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and accordingly an armament was des-/ the majestic waters which flow by the walls patched by which it was hoped an impress of the principal cities in China. Demonstrasion would have been made, such as must tion afier demonstration was made, which speedily bring his celestial majesty to reaproved but too clearly that the troops of his son, and compel such an acknowledgment celestial majesty could not meet us in more of the injuries which we had sustained, as tal combat. Victory after victory was won, might compensate the individual sufferers, town after town was taken. And when, at and satisfy the national honor. But although length, we were about to storm the city of the Whigs have shown themselves dexter. Nankin, a flag of truce was sent forward ous enough in getting into a quarrel, they which caused a suspension of hostilities, and were not so dexterous in getting out of it. the terms of a peace, which we were in a conThe war, if such it may be called, as prose- dition to dictate, were very soon agreed cuted by them, consisted in a paltry nib.upon, to which his celestial majesty has bling at the extremities, instead of striking signified his assent, and which will, we boldly at the heart of the empire. The only have every reason to believe, be duly obcreditable measure which was undertaken, served. that of the siege of Canton, was frustrated It is, we confess, a relief to our feelings, at the very moment when it was on the that this miserable war is at an end. The point of being successful, by Mr. Superin- butchery of a helpless and feeble-minded tendent Elliot, superseding the military au- race, however it may have been justified by thorities, and consenting to spare the city a dire necessity, could not have been other for a ransom. This is, we believe, the first than most painful to the feelings of a brave instance in British history in which our and a Christian people. Never, we devoutly army have appeared in the character of pray, may it be our lot to hear of such again. buccaneers. Well! no proper impression But our readers would be very much miswas made upon the Chinese. Two misera- taken if they supposed that all the hostility ble years passed away, and the war seemed which we experienced in that country was do nearer to its close than it was at the be- of the despicable character that it has been ginning. Our time, and our means, and our represented. Wherever we met the Tartar patience were being consumed in dribbling troops, they fought like brave and skilful and dristless hostilities, in which frightful warriors, who only required a knowledge of massacre was productive of no results; the art of war, as we understand it, to make when providentially a change of governo a powerful defence against any invaders. ment took place, by which the conduct of Sir Hugh Gough has had a far more difficult the war was transferred to other hands, and task to perform than any for which the pubit was thenceforth carried on with a spirit lic here have given him credit. He has had of enterprise and vigor which has brought to conduct all his operations, in the total ab. it, as we have seen, to a successful termina sence of all that intelligence which, upon tion.

any other theatre of warfare, must be sure Under the Whigs, neither were the ob- to be found. And while he could only dejects aimed at of vital importance, nor were pend upon his own personal observation, or the means provided adequate to hostilities that of his immediate staff, for the arrangeupon a large scale, and such as it was indis- ments which he might deem it prudent to pensable we should adopt, if we hoped to adopt, we are, we believe, strictly within the make any serious impression upon the Chi- limits of truth when we say, that most of his nese empire. Under the Conservative gov- reconnoisances were made on foot, and ernment, both these defects were remedied. without being able to take a survey of the The scene of hostilities was proposed to be country on horseback. His, therefore, has changed, the great river Yang-tse-Kiang, and been a most anxious and difficult part. And the great cities upon its banks, being now having performed his duty to the satisfacour principal objects; and the force, both by Ition of his sovereign and his country, we do land and sea was considerably more than confess our disappointment that the meagre doubled, and that at the very time when the honor of a baronetcy is to be his only re. massacre in Affghanistan might well have ward. given to our preparations a pause, until we Some of the private letters which we have learned wbat its effect would be upon our seen represent the troops as suffering from security in the rest of India. But at that the heat of the weather, and from cholera, trying moment the prime minister was not and also as laboring under an insufficiency wanting to the interest of England or to his of proper animal food. They were living own fame. The Chinese armament was for some time upon old goats; all the aniaugmented. It floated in grandeur upon mals of a better description being driven, by John Chinaman, at their approach, "overliheir valor, would be found very formidathe hills and far away." One black regi- ble assailants. ment is said to have behaved very ill indeed, And here it is our decided persuasion being brought with the greatest difficulty that that trade in opium, which has caused into action, although, when the fight was all these troubles, should cease. It was over, they were always the foremost in right, perhaps, that no stipulation respectplunder.

