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place thereof "_" The gates of the

All the beasts of the earth,

Both the pelican and the porcupine shall lodge in rivers shall be opened,” (Nah. i. the carved lintels. 8-11, 6). The disaster of such evil A cry shall resound in the window; the raven

shall be in the porch; augury owing to the legend, paralysed For he hath lạid bare her cedar work the inhabitants, who gave up all for

This is the rejoicing city, that sat in security;

That said in her heart, I am, and there is none lost—"the palace melteth (with besides me.

How is she become a destruction ! fear;") "" thy people are as women in A place for beasts to dwell in !" the midst of thee." Sardanapulus,

(Zeph. ii. 13, 14, 15.1 in despair, perished in the voluntary

Such are the memories of Nineveh! confiagration of the imperial residence Its story, exhibited in the Jewish an

_“ there shall the fire devour thee.” nals, speaks of mercy and judgment; The Assyrian territory was divided and now on the roll of human events, between the conquerors, and the trea

we have the sparing and catastrophe sures of the city="they spoil the of the city permanently registered, to silver, they spoil the gold, and there serve as beacon lights to nations and is no end of the glorious store.” Zeph- individuals through all ages of time, aniah's tragic picture was speedily revealing the benevolence of the Direalised :

vine administration to transgressors

submitting to the righteousness of “ He will stretch out his hand against the north, God, but the certainty with the terriAnd will destroy Assyria ; And will make Nineveh a desolation,

bleness of a retribution is an impious Ksen a dry place as the desert. And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her course is preferred.



An association has recently been national questions that are agitated in formed at London, under the above Europe, or of the special position which name, which we think deserves the at- England occupies with regard to them." tention of the public. We shall per. The Association is but at its first ster; haps give below some passages from and it is evident we must see it at work the address, in which the motives of some time before we can judge it. Its the founders are made known. Our object alone is within our present scope. object at present is only to express a "To enlighten the British public as few thoughts respecting its dominant to the political condition and relations idea, and its bearing on those moral of foreign countries; to disseminate wants which we also consider really to the principles of national freedom and exist, and to demand satisfaction. How progress; to embody and manifest an far the “International League" will efficient public opinion in favour of afford that satisfaction no one can say the right of every people to self-govern at the present time. Every thing de- ment and the maintenance of their own pends upon its march, upon the zeal, nationality; to promote a good underthe conscientiousness, the activity, the stånding between the peoples of every honourable calmness, with which the country.” Such is the object of the managing committee shall fulfil their League,” as it is explained in the few duties. These are grave--grave from lines that preface the address. This the vastness of the task, and from the object is good. It is more--we think consequences that may follow any error, it is opportune; for it only embodies however involuntarily committed—any the general tendencies of the European exaggeration in the statement of facts movement for more than half a cen-any unnecessary harshness of lan, tury. guage--any misunderstanding of the There has always been, from the

* Address of the People's International Leaglie: 'Palmer and Clayton:

