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age in the kingdom, Mr. Edward Ferrars, few who have excelled in the difficult art of Mr. Henry Tilney, Mr. Edmund Bertram, portraying characters in which no single and Mr. Elton. They are all specimens of feature is extravagantly overcharged. the upper part of the middle class. They! If we have expounded the law soundly, have all been liberally educated. They all we can have no difficulty in applying it to lie under the restraints of the same sacred the particular case before us. Madame profession. They are all young. They are D'Arblay has left us scarcely any thing but all in love. Not one of them has any hob humors. Almost every one of her men by horse, to use the phrase of Sterne. Not and women has some one propensity deone has a ruling passion, such as we read veloped to a morbid degree. In Cecilia, for of in Pope. Who would not have expected example, Mr. Delvile never opeus his lips them to be insipid likenesses of each other? without some allusion to his own birth and No such thing. Harpagon is not more uno station; or Mr. Briggs, without some allulike to Jourdain, Joseph Surface is not more sion to the hoarding of money; or Mr. unlike to Sir Lucius O'Trigger, than every Hobson, without betraying the self-indul. one of Miss Austen's young divines to all gence and self-importance of a purse-proud his reverend brethren. And almost all this upstart; or Mr. Simkins, without uttering is done by touches so delicate, that they some sneaking remark for the purpose of elude analysis, that they defy the powers currying favor with his customers; or Mr. of description, and that we know them to Meadows, without expressing apathy and exist only by the general effect to which weariness of life ; or Mr. Albany, without they have contributed.
declaiming about the vices of the rich and A line must be drawn, we conceive, be the misery of the poor; or Mrs. Belfield, tween artists of this class, and those poets without some indelicate eulogy on her son; and novelists whose skill lies in the exhibitor Lady Margaret, without indicating jealing of what Ben Johnson called humors. ousy of her husband. Morrice is all skipThe words of Ben are so much to the pur-ping, officious impertinence, Mr. Gosport pose, that we will quote them :
all sarcasm, Lady Honoria all lively prattle,
Miss Larolles all silly prattle. " When some one peculiar quality
If ever MaDoth so possess a man, thai it doth draw
dame D'Arblay aimed at more, as in the chaAll his affects, his spirits, and his powers, racter of Monckton we do not think that In their confluxions all to run one way,
she succeeded well. This may be truly said to be a humor."
We are, therefore, forced to refuse to There are undoubtedly persons, in whom Madame D'Arblay a place in the highest humors such as Ben describes have attained rank of art ; but we cannot deny that, in the a complete ascendency. The avarice of rank to which she belonged, she bad few Elwes, the insane desire of Sir Egerton equals, and scarcely any superior. The ra. Brydges for a barony to which he had no riety of humors which is to be found in her more right than to the crown of Spain, the novels is immense ; and though the talk of malevolence which long meditation on each person separately is monotonous, the imaginary wrongs generated in the gloomy general effect is not monotony, but a very mind of Bellingham, are instances. The lively and agreeable diversity. Her plois feeling which animated Clarkson and other are rudely constructed and improbable, if virtuous men against the slave-trade and we consider them in themselves. But they slavery, is an instance of a more honorable are admirably framed for the purpose of ex. kind.
hibiting striking groups of eccentric charSeeing that such humors exist, we can. acters, each governed by his own peculiar not deny that they are proper subjects for wbim, each talking his own peculiar jargon, the imitations of art. But we conceive that and each bringing out by opposition the the imitation of such humors, however skil- oddities of all the rest. We will give one ful and amusing, is not an achievement of example out of many which occur to us. the highest order; and, as such humors are all probability is violated in order to bring rare in real life, they ought, we conceive, to Mr. Delvile, Mr. Briggs, Mr. Hobson, and be sparingly introduced into works which Mr. Albany into a room together. But profess to be pictures of real life. Never. when we have them there, we soon forget theless, a writer may show so much genius probability in the exquisitely ludicrous efin the exhibition of these humors, as to be fect which is produced by the conflict of fairly entitled to a distinguished and perfour old fools, each raging with a monomamanent rank among classics. The chiel nia of his own, each talking a dialect of his seats of all, however, the places on the dais own, and each inflaming all the others anew and under the canopy, are reserved for the every time he opens his mouth.
