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Sumapaz, a large and abundant river which irrigates the provinces of Sutagaos and Tocaima in the Nucvo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the sierra of Los Pardaos, runs n. and, afterwards inclining its course to w. unites itself with the Pasca; and these together form the Fusagasuga to enter the Grande de la Magdalena.
SUMARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Abancai in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Chincaipucquio.
SUMASINTLA, a river of the province and alcaldia mayor of Tabasco in Nueva Espaiia. It runs n. and enters the sea in the lake of Terminos.
SUMAURA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate at the mouth of the river Acari, opposite the island of its name.
Sumaura. This island is in the river of Las Ainazonas, and formed by a large arm of that river. It belongs to the same province as the former settlement.
SUMBIRCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Guamantanga.
SUMIDOURO, a river of the captainship of Mato Groso in Brazil; its source being only a short distance from the river Sypotuba. A further description of this river will be found under the head Tapajos.
[SUMNER, a county of Tennessee, in Mero District. According to the state census of 1795, it contained 6370 inhabitants, of whom 1076 were slaves.]
SUMPIT, a small river of Georgia.
[SUNAPEE, a lake and mountain in Cheshire County, New Hampshire. The lake is about eight or nine miles long, and three broad, and sends its waters through Sugar River w. 14 miles to Connecticut River. The mountain stands at the s. end of the lake.]
SUNBURN, a city of New Jersey.
[SUNBURY, a county of the British province of New Brunswick. It is situa'ed on the River St. John, at the head of the Bay of Fundy; and contains eight townships, viz. Conway, Gage Town, Burton, Sunbury, St. Anne's, Wilrnot, Newton, and Maugerville. The three last of these were settled from Massachusetts, Connecticut, &c. The lands are generally pretty level, and tolerably fertile, abounding with variety of timber.]
[sunbury, the chief town of Northumberland county, Pennsylvania; situated near where Fort Augusta was erected, on the e. side of Susque
hannah River, just below the junction of the e. and w. branches of that river, in fat. about40° 52'n. It is regularly laid out, and contains a court-house, brick gaol, a Presbyterian and German Lutheran church, and about 100 dwelling-houses. Here the river is about half a mile broad, and at the ferry opposite Northumberland, about a mile higher, is three-fourths of a mile. It is about 58 miles above Reading, and 96 n. w. of Philadelphia.]
[sunbury, a port of entry and post-town of Georgia, beautifully situated in Liberty County, at the head of St. Catharine's Sound, on the main, between Medway and Newport Rivers, about 11 miles ». of Great Ogeechee River. The town and harbour are defended from the fury of the sea by then. and*, pointsof St. Helena and St. Catharine s Islands; between is the bar and entrance into the sound: the harbour is capacious and safe, and has water enough for ships of great burden. It is a very pleasant healthy town, and is the resort of the planters from the adjacent country during the sickly months. It was burnt during the late war, but has since been rebuilt. An academy was established here in 1788, which has been under an able instructor, and proved a very useful institution. It is 27 miles s. w. of Savannah.]
SUNCHULI, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru, and of the district of the city of La Paz. It has been celebrated for a great gold mine, discovered in 1709, which was worked to great profit, producing much wealth until the year 1756, when it was inundated by a spring which suddenly burst in upon it; all attempts to get the water under having since been in vain.
[SUNCOOK, a small plantation in York County, district of Maine, which, with Bromfield, contains 250 inhabitants.]
[SUNDERLAND, a township of Vermont, Bennington County, 16 miles n. c. of Bennington, and contains 414 inhabitants. A lead mine has been lately discovered in this township.]
[sunoeri.and, a township of Massachusetts, situate in Hampshire County, on the e. side of Connecticut River, about 10 miles n. of Hadley and 69 w. of Boston. There is here a handsome Congregational church, and 73 houses, lying chiefly on one street. It was incorporated in 1718, and contains 462 inhabitants.]
SUNGOTO, a small river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises from the lake Nachego, runs e. and enters the Cahuapana.
SUNICANCHA, a settlement of the province 3p
and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of S. Cosine and S. Damian.
SUNNA, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito.
SUPACAY-GUAZU, a river of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It runs n. n. w. and enters the Parana.
SUPACAY-MERIN, a river of the same province and kingdom as the former. It runs to the same rhumb, and enters also the Parana.
SUPAIGUA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Jujui, on the shore of the river Laquiaca.
SUPAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia; one of the missions which are held there by the Capuchin fathers: on the shore of the river Yuruario.
SUPAY-YACU, a river of the province of Quixos and Macas in the kingdom of Quito. It is in the e. part, runs s. e. and enters the river Coca by the w. part, and to the «. of the river of Sardinas. In lat. 22' 7" *.
