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Say.

Hor.

Enter HORATIO and MARCELLOS.

Ber. See! it stalks away. Fran. I think, I hear them.-Stand, ho! Who

Hor. Stay; speak : speak, I charge thee, speak. is there?

(Exit Ghost. Hor. Friends to this ground.

Mar. 'Tis gone, and will not answer.
Mar.
And liegemen to the Dane.

Ber. How now, Horatio ? you tremble, and look Fran. Give you good night.

pale: Mar.

o, farewell, honest soldier : Is not this something more than fantasy? Who hath reliev'd you ?

What think you of it?
Fran.
Bernardo hath my place.

Hor. Before my God, I might not this believe, Give you good night. (Exit Francisco.

Without the sensible and true avouch
Mar,
Holla! Bernardo!

Of mine own eyes.
Ber.

Mar.

Is it not like the king ?
What, is Horatio there?

Hor. As thou art to thyself :
A piece of him.

Such was the very armour he had on,
Ber. Welcome, Horatio; welcome, good Mar-1 When he the ambitious Norway combated;
cellus.

So frown'd he once, when in an angry parle, Hor. What, has this thing appear'd again to He smote the sledded Polacks on the ice. night?

'Tis strange. Ber. I have seen nothing:

Mar. Thus, twice before, and jumps at this dead Mar. Horatio says, 'tis but our fantasy ;

hour, And will not let belief take hold of him,

With martial stalk hath he gone by our watch. Touching this dreadful sight, twice seen of us;

Hor. In what particular thought to work, I know Therefore I have entreated him along

Rot;'
With us to watch the minutes of this night; But, in the gross and scope of mine opinion,
That, if again this apparition come,

This bodes some strange eruption to our state.
He may approve our eyes, and speak to it. Mar. Good now, sit down, and tell me, he that
Hor. Tush! tush! 'will not appear.

knows, Ber.

Sit down awhile : Why this same strict and most observant watch And let us once again assail your ears,

So nightly toils the subject of the land! That are so fortified against our story,

And why such daily cast of brazen cannon, What we two nights have seen.

And foreign mart for implements of war; Hor.

Well, sit we down, Why such impress of shipwrights, whose sore task And let us hear Bernardo speak of this.

Does not divide the Sunday from the week: Ber. Last night of all,

What might be toward, that this sweaty haste When yon same star, that's westward from the pole, Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day; Had made his course to illume that part of heaven Who is’t, that can inform me? Where now it burns, Marcellus, and myself,

Hor.

That can I ; The bell then beating one,

At least, the whisper goes so. Our last king, Mar. Peace, break thce off; look, where it comes / Whose image even but now appear'd to us, again!

Was, as you know, by Fortinbras of Norway, Enter Ghost.

Thereto prick'd on by a most emulate pride, Ber. In the same figure like the king that's dead. Dar'd to the combat ; in which our valiant Hamlet, Mar. Thou art a scholar, speak to it, Horatio.* (Por so this side of our known world esteem'd him,) Ber. Looks it not like the king? mark it, Horatio. Did slay this Fortinbras; who, by a seal'd compact, Hor. Most like :—it harrows me with 'fear, and Well ratified by law and heraldry, wonder.

Did forfeit with his life, all those his lands, Ber. It would be spoke to.

Which he stood seiz'd of, to the conqueror . Mar.

Speak to it, Horatio. Against the which, a moiety competent Hör. What art thou, that usurp'st this time of Was gaged by our king: which had return'd night,

To the inheritance of Fortiribras, Together with that fair and warlike form

Had he been vanquisher; as, by the same co-mart, In which the majesty of buried Denmark

And carriage of the article design'd, 10

Fortinbras, Did sometimes inarch? by Heaven I charge thee, His fell to Hamlet :. Now, sir, young speak.

of unimproved mettle hot and full, i Mar. It is offended.

in the time of Shakspeare. So in Chapman's May longed equally to both, and so signified partners :: Day, 1611 :this partnership led to contests; and hence the word Your appointment was jumpe at three with me.' came to signify persons contending to the same object. Thou bendest neither one way nor lother, but art even

To approve or confirm. "Ratum habere aliquid.' jumpe stark naught.'--Baret, B. 436. - Baret.

7 That is, 'what particular train of thought to follow, 2 It was a vulgár notion that a supernatural being I know not,' &c. The first quarto reads :could only be spoken to with effect by persons of learn.