earliest historical times—for those who mon sense, political economy came also can read in history so:nething more to accomplish, though with far greater than accɔunts of battles and biographi- difficulties to contend with, in the cal dates of princes and kings—there sphere of material products. The idea has always existed a tendency to an that Europe, the earth itself, was one ever closer and more extended associa- vast common market, in which no one tion between the different groups that member could suffer or be fettered in compose the human race. By wars as developing his powers without inconwell as in peaceful times, by alliinces as venience to the others, became the soul well as by invasions, the providential of a whole school who preached with thought which rules the collective zeal in Italy, in France, in England, march of societies, and which tends to every where, the throwing down of all draw them closer together, has always barriers opposed to the interchange of triumphed; and when we see the civi- the agricultural and manufactured prolization concentrated on some culmi- duce of countries, freedom of trade benating points of humanity, as, for in- tween nations, and its facilitation by a stance, on Greece and Rome, suddenly system of ways, whether by sea, by disappear, we are sure to find it again river, or by land, destined to draw toin the next page of the history of the gether and unite the nations. The world, less intense, it is true, but more most significant facts came to verify widely extended - embracing in its the tendency, of which literature and light a broader terrestrial zone, and economy had become the expression...'. uniting, by a certain balance of powers, Not an event of any importance took · conquerors and conquered, destroyers place among one people, that its echoes · and victims. This tendency, which were not immediately heard in others; . successive generations have ever fol- not a single revolution was accomplishlowed unconsciously, sometimes unwill- ed that was not looked upon as a threat, ingly, has in the last fifty years ac- or hailed as a hope, by all Europe. A quired a regular, progressire, explicit flag of principlcs by degrees overtopdevelopment - it has acquired the ped the flag, hitherto alone, of local knowledge of itself. Already, in the interests. It was—it is visible that second half of the last century, philo- Europe is marching- by the common sophy had given the signal. In 1785, consent of her populations—towards a Lessing proclaimed the great and pro- new era of union, of more intimate asfound thought, that the human race is sociation, in which, under the influence a collective being-having a unity of of one general thought, the people will" life, and from one epoch to another at last look on one another as memprogressing in its education, in accom- bers of one great family—as bound in plishment of a providential plan; and duty and interested each to assist in this point of view speedily became that the development and progress of the of all historical and literary studies. others—as labourers in the great workMen began to estimate the action and shop of nature, distributed according to-importance of the parts from a lofty their position, their special aptitude orview of the whole. The visible or la- their vocation, but all contributing to tent influence of one people upon an- one work, whose fruits are to enlarge other was more and more recognised and strengthen the life of all. A European literature rose above all In face of this common tendency, so the national literatures; to it, much clearly established that it ha; forced t'ie more than to the exclusively national absolute governments to overcome all tendencies, belonged almost all the their mutual hatred and jealousies, and great poets and writers of the latter form an alliance to endeavour to comperiod. Translations and surveys of bat it-in face of a Europe, feeling itforeign literatures became numerous. self so united that not an idea can any. And what literature, less fettered by where emerge without thousands of inseparate interests, rapidly effected for terpreters seeking to render it popular the communion of intellectual products every where else; so united in interest and the formation of a European com- that no rise or fall can take place at


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London or Paris without the shock be- and that of Pilate—of evil and of egoing felt at Vienna, at Genoa, at Am- tism. sterdam, at Hamburgh; so united in The foreign polies of England evisympathy that an attempt of the Poles dently belongs to the principle of isolacannot take place without the cry of tion. In 1823, when the dispute be" Longlive Pulund !"resounding at once tween progress and retrograde tyranny, in London, in Paris, in Madrid, and in between the spirit of national liberties the cities of Romagna—the part of the and the usurpation of brute force, was official policy of governments has not already kindled on almost erery point changed, it has remained, by we know not of Europe, George Canning summed it what contradiction, the same that it was up in these words—“ Our station is esa hundred years ago. If governments sentially neutral—neutral not only behave sometimes appeared for an instant tween contending nations, but between to quit the old path, it has only been conflicting principles :" and he cited by a forced concession to acknowledge with complacency the well-known lines, some accomplished fact produced by

Celsâ sedet Oolus arce the tendency we are recording; imme

Sceptra tenens, &c. diately afterwards they have sunk back into their old rut. One would say that, In his system Eagland should, while for diplomatists, the world has stood preserving a sublime indifference bestill since the treaty of Westphalia. tween the two principles, make herself Now, as then, policy is founded exclu- feared as a mighty adversary, or hoped sively upon interests ; principles have for as a powerful friend; but she should nothing to do with it. These interests never realize the hope or the fearhaving nothing superior to harmonize there was the secret of her power. them, are implicitly looked upon as Since then Europe has changed more hostile between state and state ; only, and more; the struggle has been im. as the possibility of wars, of conquest, mensely extended; new elements—the of aggrandizement, is more and more Sclavonian element for instance-bave remote, they content themselves with appeared in the arena; great revoluwatching one another, or with injur- tions have taken place; continual battles ing one another by, tariff regulations. have been and are being fought. EngNow, as at the time of the treaty of land, not, thank God, her inhabitants, Westphalia, the great problem of states- but her government, has remained immen is that of the balance of power- passible. Her policy has remained how to prevent one power or another chained to Canning's formula : now, as from acquiring too great a preponder- then, she is neutral not only between ance—how to force to inaction. They contending nations, but between condo not act, they resist. Governments Alicting principles. —and here we speak of the best-do But these principles are justice and not even suspect that it may be their injustice, good and evil. On one side duty to support, to direct, to realize by men fight for right, on the other they degrees the general tendencies of Eu- slaughter to oppress. Here is the voice rope. The thought that these tenden- of a whole nation protesting, there that cies are the inspiration of God on this of a single man bidding it be silent. world, and that governments exist only Can you, without a crime, without reto be their interpreters and servants, morse, remain indifferent between these has remained entirely foreign to them. two voices—between these two fiags ?