SUPAY-URCU, signifying Devil's Mount, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito; between the valleys of Chuquipata and Paute, celebrated for imaginary riches said to be concealed in it, and of which the following story is related.—" A countryman who found himself, in his native place, oppressed with misery, invoked, in a state of desperation, the Devil to come to his assistance, and, cursing the hour of his birth, was revolving upon putting himself to death. The common enemy, profiting himself of the moment, appeared in a human shape before the distressed man, and, having asked him the cause of his sorrow, and having ascertained that it arose from poverty, affected to be struck with compassion, and told the poor creature he could show him a place whence he might extract as much gold as he pleased. The countryman accepted the offer with joy, and believing that the journey would be short, put up only a small quantity of provision to take with him, about four small loaves, and then went complacently to sleep, expecting the time when his conductor should call him; but what was his astonishment, to find himself, upon waking, in a country entirely unknown to him; and in fact by the mountain of Supay-urcu. His mind was rendered somewhat tranquil on his perceiving at a small distance an old house, and, making up to it, he
found it to belong to another countryman, who received him with great courtesy. Whilst they were sitting at supper, the host, who had by chance taken in his hand one of the loaves belonging to the guest, and knowing that it was such bread as was made in Spain, but seeing it was altogether quite new, asked, in surprise, his guest, how it was that he had made so long a voyage in so short a time? The guest then related all that had happened, and they both consented that he must nave been carried thither by the devil, and that in the neighbouring mountain must be the riches which were promised him he should find."—This story is current in the kingdom of Quito ; and the father Manuel Rodrigues relates it. However great may be the fiction, it is universally believed that the said mountain abounds in exquisite riches; and this although no attempts have been made to extract them. Indeed, the natural aspect of the mountain, and bits of metal found on its skirt, bear strong indications of its containing mines. But these indications are peculiar to other mountains, and we have only related the story of the countryman to account for the name which this mountain bears. In lat. 2° 28' s.
SUPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, on the sea-shore, close to the settlement of La Barranca.
SUPER A, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
SUPERAGUA, or Scparaba, as others call it, a small island near the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Rey, and at the entrance of the Bay of Sagas u.
SUPERIOR, a large lake of Canada in N. America ; or, more properly, a small fresh water sea. [From the most w. point of this lake, in a straight line to the Falls of St. Maria, it is 344 geographical miles in length. Its breadth is very various, being from 10 to about 100 miles from n. to s.~\ It is full of islands, and the whole of its s. coast is straight and sandy; but the n. coast is more convenient for sailing, as it consists of rocks which form little bays or inlets, in which vessels may lie secure in times of tempests. But these never occur without a warning of two days. The first day, the waters of the lake hecome somewhat disquieted, a murmuring noise being heard over every part, and, the following day, the whole lake is covered with a thick mud, being still navigable if the wind be favourable; but on the third day, when it is least expected, the waters become suddenly agitated like those of the ocean; and then it is that vessels on the n. side of the lake make into the shore for the aforesaid inlets, whilst those on the e. side take the precaution, on the second day, to ride out from the shore.
The country surrounding is but little known, and is frequented only by the Indians who go thither to hunt. These Indians hold the lake as a kind of deity, offering to it sacrifices, by way of gratitude for the great quantities of fish which they extract from it, and in token of the respect which they bear to it from its vast extent. They assert that Michabou, God of the Waters, formed it for the hunting of castors.
In the channel by which it empties itself into Lake Huron, is a cascade formed by great rocks, which, according to the tradition of those barbarians, are the remains of some causeways which were built by their god, to restrain the waters of the rivers and those of the Lake Almipegon, which formed this lake. The French missionaries of the Jesuits, called this cascade the Falls of St. Marie, from a church which they had there. In some parts of the coasts, and in various islands of the lake, are found large bits of copper, which form an object of great superstition to the savages; and they look upon this metal as being sent them by the deities residing beneath the lake; collecting even the smallest pieces with the greatest care, and keeping them without ever making any use of them. They say that there was formerly standing out of the water a rock of this material; but as it does not now exist, it is thought by them to have been removed by their deities to some other spot; whereas, in all probability, the waves of the lake have by time covered it over with sand. Certain it is that a great quantity of the above metal has been found in various parts; and, in the aforesaid church, the missionaries used to make of it their crosses and incensories.
[Lake Superior, formerly termed the Upper Lake, from its n. situation, may justly be termed the Caspian Sea of America, and is supposed to be the largest body of fresh water on the globe. According to the French charts it is 1500 miles in circumference. A great part of the coast is bounded by rocks and uneven ground. It is situated between lat. 46° and 49° n. and between long. 84° and 92f 15" w. The water is very clear, and transparent. If the sun shines bright, it is impossible through this medium to look at the rocks at the bottom, above a minute or two. Although the water, at the surface, is much warmed by the heat of the sun, yet, when
drawn up at about a fathom depth, it is very cold. Storms are more dreadful here than on the ocean.