ing it should have been permitted to find its Another gives a lamentable account of way into the late treaty; but not the less the consternation and the sufferings of the should it be our endeavor to meet the wish. wretched Chinese; the women of rank es of the Chinese government upon that rushing in crowds to escape through the subject, and to show them that what we gates into the open country; their small feet would not do upon compulsion, we were scarcely sufficing to take them over any yet ready to do of our own free will, and in obstacle: some with children in their arms, obedience to the dictates of morality and who had never before known what it was justice. It is impossible that such conduct to encounter the inclemency of the ele on our part should not produce a powerful ments; and rushing wildly they knew not effect upon such a people. It would show whither. All they knew was, that certain them that when all terrors of human viodeath awaited them if they remained be lence were set at naught, there was a Pow. hind. For the Tartar chiefs, in sullen des. er to which we held ourselves amenable; peration, feeling their overthrow complete, and it could not but powerfully aid us in were, on all sides, immolating their wives the inculcation of those moral lessons and children, and rushing upon sell-des. which we are, it is to be hoped, destined io truction! Alas! alas! such are the calam- teach them, to see that we ourselves are ities of war! How deeply, then, should we not unmindful of the divine instruction rejoice that it is over! And how sedulously which they convey. should we address ourselves to the task of It is quite impossible to regard our counobliterating from the minds of this unhappy try as occupying the commanding position people the remembrance of the miseries which it has at present obtained, without which we have caused them, and of laying leeling that there are high moral and reli. such a foundation for mutual confidence gious purposes to be answered by its preand esteem, that henceforth we may only eminence and its exaltation. For the first be known to each other by an interchange time, in the history of the world, from three of reciprocal advantages.

to four hundred millions of human beings By a comparison of the best authorities, who have hitherto been a world to them. the gross revenue of China may be estimat. selves, and lived in as great a seclusion ed at about fifty-six millions sterling annu- from the rest of mankind as if they occually. Of this, from eleven to thirteen mil. pied another planet, are brought into corlions finds its way to Pekin; the difference iact and alliance with an European power, remaining in the provinces, to meet the ex- peculiarly calculated from its position and penses of their internal administration. influence, to impart to them the saving

The entire extent of cultivated land is truths of the gospel. A wise government, estimated at five hundred and ninety-six upon whom such a responsibility devolves, millions of English acres ; and of these by should deeply ponder how this may best be far the greatest portion is in the hands of done. Never did an occasion arise upon the people, and subdivided into little plots which a British ministry had more need of of one or two acres, which are generally anxious and prayerful meditation. It would cultivated by the personal labor of the oc. answer no good purpose to let loose a cupants, not, indeed, with all the skill which fight of heady missionaries, whose knowin England or Scotland may be seen, butledge might bear no proportion to their with an exact and scrupulous husbandry, confidence, and whose zeal might infinitely unknown even there, or in any other part exceed their discretion. If the blessed of Europe.

work of evangelization should meet in that The standing army, or what is called country with any serious obstruction, tre such, is chiefly composed of individuals or confidently predict that it will arise from the Tartar race, who have lands allotted to the contentious jarrings of mutually hostile them, which they hold by a species of feu. zealots, by whose bickerings the cause of dal tenure, and for which they are bound to the gospel will be scandalized. Far differrender military service. They amount to ent must be the course which may be atbetween seven and eight hundred thousand tended by any solid or permanent adranmen, who, if their discipline was equal to tage.

aries, Priests

5

and Yun-nan...........