There exist in Europe, at the present What! shall we brand with infamy the day, but two policies—that of the ab- individual who coolly allows the passolute governments, that reacts against senger to be murdered at the corner of the advancing movement, which bears the street, being able to present it; the people along; and that of the con- and shall we admire the conduct of a stitutional governments, which do not nation which, while men are every act at all: a retrograde policy, and a where beyond its frontiers dying for an policy of isolation, of inertia, of neutra- idea, and tyrants inurdering from unlity, as it is called the policy of Herod just ambition, celsâ sedet in arce, and

gazes on this incessant strife between she has intervened in the affairs of the martyrs and executioners as on a show world. But having renounced her naof gladiators ? Is there not one law tural principle, and deprived herself for nations and for individuals ? Are of that consciousness of her rights and we not all, nations and individuals, duties which would render her interGod's creatures, bound to do good, to vention regular and normal, she has check evil, to promote His plan, to intervened anomalously, by fits and achieve the triumph of truth over starts, irregularly and inconsistently, error, of liberty over slavery ? Do as the impulse of momentary necessity not the duties of nations grow with impelled her. Sometimes in favour of their strength? Is not indifference nationality, as in Spain, sometimes atheism? Is not the law of Christ a : against it, as in Denmark; at one law of self-devotion ? Does it not time in favour of emancipation, by repreach that He who will be the first cognising the republics of South Amein the kingdom of God must make rica, at any other against it, as, for inhimself the last, the servant of his stance, in the treaties of Vienna. And, brethren?

in the intervals, she has abdicated her When God places a people on the influence, has allowed things to go on earth, and says to them, Be a nation ! as they might. She has not gained He does not say, “ Isolate thyself; en- the sincere friendship of the powers to joy thy life as the miser enjoys his trea- whom she thus abandoned Europe; see sure, and My word, as if it were a se- the conduct of the French government. cret, no other has a right to hear.” He She has not maintained treaties which, says, “ Walk with head erect among bad in themselves, seemed at least to the brethren whom I have given thee, secure some kind of order; look at as becomes one who bears My word in Cracow. She has weakened, by dehis heart; take thy rank among the grees, the esteem and sympathy felt for nations according to the mark I have her by the nations. written on thy brow; accomplish thy Would we, then, see England at the mission upon the earth worthily and head of a crusade, hurling war upon courageously, for by it thou shalt be Europe, taking upon her people the judged. Confess the Faith openly responsibility of unchaining upon manbefore the world and the world's mas- kind the bag of revolutionary winds ? ters; deny not thy brethren, but assist No; far from it. Our intentions, them according to their wants and thy we trust, are too well known to our power, for ye are all made after My readers for our words to be interpreted image.

in that manner.