Madame D'Arblay was most successful in not have been wise even if she could have comedy, and indeed in comedy which bor. imitated her pattern as well as Hawkes. dered on farce. But we are inclined to in- worth did. But such imitation was beyond fer from some passages, both in Cecilia and her power. She had her own style. It was Camilla, that she might have attained equal a tolerably good one; and might, without distinction in the pathetic. We have form- any violent change, have been improved into ed this judgment, less from those ambitious a very good one. She determined to throw scenes of distress which lie near the catas- it away, and to adopt a style in which she trophe of each of those novels, than from could attain excellence only by achieving some exquisite strokes of natural tender an almost iniraculous victory over nature ness which take us here and there by sur and over habit. She could cease to be Fan. prise. We would mention as examples, ny Burney ; it was not so easy to become Mrs. Hill's account of her little boy's death Samuel Johnson, in Cecilia, and the parting of Sir Hugh Ty In Cecilia the change of manner began to rold and Camilla, when the honest Baronet appear. But in Cecilia the imitation of thinks himself dying.
Johnson, though not always in the best taste, It is melancholy to think that the whole is sometimes eminently happy; and the pasfame of Madame D'Arblay rests on what she sages which are so verbose as to be posidid during the earlier half of her life, and lively offensive, are few. There were peo. that every thing which she published du ple who whispered that Johnson had assisted ring the forty-three years which preceded his young friend, and that the novel owed her death, lowered her reputation. Yet we all its finest passages to his hand. This have no reason to think that at the time was merely the fabrication of envy. Miss when her faculties ought to have been in Burney's real excellences were as much their maturity, they were smitten with any beyond the reach of Johnson, as his real blight. In the Wanderer, we catch now and excellences were beyond her reach. He then a gleam of her genius. Even in the could no more have written the Masquerade Memoirs of her Father, there is no trace of scene, or the Vauxhall scene, than she could dotage. They are very bad; but they are have written the Life of Cowley or the Reso, as it seems to us, not from a decay of view of Svanie Jenyns. But we have not power, but from a total perversion of power. the smallest doubt that he revised Cecilia,
The truth is, that Madame D'Arblay's and that he retouched the style of many style underwent a gradual and most perni- passages. We know that he was in the ha. cious change-a change which, in degree at bit of giving assistance of this kind most least, we believe to be unexampled in lite. freely. Goldsmith, Hawkesworth, Boswell, rary history, and of which it may be useful Lord Hailes, Mrs. Williams, were among to trace the progress.
those who obtained his help. Nay, he even When she wrote her letters to Mr. Crisp, corrected the poetry of Mr. Crabbe, whom, her early journals, and the novel of Eveli. I we believe, he had never seen. When Miss na, her style was not indeed brilliant or en Burney thought of writing a comedy, he ergetic; but it was easy, clear, and free from promised to give her his best counsel, all offensive faults. When she wrote Ce though he owned that he was not particucilia she aimed higher. She had then lived larly well qualified to advise on matters remuch in a circle of which Johnson was the lating to the stage. We therefore think it centre ; and she was herself one of his most in the highest degree improbable that his submissive worshippers. It seems never to little Fanny, when living in habits of the have crossed her mind that the style even most affectionate intercourse with him, of his best writings was by no means fault would have brought out an important work less, and that even had it been faultless, it without consulting him; and, when we look might not be wise in her to imitate it. into Cecilia, we see such traces of his hand Phraseology which is proper in a disquisi. in the grave and elevated passages, as it is tion on the Unities, or in a preface to a Dic. impossible to mistake. Before we conclude tionary, may be quite out of place in a tale this article, we will give two or three exof fashionable life. Old genilemen do not amples. criticise the reigning modes, nor do young When next Madame D'Arblay appeared gentlemen make love, with the balanced before the world as a writer, she was in a epithets and sonorous cadences which, on very different situation. She would not con. occasions of great dignity, a skilful writer tent herself with the simple English in may use with happy effect.