In what particular to work I know not.' ing; exorcisms being usually practised by the clergy in 8. To impress signifies only to retain shipwrights by Latin. Toby, in The Night Walker of Beaumont and giving them prest money for holding themselves in reaFletcher, says :

diness to be employed. Thus in Chapman's second "Let's call the butler up, for he speaks Lalin, book of Homer's Odyssey S And that will daunt the devil.'

'I from the people straight will press for you, 3 The first quarto reads, it horrors me." To harrou Free roluntaries.' is to distress, to vex, to disturb. To harry and to hurass See King Lear, Ac iv. Sc. 2; and Blount's Glossogra have the same origin, from the Gothic haer, an armed phy, in v. presi. force. Milton has the word in Comus:

9 Co-mart is the reading of the quarto of 1604 ; the * Amaz'd I stood, harrouo'd with grief and fear.' folio reads, covenant. Co-mart, it is presumed, means 4 Parle, the same as parley, a conference between a joint bargain. No other instance of the word is enemies.

known. 5 l. e. the sledged Polander ; Polaque, Fr. The old 10 i. e. ' and import of that article marked out, as. copy reads Pollar. Malone therefore ihinks that Shak. signed or appointed for that purpose. Designed is here speare wrote Polacks, not considering that it was in a used in the sense designatus, Lat. parley, and that a general slaughter was hardly likely 11 The first quarto reads, 'Or unapproved." or unto ensue. Mr. Boswell suggests that it is just possible improved meule hot and sull;' i. e. of unimpeached or the old reading may be right, pole-ur being put for the unquestioned courage. To improve anciently signified person who carried the pole-are, a mark of rank among to impeach, to impugn. Thus Florio: "Improbare, to the Muscovites, as he has shown from Milton's Brief improove, to impugn. The French have still improuHistory of Museovy.

der, with the same meaning; from improbare, Lat. 6 Jump. So the quarto of 1603, and that of 1604. Numerous instances of improre in this sense, may be The folio reads jusl. 'Jump and just were synonymous' found in the writings of Shakspeare's time. And yes

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Hath in the skirts of Norway, here and there, Hor. 'Tis here!
Shark'd' up a list of landless resolutes,

Mar. 'Tis gone!

[Esit Ghost. For food and diet, to some enterprise

We do it wrong, being so majestical, That hath a stomach” in't: which is no other, To offer it the show of violence; (As it doth well appear unto our state,)

For it is, as the air, invulnerable, 1? But to recover of us, by strong hand,

And our vain blows malicious mockery. And terms compulsory, those 'foresaid lands Ber. It was about to speak, when the cock crew, So by his father lost : And this, I take it,

Hor. And then it started like a guilty thing Is the main motive of our preparations ;

Upon a fearful summons. I have heard,
The source of this our watch; and the chief head The cock, that is the trumpet of the morn,"
or this post-haste and romage in the land. Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat

4 (Ber. I think, it be no other, but even so: Awake the god of day; and at his warning,
Well may it sort, that this portentous figure Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air,
Comes armed through our watch ; so like the king The extravagant and erringl4 spirit hies
That was, and is, the question of these wars. To his confine : and of the truth herein

Hor. A mote it is, to trouble the mind's eye. This present object made probation.
In the most high and palmy? state of Rome, Mar. It faded on the crowing of the cock.us
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,

Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets. This bird of dawning singeth all night long : *

And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad; As, stars with trains of fire and dews of blood, The nights are wholesome: then no planets strike, Disasters in the sun; and the moist star, No fairy takes, 16 nor witch hath power to charm, Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands, So hallow'd and so gracious!' is the time. Was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse.

Hor. So I have heard, and do in part believe it. And even the like precurse of fierce events, But look, the morn,'' in russet mantle clad, As harbingers preceding still the fates,

Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill : And prologue io the omen'0 coming on,

Break we our watch up; and, by my advice, Have heaven and earth together demonstrated Let us impart what we have seen to-night Unto our climatures and countrymen.-)

Unto young Hamlet : for, upon my life,

This spirit, dumb to us, will speak to him:
Re-enter Ghost.