But this is what we Neutrality between conflicting prin- should wish. ciples is immoral in theory; it is, be- In 1831, a victorious internal insides, impossible in practice. Life is surrection, without shedding a drop of twofold in its manifestations. All that blood, had stirred all central Italy. It lives, people or individuals, lives with- was put down by an Austrian army, in itself and without; by itself and by notwithstanding the principle of nonwhat surrounds it; therefore for itself intervention proclaimed in France and and for what surrounds it. Every be- England a few months before. But, ing influences others, and is influenced though the foreign invasion was able by others. A people who should iso- to destroy the immediate results of late themselves from all others would the movement, it could not extirpate be a suicidal people. They would kill its causes. They were there visible, the half of their life; abjuring their palpable, acknowledged legitimate by external activity, they would remain friends and enemies. The people, subject to that of others—they would comprising every class, was in a state abdicate their influence and become of permanent protest, though surroundpassive. England could never descend ed by hostile bayonets. Compelled so low. · And she has never been able by the agitation of men's minds, a dito follow the doctrine enunciated by plomatic conference was opened at Canning. Before and since his time, Rome between the ambassadors of the. high powers and the Papal secretary checked by crises, which oppression of state. Lord Seymour then, if our alone causes; that the markets of her memory serves us, ambassador at Flo- industry be not erery moment closed rence, was present. As a man of spi. by disorders, the fruit of the repressed rit and information, he saw at once tendencies of the populations of Euthat all hope of peace or truce between rope; that her relations with the difthé s'iffering populations and their go- ferent countries of Europe be not every vernments was impossible, unless the moment compromised by a state of state of things was radically changed. flagrant, inevitable war between goHe said so. In a correspondence, of vernments and peoples. England, which some fragments, very honour- Sir, sincerely desires peace, for that able to him, were published at the time, reason ; she wishes the causes of wars he explained his reasons to Prince Met- to cease ; and therefore, she cannot ternich. We cannot, replied the lat- allow that whenever the natural wishes ter, compromise the principle of the of the populations being gratified legitimacy of power by transactions shall have established peace on logical with subjects. Lord Seymour shrugged and sure basis, you should come, his shoulders, and withdrew. He could Sir, you a foreign power, to throw the do nothing else; he had neither in- sword of Brennus into the scale, and structions nor an official character. decree permanent war; therefore she Since then, how many insurrections is determined, if it must be so, herself hare justified his foresight! How to throw into the scale, not the sword niany noble victims have moistened the of Brennus, of blind force, but the soil of the Roman states with their sword of Camillus, the liberating blood !

sword, that every human community Now, suppose Lord Seymour, as the has a right to draw against arbitrary interpreter of an avowed moral policy, oppression.” Do you think Austria had teen empowered firmly to hold would have brared the threat? Do you this language to the Austrian minister think the victims would not have been

-“Sir, England cannot be indifferent saved ? Do you think Italy would to the fate of Europe. As a Christian now be on the eve of a general conpower, she believes in the unity and flagratiòn? We might inultiply exambrutherhood of the human race; she ples, but this one is sufficient. We cannot with indifference see millions of are firmly persuaded, that a bold lanmen in Italy excluded from the bene- guage, worthy of us, and in conformity fit of God's laws, and abandoned to with the principle that guides us, the knife of the strongest, because they would have sufficed, would still suffice demand what they think just and good, to secure the peace of the world upon what she has long since realised at the basis of progressive development; home. England cannot look calmly and that by refusing to hold such lanon at the periodical slaughter of men guage, the English government is prea few miles from her frontiers, for paring the chances of a European causes which one or two laws, founded struggle, into which it also will ineri. on justice, might for ever eradicate. tably be drawn. She is disposed to prevent it, as in Now, this language, since the go1808 she prevented Napoleon from vernment, evidently astray, has lost stifiing the nationality of Spain, as she all power of initiative, and allows ithas since done her utmost to put an self to be towed along in the wake of end to the slave trade. She also, Sir, opinion, it remains for public opinion is called on to play a part in Europe ; itself to suggest it to its representatut she reads that part in a beneficent tives. If this is the object of the siirit, consonant to the principle of " League”-if it aim at forming opiliberty that she represents. It con- nion upon international questions, that cerns her that this principle be not is to say upon the exterior life of Engc ntinually smitten in the face of her land, we cannot but praise its object. brethren. It concerns her, moreover, In consequence of the Deutral, inthat her trade be not every moment different attitude of the government,

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