The peculiarities of that country, in a spread of Gospel teaching was effectually moral and religious point of view, are, a prevented. semi-skepticism or rationalism on the part There still, however, exists in the coun: of the learned, and on the part of the vul- try a remnant who prosess the Christian gar, a childish and grovelling superstition faith, albeit in an adulterated form, in which But this important distinction is to be ob- it may be doubtful whether Christianity apserved, that their priests, or Bonzes, pos. proaches nearer to heathenism, or heathensess no rank or property, as in the other ism to Christianity. A beginning, at all eastern countries, and are entirely depend events, has been inade, which may be iinent upon the alms of the people, for their proved upon by the more scripturally-insubsistence. They are, in fact, a species structed disciples of a better system. In of begging friars; and their resemblance, the year 1810, the following statement was both in dress and ceremonies, to that class made to Sir George Staunton by the Rev. J. of the Roman Catholic clergy is so great, B. Marchini, “ of the actual condition of that at a short distance the one might be the converts in China.” mistaken for the other. The people, how

Bishops. Mission. Native Converts. ever, are curious and inquisitive respecting the arts, and the belief and the customs of

Quang-tung Quang-see, and
Hainan....

7,000 strangers; and would, we believe, more Peche-lee, Shan-tung, Leao

tong, and Eastern Tartary 1 11

40,000 readily admit the approaches of judicious,

| Kiang-nan and Honan........1

33,000 and intelligent missionaries than any other Fokien, Formosa, Tcheof the nations of the east. The principall kiang and Kiang-see........ 5

30,000 "Se-tchuen, Koer-tcheou, difficulty would consist in overcoming the

70,000 inveterate aversion which is entertained by Shan-see, Shen-see, Kan-sil, the chief mandarins to novelties of any de note novelties of any de Hou-quang, and Eastern

Tartary... ................

1 6 18 35,300 scription in religion or government; and by whom hitherto all such inculcation of

• 6 23 80 215,300+ new notions as might lead to the subver. That the Jesuits will again endeavor to sion of ancient usages, have, with a stern regain their ground in that empire, and

nothing be left by them undone to secure But not the less do we conceive it to be the accomplishment of so darling an object, the duty of a Christian government, brought it would argue a criminal ignorance of as we have been, for the first time, into their history and their character to doubt. such close contact with this ancient and The frauds which they have already prac. most peculiar people, to labor with earnest-Itised upon the good people of China, (and ness for their conversion to the true faith. The influence to which we have already al

so much consummate ability, by Dr. Wall luded as imposing a check upon the freel in his learned and ingenious work on the circulation of new opinions, is one which, l ancient orthography of the Jews.) are under different circumstances, may be made lamongst the most singular and dexterous to operate for our advantage. If we can of their devices, in which the end has been only succeed in exciting their respect for always held to justify the means, for upour attainments in the physical sciences, holding the cause of truth by the aid of and establishing our superiority to thein- I delusion. Their falsification of ancient selves, a very great barrier will be removed) Chinese records was admirably calculated to the communication of th it better knowolto give an air of hoar antiquity to the sysledge which may profit them both in time tem of which they

ime tem of which they were the advocates. and eternity. It was thus that the Jesuits suc

The oracles were thus, as it were, made to ceeded in establishing that influence which givelving responses in favor of the Christian at one time proceeded to an extent that

revelation ; and even the papal authority enabled them to send their missionaries

was thus made to seem so venerable, that through almost every part of this extensive

Doctor Wiseman has not hesitated to avail empire. They taught their philosophers to himself of an evidence in its favor which rectify the calendar, and we owe to them some

was so sufficient and so unsuspicious, that,

in the judgment of that worthy Romanist, this country is laid down. Under their

it could not be resisted. Alas! for the auspices, Christianity such as they teach, doctor's antiquarian reputation. Doctor became very extensively diffused, until the wall has cruelly demolished the foundation jealousy of the orders to whom we belore on which it was built: and shown instead, alluded was aroused, when proscription and persecution ensued, by which the further Edinburgh Cabinet Library, vol. xix., p. 155.