Do you consent we shall acquaint him with it,
Bu, soft; behold! lo, where it comes again! As needful in our loves, fitting our duty ?
I'll cross it, though it blast me.!!-Stay, illusion ! Mar. Let's do't, I pray; and I this morning know
If thou hast any sound, or use of voice,

Where we shall find him most convenient. (Ereutil Speak to me: If there be any good thing to be done,

SCENE II. The same. A Room of State in the

same. That may to thee do ease, and grace to me,

Enter the King, Queen, HAMLET, PoloSpeak to me:

NIUS, LAERTES, VOLTIMAND, CORNELIUS, If thou art privy to thy country's fate,

Lords, and Attendants. Which, happily, foreknowing, may avoid,

King. Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother's O, speak!

death Or, if thou hast uphoarded in thy life

The memory be green; and that it us befitted Extorted treasure in the womb of earth,

To bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom For which, they say, you spirits oft walk in death, To be contracted in one brow of wo;

[Cock crows. Yet so far hath discretion fought with nature, Speak of it :--stay, and speak.–Stop it, Marcellus. That we with wisest sorrow ihink on him, Mar. Shall I strike at it with my partisan ? Together with remembrance of ourselves. Hor. Do, if it will not stand.

Therefore our sometime sister, now our queen, 'Tis here!

have been occasioned by witchcraft, is the following: Johnson explaing it, 'full of spirit, noe regulated or — On Friday there appeared a talí man, who lwice guided by knowledge or experience,' and has been crossed him swiftly ; and when the earl came to the hitherto uncontradicted.

place where he saw this man he fell sick.'-Lodge's I i. e. snapped up or taken up hastily. Scroccare Nustrutions of English History, vol. iii. p. 48. is properly to do any thing at another man's cost, lo Johnson remarks that the speech of Horatio to the shark or shift for any thing. Scroccolone, a cunning spectre is very elegant and noble, and congtuo us to the shifter or sharker for any thing in time of need, namely common traditions of the causes of apparitions. for victuals; a tall trencher-man, shifting up and 12 Thus in Macbeth :down for belly cheer.' The same word also signifies to As easy may'st thou the intrenchant air snap. This word has not yet lost its force in vulgar With thy keen sword impress.' conversation.

And in King John :2 Stomach is used for determined purpose.

Against the invulnerable clouds of heaven 3 Romage, now spelt rummage, and in common use 13 • And now the cocke, the morning's trumpeter, as a verb, though not as a substantive, for making a Play'd hunts-up for the day-star to appear.' thorough ransack or search, a busy and tumultuous

Dragi ton. movement.

14 "The ertravagant and erring spirit. Ez tra-reAll the lines within crotchets in this play are omit- gans, wandering about, going beyond bounds. Thus in ted in the folio of 1623. The title-pages of the quartos Othello :

-To an extraragant and wheeling stranger of 1604 and 1605 declare this play to be "enlarged to -Erring is erraticus, straying or roving up and down almost as much againe as it was, according to the true 15 This is a very ancient superstition. Philostratus, and perfect copie.'

giving an account of the apparition of Achilles' shade co 5 l. e. fall in with the idea of, suit, accord.

Apollonius of Tyanna, says, that it vanished with a 6 i. e. theme, or subject.

little gleam as soon as the cock crowed.' There is a 7 i. e. victorious; the palm being the emblem of vic- Hymn of Prudentius, and another of St. Ambrose, in tory. Chapman, in his Middle Temple Masque, has which it is mentioned ; and there are some lines in the high-pruni'd hearts.'

latter very much resembling Horatio's speech. Mr. 8 A line or more is here supposed to be lost.

Douce has given them in his Illustrations of Shak. 9 i. e. the moon.

speare. Not that night-wand'rin: pale and watry star.' 16 i. e. no fairy blasts, or strikes. Thus in the

Marloue's Hero and Leander. Merry Wives of Windsor, Act iv. Sc.4:10 Omen is here put by a figure of speech for pre- And there he blasts the tree and takes the cattle dicled erent.

See note on that passage. 11 The person who crossed the spot on which a spectre 17 It has already been observed that gracious is some was seen, became subject to its malignant influence. times used by Shakspeare for graced, favoured. Vide Among the reasons for supposing the death of Ferdi- note on As You Like It, Act. i. Sc 2. nand, Earl of Derby, (who died young, in 1594,) to 18 First quarto, “sun'

Ber.

10

seems.

12

The imperial jointress of this warlike state, | From whence though willingly I came to Denmark,
Have we, as 't were, with a defeated joy,- To show my duty in your coronation;
With one auspicious, and one dropping eye;'. Yet now, I'must confess, that duty done,
With mirth in funeral, and with dirge in marriage, My thoughts and wishes bend again toward France,
In equal scale weighing delight and dole,

And bow them to your gracious leave and pardon. Taken to wife: nor have we herein barr'd

King. Have you your father's leave? What says Your better wisdoms, which have freely gone

Polonius? With this affair along :-For all our thanks. Pol. He hath, my lord, (wrung from me my slow Now follows, that you know, young Fortinbras, –

leave, Holding a weak supposal of our worth;

By laboursome petition; and, at last, Or thinking by our late dear brother's death, Upon his will I seald my hard consent:) Our state io be disjoint and out of frame, I do beseech you, give him leave to go. Colleagued with this dream of his advantage, King. Take thy fair hour, Laertes, time be thine, He hath not fail'd to pester us with message, And thy best graces spend it at thy will. — Importing the surrender of those lands

But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son, Lost by his father, with all bands- of law,

Ham. A little more than kin, and less than kind." To our most valiant brother. So much for him.