which Evelina had been written. She had In an evil hour the author of Evelina took no longer the friend who, we are confident, the Rambler for her model. This would had polished and strengthened the style of Cecilia. She had to write in Johnson's man. This is not a fine style, but simple, per ner without Johnson's aid. The conse-spicuous, and agreeable. We now come to quence was, that in Camilla every passage Cecilia, written during Miss Burney's intiwhich she meant to be fine is detestable; macy with Johnson ; and we leave it to our and that the book has been saved from con- readers to judge whether the following pasdemnation only by the admirable spirit and sage was not at least corrected by his force of those scenes in which she was con- hand :tent to be familiar. But there was to be a still deeper descent.
il “It is rather an imaginary than an actual eril,
and, though a deep wound to pride, no offence to Alter the publication of Camilla, Madame morality. Thus have I laid open to you my whole D'Arblay resided ten years at Paris. During heart, confessed my perplexities, acknowledged my those years there was scarcely any inter- vain-glory, and exposed with equal sincerity the course between France and England. It was sources of my doubts and the motives of my deciwith difficulty that a short letter could oc. sion. But now, indeed, how to proceed I know
not. casionally be transmitted. All Madame D'.
The difficulties which are yet to encounter I
fear to enumerate, and the petition I have to urge Arblay's companions were French. She must
I have scarce courage to mention. My family, mis. have written, spoken, thought, in French. taking ambition for honor, and rank for dignity, Uvid expressed his fear that a shorter exile have longed planned a splended connexion for me, might have affected the purity of his Latin. to which, though my invariable repugnance bas During a shorter exile, Gibbon unlearned I stopped any advances, their wishes and their views bis native English. Madame D'Arblay had l immoveably adhere. I am but too certain they carried a bad style to France. She brought
will now listen to no other. I dread, therefore, to
make a trial where I despair of success. I know back a style which we are really at a loss to not how to risk a prayer with those who may silence describe. It is a sort of broken Johnsonese,
onese, me by a command." a barbarous patois, bearing the same rela. tion to the language of Rasselas, which the
'Take now a specimen of Madame D'Argibberish of the Negroes of Jamaica bears
blay's later style. This is the way in wbich to the English of the House of Lords.
she tells us that her father, on his journey Sometimes it reminds us of the finest, that back from the continent, caught the rheuis to say, the vilest parts, of Mr. Galt's nov. matism els; sometimes of the perorations of Exeter | “He was assaulted, during his precipitated re. Hall; sometimes of the leading articles of turn, by the rudest fierceness of wintry elemental the Morning Post. But it most resembles trite; thro
heistrite; through which, with bad accomodations and the puffs of Mr. Rowland and Dr. Goss. It
innumerable accidents, he became a prey to the
merciless pangs of the acutest spasmodic rbeumamatiers not what ideas are clothed in such Liis
lism, which barely suffered him to reach his home, a style. The genius of Shakspeare and Ba-ere, long and pileously, it confined him, a tortured con united, would not save a work so writ. prisoner, to his bed. Such was the check that alten from general derision.
most instantly curbed, though it could not subdue, It is only by means of specimens that we the rising pleasure of his hopes of entering upon a can enable our readers to judge bow wide. new species of existence-that of an approved man ly Madame D'Arblay's three styles differed),
Tof letters; for it was on the bed of sickness, exchang.
ing the light wines of France, Italy, and Germany, from each other.
for the black and loathsome potions of the ApothiThe following passage was written before carics' Hall, writhed by darting stitches, and burnshe became intimate with Johnson. It is ing with fiery fever, that he felt the full force of from Evelina :
that sublunary equipoise that seems evermore lo
hang suspended over the attainment of long-soughi “ His son serms weaker in his understanding, and uncommon felicity, just as it is ripening to and more gay in bis temper; but his gaiety is that burst forth with enjoyment !”. of a foolish overgrown schoolboy, whose mirth consists in noise and disturbance. He disdains his
Here is a second passage from Evelina:
u. father for his close attention to business and love “Mrs. Selwyn is very kind and attentive to me. of money, though he seems himself to have no She is extremely clever. Her understanding, intalenie, spirit, or generosity to make him superior deed, may be called masculine ; but unfortunately to either. His chief delight appears to be in tor- her manners deserve the same epithet. For, in menting and ridiculing his sisters, who in return studying to acquire the knowledge of the other sex, most cordially despise hun. Miss Branglion, the she has lost all the softness of her own. In regard eldest daughter, is by no means ugly ; but looks to myself, however, as I have neither courage nor proud, ill-tempered, and conceited. She hates the inclination to argue with her, I have never been city, ihough without knowing wliy; for it is easy I personally hurt at her want of gentleness-a virtue to discover she has lived nowhere else. Miss which nevertheless seems so essential a part of the Polly Branghton is rather pretty, very foolish, very temale character, that I find myself more awkward ignorant, very giddy, and, I believe, very good and less at ease with a woman who wants it than I natured."
do with a man."
