " Letter to a Noble Lord," with authentic documents, a statement of the the replies of his numerous refpondents. public expenditure and resources. This When the question of Mr. Burke's claim pamphlet has, perhaps, done more than to a pension ihall cease to interest the all other late publications to open the public, it will not be forgottei., that Mr. eyes of the nation to its real condition, , Burke, at a period of life wi.cn genius and to demonstrate the impolicy of per-' commonly becomes languid, displayed the hifting in the present ruinous system. full vigour of his uncommon powers, and Mr. Vanfittari's artful, but vague and was even capable of hunting metaphors, unsuccessful attempt to thow that we are as playtully as school boys hunt butternot quite ruined, even though supported flies: nor will it be forgotten, that he by Lord Auckland, whose speech upon was abit, as on a former more important the subject has been published, bas only occafion, to call forth a host of able com

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