an amount of persevering, systematic, and sistance to the knowledge by which inveteunscrupulous fraud, such as the father of rate error would be detected and removed. lies could alone have suggested. But even But by establishing a respect for our intelthis exposure will not deter from similar at lectual pre-eminence, we would best insure tempts at the present day, if any hope might a respectful attention to the records of inbe thereby afforded of accomplishing simi- spiration, a faithful reception of which is lar objects. The creatures, we may be very sure to lead to that godliness that is profit. sure, will be at their dirty work again." able for all things, and which has the pro

Nor have Protestant missionaries been mise of the life that now is as well as of altogether idle. In 1807, Mr. Morisson was that which is to come. sent out by the London Missionary Society, Nor is there, in the habitable globe, a and devoted himself to the work upon which country in which impressions once made he had set his heart with a wise and un- upon the learned are so easily stamped upon tiring perseverance that was not long un- the people. The whole empire may be said rewarded. He first made himself complete to be one vast school, in which the people master of the language; then imparted oral are compelled to pass through a certain pre. instruction in the truths of Christianity to scribed course of learning, according to their such as could be induced to receive it; af- proficiency in which their promotion to staterwards he proceeded to translate the Holy tions of dignity and emolument is determin. Scriptures of the New Testament into the ed. The lettered class thus constitute the Chinese language, and to compile, for the aristocracy of the empire. Despotic as the 11se of European students, a Chinese and emperor is, he could not disregard the conEnglish dictionary, by which all future mis-stitution which thus prescribes to learning sionaries must be greatly aided. He then and ability its appropriate reward, without conceived the noble project of a college, in shocking the prejudices of all the better which the English might learn whatever was classes of his subjects to a degree by which curious or valuable in the literature of Chi- his throne would be endangered. His func. na, and the Chinese whatever was most wor. tionaries, through all their ramifications, are, thy of attention in the science and the learn. therefore, individuals who would naturally, ing of Europe. In 1818, the foundation under any circumstances, exercise an imstone of this college was laid at Malacca, portant influence upon public opinion. They and notwithstanding the difficulties through are the elite of Chinese society; the presi. which it has had to struggle, its limited ding minds by whom the masses are govern. means, and the short time during which it ed. And once let them be instructed in has been in operation, its usefulness has sound philosophy, and they must be speedibeen sufficiently proved to render it very ly indoctrinated in divine truth, which the desirable that its advantages should be ex- very forms of their despotism would enable tended.

them to inculcate upon those placed under We can now come into closer contact their authority with a persuasive influence with the whole of the Chinese empire, and that could not long be resisted. with a certainty that our laws, our literature, Is it not, therefore, most desirable, that a our philosophy, and our religion, will be re- college, upon a large and liberal scale, should garded by its learned men with a respect be established, by means of which every inand an interest of which they never deemed telligent Chinese might acquaint himself them worthy before. Is it not important with the arts and the sciences in the advanthat we should take advantage of our new ced state to which they have at present at. facilities to present to them our attainments tained in Europe? Would it not be a bles. as an intellectual nation, in an aspect which sed thing if the first fruits of English commay draw their special notice, and compel merce were devoted, let us rather say conthe acknowledgment of our vast superiority secrated, to such an object? By so doing to themselves? We have no doubt what we should most fittingly atone for the ca. ever that the respect thus inspired would lamities which we have already caused that lead to an attentive consideration of the people to suffer; and best approve ourselves foundations upon which we rest the truth of worthy of that divine protection by which our divine religion, which could have but we have been so signally favored. Assuredone result, namely, that they were infinitely ly our successes have not been permitted stronger than any which could be pretended merely that we might be enriched by the in favor of their own. We look not, of grubbery of commercial gain. Other and course, to any sudden influx of moral or re- higher objects have been contemplated in ligious light. In such a country, prejudice the lofty.pre-eminence to which, as a nation, and habit must long oppose an obstinate re we have been conducted. If we have been