This is a good style of its kind; and the Ithat, in the midst of such renowned inter. following passage from Cecilia is also in a locutors, produced as narcotic a torpor as good style, though not in a faultless one. could have been caused by a dearth the We say with confidence-Either Sam Johnmost barren of all human faculties.” In son or the Devil :
truth, it is impossible to look at any page of “Even the imperious Mr. Delvile was more sup-1
Madame D'Arblay's later works, without portable here than in London. Secure in his own / finding flowers of rhetoric like these. Nocastle, he looked round him with a pride of power thing in the language of those jargonists at and possession which softened while it swelled him. whom Mr. Gosport laughed, nothing in the His superiority was undisputed; his will was with language of Sir Sedley Clarendel, approachout control. He was not, as in the great capital of Jes this new Euphuism.. the kingdom, surrounded by competitors. Nori! It is from nö unfriendly feeling to Mad. valry disturbed his peace; no equality mortified his greatness. All he saw were either vassals of his
This ame D'Arblay's memory that we have expower, or guests bending to his pleasure. He abat. Ipressed ourselves so strongly on the subed, therefore, considerably the stern gloom of his lject of her style. On the contrary, we conhaughliness, and soothed his proud mind by the ceive that we have really rendered a service courtesy of condescension."
to her reputation. That her later works We will stake our reputation for critical were complete failures, is a fact too notorisagacity on this, that no such paragraph as
ous to be dissembled; and some persons, that which we have last quoted, can be
we believe, have consequently taken up a found in any of Madame D'Arblay's works
notion that she was from the first an overexcept Cecilia. Compare with it the fol.
rated writer, and that she had not the powers lowing sample of her later style:
which were necessary to maintain her on
the eminence on which good-luck and fash“If beneficence be judged by the happiness which lion had placed her. We believe, on the
contrary, that her early popularity was no higher than that of Mrs. Montagu, from the munificence with which she celebrated her annual festi.
more than the just reward of distinguished val for those hapless artificers who perform the merit, and would never have undergone an most abject offices of any authorized calling, in be- eclipse, if she had only been content to go ing the active guardians of our blazing hearths ? on writing in her mother-tongue. If she Not to vain-glory, then, but to kindness of heart, failed when she quitted her own province, should be adjudged the publicity of that superb and attempted to occupy one in which she charity which made its jetly objects, for one bright had nei
bhad neither part nor lot, this reproach is morning, cease to consider themselves as degraded outcasts from all society."
common to her with a crowd of distinguish
ed men. Newton failed when he turned We add one or two shorter samples. She- from the courses of the stars, and the ebb ridan refused to permit his lovely wife to and flow of the ocean, to apocalyptic seals sing in public, and was warmly praised on and vials. Bentley failed when he turned this account by Johnson.
from Homer and Aristophanes to edit “ The last of men,” says Madame D'Ar. Paradise Lost. Inigo failed when he atblay, “ was Doctor Johnson to have abetted tempted to rival the Gothic churches of the squandering the delicacy of integrity by fourteenth century. Wilkie failed when he nullifying the labors of talents.”
took it into his head that the Blind Fiddler The club, Johnson's club, did itself no and the Rent-day were unworthy of his honor by rejecting on political grounds two powers, and challenged competition with distinguished men, the one a Tory, the other Lawrence as a portrait-painter. Such faila Whig. Madame D'Arblay tells the story ures should be noted for the instruction of thus:-“A similiar ebullition of political posterity ; but they detract little from the rancor with that which so difficultly had permanent reputation of those who have been conquered for Mr. Canning, foamed really done great things. over the ballot-box to the exclusion of Mr. Yet one word more. It is not only on Rogers.”