There are many islands in this lake; two of them have each land enough, if proper for cultivation, to form a considerable province; especially Isle Royal, which is not less than 36 miles long, and in many places 12 broad. The natives suppose these islands to be the residence of the Great Spirit.
Many rivers empty their waters into this mighty reservoir; of these one is called Nipegon, another Michipicooton; which are described under their respective heads.
Not far from the Nipegon is a small river, that, just before it enters the lake, has a perpendicular fall from the top of a mountain, of more than 100 feet. It is very narrow, and appears at a distance like a white garter suspended in the air. On the s. side of it is a remarkable point or cape of about 60 miles in length, called Point Chegomegan or Kuwenaw. About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerable river falls into the lake, the head of which is composed of a great assemblage of small streams. This river is remarkable for the abundance of virgin copper that is found on and near its banks. Many small islands, particularly on the e. shores, abound with copper-ore lying in beds, with the appearance of copperas; thus warranting the assertions made by Alcedo on this subject respecting the opinions of the Indians. This metal might be easily made a very advantageous article of commerce. This lake abounds with fish, particularly trout and sturgeon; the former weigh from 12 to 50 pounds, and are caught almost any season of the year in great plenty. Storms affect this lake as much as they do the Atlantic Ocean; the waves run as high, and the navigation is equally dangerous.
The entrance into this lake from the Straits of St. Marie affords one of the most pleasing prospects in the world. On the left may be seen many beautiful little islands that extend a considerable way before you; and on the right, an agreeable succession of small points of land that
Eroject a little way into the water, and contriute, with the islands, to render this delightful bason calm, and secure from those tempestuous winds by which the adjoining lake is frequently troubled.
This lake discharges its waters from the s. e.
corner through the above-mentioned Straits of
St. Marie, which are about 40 miles long, into
Lake Huron. Although about 40 rivers empty] [into Lake Superior, many of which are large, yet it does not appear that one-tenth part of the waters which it receives, is discharged by the above-mentioned strait: great part of the waters, it is thought, find to themselves subterraneous vents, whilst more evaporate; and Providence, doubtless, makes use of this inland sea to furnish the interior parts of the country with that supply of vapours, without which, like the interior parts of Africa, they must have been a mere desert. A number of tribes live around Lake Superior, but little is known respecting them.
The following extract from the journal of a late traveller will be acceptable to the curious.
"Mr. M , about the year 1790, departed
from Montreal with a company of about 100 men, under his direction, for the purpose of making a tour through the Indian country, to collect furs, and to make such remarks on its soil, waters, lakes, mountains, manners and customs of its inhabitants as might come within his knowledge and observation. He pursued his route from Montreal, entered the Indian country, and coasted about 300 leagues along the banks of Lake Superior, from thence to the Lake of the Woods, of which he took an actual survey, and found it to be 36 leagues in length; from thence to the Lake Ounipique, of which he gave also a description. The tribes of the Indians which he passed through, were called the Maskego Tribe, Shepeweyau, Cithinistinee, Great Belly Indians, Beaver Indians, Blood Indians, the Black Feet Tribe, the Snake Indians, Ossnobians, Shiveytoon Tribe, Mandon Tribe, Paunees, and several others, who in general were very pacific and friendly towards him, and are great admirers of the best hunting horses, in which the country abounds. The horses prepared by them for hunters, have large holes cut above their natural nostrils, for which they give as a reason, that those prepared in this manner will keep their breath longer than the others which are not thus prepared: from experience, knowledge is gained, and the long practice of this custom, consequent on these trials, must have convinced them of the truth and utility of the experiment; otherwise we can hardly suppose they would torture their best horses in this manner, if some advantage was not derived from the measure.