brought into contact with this most ancient | Nor would the establishment of moral inof empires, after a fashion that ensures to fuence amongst our traders in the East be us a moral influence over it, which no other any let or hinderance to the profitable purnation bas ever yet possessed, we may be suit of an honorable commerce, but might, perfectly sure that all this has been ordered, on the contrary, greatly conduce thereunto. not for the purpose of Brumagemizing Eng. The establishment of a character for truth land, but for the purpose of Christianizing and for justice ought now, in the East, to be China. It therefore well becomes our ru- England's first object. It should be the prelers to consider how we may be profitable mier's earnest endeavor to remove from the to such a people in one sense, as well as how minds of the Chinese the impression which we may make a profit of them' in another; the bungling and unprincipled policy of his and to do whatever in them lies to make predecessors must have made upon them to the vast extension which will now be given our disadvantage. By that impression our to our trade in the East, contribute to the trading relations were disturbed, and losses diffusion of that light, and the establishment were incurred which, if not compensated by of that truth, to which we ourselves are in recent successes, must have ruined a vast debted for the priceless blessing of pure number of individuals, and proved heavily and undefiled religion.

injurious to us as a nation. Let, therefore, Never did an opportunity present itself every care be now taken to prevent, in fuby which a British minister might be so ture, any such untoward accidents and unbeneficially signalized, as that which now happy collisions. And for this purpose, let opens to this great empire. Sir Robert Peel an enlightened public opinion be created, by may now lay the foundation of a reputation which the greedy spirit of commercial gain such as would endure and be acclaimed by may be controlled, and it must powerfully countless millions in the far east, when Eng- aid the civil authorities in compelling the land herself may be numbered amongst the most unscrupulous traders to respect the departed nations;- and that, without in the character of their country even when they slightest degree impairing the efficiency of are most careless of their own. Thus would those mercantile arrangements, which may confidence be produced, and amity perpetube necessary for the furtherance of strictly ated, by which our dealings with that pecu. commercial .objects. A small per centage liar people would be rendered most profitaupon our profits would abundantly suffice ble and most delightful. There is a mode, for the establishment of such a collegiate both nationally and individually, of hasteninstitute as that to which we have already ing to be rich, and which tendeth to poveralluded, and which has been already tried ty; and this mode was, under Whig auspi. (though upon a small scale, and at an inconces, incontinently pursued, when, at the exvenient distance) in the establiscment at pre-piration of the Company's charter, every sent existing at Malacca. In China, we may adventurer was privileged to traffic in the depend upon it, our arts and sciences will East. We have now, it is hoped, discover. be the most effectual heralds of our faith. ed our mistake ; and happy will it be for us Let them, therefore, be exhibited always in if our experience should lead to the practicompany with it, and to the most advantage. cal adoption of better maxims, which may The Chinese are a grave and decorous peo- cause us to prosecute our personal ends ple ; ceremonial may be said to be the reli- with an habitual and a reverential reference gion of the empire. Whatever offends to higher objects; for we may depend upon against their notions of dignity and propri. it, it is not less true of nations than of indi. ety, is sure to damage the offending party, viduals, that if we seek first the kingdom of whoever he may be, in their estimation, to God and his righteousness, all things pera degree by which his influence must be taining to our worldly weal will, in his own much impaired. We would, therefore, have good time, and by his gracious Providence, religious truth presented to them with every be added unto us. accompanimeni by which it may be most And England is, of all countries, that one effectually recommended. Already they in which it may be most truly said that there have been compelled to do involuntary hom- is no natural repugnance between philosoage to our arms; let that be a precursor, as phy and religion. In Italy, and also in it were, to an acquaintance with our arts; France, it is well known that most of the and directly they are convinced of our vast literati are tinctured with infidelity. And intellectual superiority, and in proportion as the peology of the German school is but they are persuaded that we seek "not theirs little calculated to recommend their philobut them,” the fields will begin to be white sophical divines as the expounders of the for the harvest.

sublime and mysterious simplicity of the

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