account of the intrinsic merit of Madame An offence punishable with imprisonment D'Arblay's early works that she is entitled is, in this language, au offence “ which proto honorable mention. Her appearance is duces incarceration.” To be starved to an important epoch in our literary history. death is, “to sink from inanition into non. Evelina was the first tale written by a woentity.” Sir Isaac Newton is, “the develo-man, and purporting to be a picture of life per of the skies in their embodied move- and manners, that lived or deserved to live. ments;' and Mrs. Thrale, when a party of The Female Quixotte is no exception. That clever people sat silent, is said to have been work has undoubtedly great merit when “provoked by the dulness of a taciturnity Iconsidered as a wild satirical harlequinade ;
but, if we consider it as a picture of life
CHINA AND CHRISTIANITY. and manners, we must pronounce it more
From the Dublin University Magazine. absurd than any of the romances which it was designed to ridicule.
That our ground of quarrel with tbe ChiIndeed, most of the popular novels which nese was not such as should satisfy reasonpreceded Evelina, were such as no lady able and conscientious minds, has, we bewould have written; and many of them lieve, been very generally felt, and we heswere such as no lady could without confu- litated not, on a former occasion, to declare sion own that she had read. The very name that we were ourselves under that persuaof novel was held in horror among reli-sion. By the bungling incapacity of our gious people. In decent families, which did Whig rulers we were involved in a series of not profess extraordinary sanctity, there angry disputes with the Chinese authorities, was a strong feeling against all such works. by whom the trade in opiuin was interdict. Sir Anthony Absolute, two or three years ed, and who sought to enforce their inter. before Evelina appeared, spoke the sense of dict after a fashion of their own. There the great body of sober fathers and hus. can be no doubt whatever that our smug. bands, when he pronounced the circulating gling merchants persevered in the forbid. library an evergreen tree of diabolical den traffic, long after an authoritative deknowledge. This feeling, on the part of nouncement of it had been officially promulthe grave and reflecting, increased the evil gated, which ought, in all propriety to have from which it bad sprung. The novelist. I been treated with respect. Under the old having little character to lose, and having system of trade, as in operation during the few readers among serious people, took, monopoly of the East India Company, due without scruple, liberties which in our ge provision would have been made against any neration seem almost incredible
infraction of subsisting regulations. But Miss Burney did for the English norelunder the new system of free trade, there what Jeremy Collier did for the English was no power in the superintendent to ex. drama; and she did it in a better way. She ercise any effective control over the conduct first showed that a tale might be written in of individuals, who were all too intent upon which both the fashionable and the vulgar private gain to be much concerned for the life of London might be exhibited with public safety. Accordingly the work of great force, and with broad comic humor, smuggling went perseveringly on. The and which yet should not contain a single Canton river was crowded with vessels line inconsistent with rigid morality, or even which only awaited their opportunity to with virgin delicacy. She took away the land their pernicious drug upon the Chinese reproach which lay on a most useful and shores ; until the extreme measure was redelightful species of composition. She vin- solved on, of surrounding the building in dicated the right of her sex to an equal which our residents resided, and compelling share in a fair and noble province of letters. I them, under a threat of starvation, or even Several accomplished women have followed some more ignominious death, to deliver ud in her track. At present, the novels which all the opium of which they were the propriwe owe to English ladies. form no small etors in the river, and to pledge themselves part of the literary glory of our country. I against persevering in a traffic which had so No class of works is more honorably dis. I deservedly incurred his celestial majesty's tinguished by fine observation, by grace, by high displeasure. delicate wit, by pure moral feeling. Seve.
| It is then, we think, demonstratively
It is then, we !! ral among the successors of Madame D'Ar: clear, that had a prudent and provident govblay have equalled her; two, we think, have surpassed her. But the fact that she has disputes would either never have occurred, been surpassed, gives her an additional or have been easily settled without proceedclaim to our respect and gratitude : for in ing to open war. truth we owe to her, not only Evelina, Ce
Undoubtedly what now occurred rendercilia and Camilla but also Mansfield Park, ed a vindication of our outraged merchants, and the Absentee.
criminal though they may have been, a matter of state necessity. No nation should submit to such an insult without redress, because no nation could submit to such an insult with safety. It was, therefore, indispensably necessary that the Emperor of China should be made to feel that we were possessed of a power of self-vindication;