In pursuing his route, he found no difficulty in obtaining a guide to accompany him from one nation to the other, until he came to the Shining Mountains, or Mountains of Bright Stones, where, in attempting to pass, he was frustrated by the hostile appearance of the Indians who inhabit
that part of the country. The consequence of which was, he was disappointed in his intention, and obliged to turn his back upon them. Having collected a number of Indians, he went forward again, with an intention to force his way over those mountains, if necessary and practicable, and to make his way to Cook's River, on the w. w. coast of America, supposed by him to be about 300 leagues from the mountains; but the inhabitants of the mountains again met him with their bows and arrows, and so superior were they in numbers to his little force, that he was obliged to flee before them. Finding himself thus totally disappointed in the information he was in hopes to obtain, he was obliged to turn his back upon that part of the country for which his heart had long panted. Cold weather coming on, he built huts for himself and party in the Ossnobian country, and near to the source of a large river, called the Ossnobian River, where they tarried during the continuance of the cold season, and until some time in the warmer months. Previous to his departure from Montreal, he had supplied himself with several kinds of seeds, and before his huts he laid out a small garden, which the natives observing, called them slaves, for digging up the ground, nothing of that kind being done by them, they living wholly on animal food; bread is unknown to them: to some he gave remnants of hard bread, which they chewed and spit out again, calling it rotten wood. When his onions, &c. were somewhat advanced in their growth, he was often surprised to find them pulled up; determining therefore to know from what cause it proceeded, he directed his men to keep watch, who found that the Indian children, induced by motives of curiosity, came with sticks, thrust them through the poles of his fence, to ascertain and satisfy themselves, what the things of the white men were, and in what manner they grew, &c. The natives of this country have no fixed or permanent place of abode, but live wholly in tents made of buffalo and other hides, and with which they travel from one place to another, like the Arabs; and so soon as the feed for their horses is expended, they remove their tents to another fertile spot, and so on continually, scarcely ever returning to the same spots again."
By the treaty of 1783, it was agreed that a water communication should be had into the Mississippi, by a line drawn due w. from the Lake of the Woods: but this was afterwards found to be impossible, since it is now ascertained that there are no waters flowing into] [Lake Superior from the n. but only a height of and. If the spirit of the treaty had been to be acted on, a line drawn through the river St. Lewis, which rises within a few miles of the Mississippi, and runs e. into the lake, would have formed the obvious boundary]
SUPIA, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
SUPIAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the same province and kingdom as the former settlement, from whom that settlement took its name. These Indians were discovered by Captain Juan Vadillo in 1537; and they used to dwell in the woods close to the city of Anserma. They were distinguished into Supias Altos and Baxos; but they all formed but one nation. At first they were very numerous; but they are now reduced to a few, living scattered through the woods.
SUPIAYES, or Supayes, a barbarous nation of Indians of Equinoctial France. They live in the territory bordering on Cayenne, that is to say, 20 leagues s. of the same; between the rivers Apurvaca and Camovi. These Indians are bounded w. by the nation of the Acuranis, and n. w. by that of the Nourages. They are docile, of a pacific genius, and friendly to the French.
SUPLICIO, S. a settlement of the French in Canada, on the shore of the river St. Lawrence, near the mouth of the Maquinonge.
SUPONGA, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part called Dutch Guayana. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs s. inclining somewhat to w. and enters the Caroni.
SUQUISTACA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Cinti.
SUR, Punta Del, the s. point or extremity of the island of the Caico Grande or Del Norte. SURA, an ancient province of Peru, to the n. ofCuzco. It was conquered and united to the empire by Capac Yupanqui, the fifth monarch. It is mountainous, uncultivated, and full of woods, rivers, and lakes, and, for this reason, desert.
SURABA, a small settlement of barbarian Indians, of the province and government of. Darien; situate in the mountains which face the gulf of this name, on the n. side.
SURAMACA, a river of Guayana or country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Dutch. It runs into the sea near the settlement of Cupename.
SURARE, a settlement of the province and government of MeVida, and of the district of the jurisdiction of Pamplona, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
SURATA, a river of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises n. of the city of San Juan Giron, on the opposite side of the river Lobrija, and runs into the last river.
SURCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cercado in Peru.
Sunco, another settlement, in the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in the same kingdom; annexed to the curacy of S. Juan de Matucana.
SURCOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guanta in Peru, on the shore of the river Angoyaco, in the island of Tayacaxa.
SUREAU, a small river of the province and government of Louisiana in N. America, which runs s. w. and enters the Missouri.
SURIMANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tinta or Canes and Canches in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pampamarca.
SURIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago de las Atalayas, in the
government of Los Llanos de Neiba and Nuevo leyno de Granada, on the shore of the river Mcta. It has this name from its vicinity to the swamp thus called. It formerly had the name of Guanapalo; as having been first founded near this river, although afterwards translated to the spot where it now stands. It is of a very hot temperature, but abounding in the vegetable productions of this climate, and in some very shady trees, yielding a fruit in shape of a quince, with this difference, that this fruit is a strong caustic, and is consequently used for opening issues, and, applied to the skin hut an instant, it makes a wound. All the pulp of this fruit is convertible into a very sweet water, affording to the natives a refreshing drink. This settlement is well peopled with Indians, who are very laborious. Sixty-eight miles s. w. from its capital.
SURINAM, a colony and province in Dutch Guayana in S. America, on the w. shore of the river of its name, and 15 miles from the mouth of the same. The French established themselves in this country in 1640, but, finding it unhealthy, immediately abandoned it; and the English, in 1661, sent hither a colony. Its territory passed into the hands of the Dutch in 1674, having been ceded to them in exchange for New York. It