(Aside. Now for ourself, and for this time of meeting. King. How is it that the clouds still hang on you? Thus much the business is: We have here writ Ham. Not so, my lord, I am too much i'ihe sun.' To Norway, uncle of young Fortinbras,

Queen. Good Hamlet, cast thy nighted colour off, Who, impotent and bed-rid, scarcely hears And let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark. of this his nephew's purpose, -10 suppress Do not, for ever, with thy vailed lids'ı His further gait herein; in that the levies, Seek for thy noble father in the dust : The lists, and full proportions, are all made Thou know'st, 'tis common; all, that live, must die, Out of his subject :-and we here despatch Passing through nature to eternity. You, good Cornelius, and you, Voltimand,

Ham. Ay, madam, it is common. For bearers of this greeting to old Norway;

Queen.

If it be, Giving to you no further personal power

Why seems it so particular with thee? To business with the king, more than the scope Ham. Seems, madam! nay, it is; I know not Of these related articles allow. Farewell; and let your haste commend your duty. 'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, Cor. Vol. In thai, and all things, will we show Nor customary suits of solemn black, our duty.

Nor windy suspiration of forc'd breath, King. We doubt it nothing; heartily farewell. No, nor the fruitful river in the eye,

[Ereunt VoLTIMAND and CORNELIUS. Nor the dejected haviour of the visage, And now, Laertes, what's the news with you? Together with all forms, modes, shows of grief, You told us of some suit ; What is'ı, Laertes ? That can denote me truly: These, indeed, seem, You cannot speak of reason to the Dane,

For they are actions that a man might play; And lose your voice: What would'st thou beg, But I have that within, which passeth show; Laertes,

These but the trappings and the suits of wo." That shall not be my offer, not thy asking ?

King. 'Tis sweet and commendable in your naThe head is not more native to the heart,

ture, Hamlet, The hand more instrumental to the mouth, To give these mourning duties to your father: Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father.” But you must know your father lost a father ; What would'st thou have, Laertes ?

That father lost, lost his ; 13 and the survivor bound Laer.

My dread lord, In filial obligation, for some term.
Your leave and favour to return to France ;
I Thus the folio. The quarto reads :

8 In the first quarto this passage stands thus:· With an auspicious and a dropping eye.' * King. With all our heart, Laertes, fare thee well. The same thought occurs in The Winter's Tale :- Laeri. I in all love and dutie take my leave. [Exit." * She had one eye declined for the loss of her husband, The king's speech may be thus explained :- Take an another elerxited that the oracle was fulfilled.' There is an old proverbial phrase, “ To laugh with one eye, thy best virtues guide thee in spending of it at thy will.

auspicious hour, Laertes ; be your time your own, and and cry with the other.?

Johnson thought that we should read, 'And my best 2 i. e. gries. 3 i. e. united to this strange fancy of, &c.

graces.' The editors had rendered this passage doubly 4 The folio reads, bonds; but bands and bonds sig obscure by erroneously placing a colon at graces. nified the same thing in the poet's time.

9 'A little more than kin, and less than kind.' This 5 Gait here signifies course, progress. Gait for passage has baffled the commentators, who are at issue road, way, path, is still in use in the north. We have about its meaning; but have none of them rightly ex. this word again in A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act plained it. A contemporary of the poet will lead us to

its true meaning. A little more ihan kin has been v. Sc. 2 :Every fairy takes his gait.'

rightly said to allude to the double relationship of the 6 The folio reads, . More than the scope of these king to Hamlet, as uncle and step-father, his kindrea dilated articles allow. I have not scrupled to read re- by blood and kindred by marriage. By less than kind lated, upon the authority of the first quarto, as more in. Hamlet means degenerate and base.' "Going out of telligible. Malone says, "the poet should have written kinde, (says Barei, which goeth out of kinde, which allows;' buc the grammar and practice of Shakspeare's dothe or worketh dishonour to his kindred. Degener; age was not strict in the concordance of plural and sinforlignant.-Alvearie, K. 59. 'Forligner, (says Col gular in noun and verb: and numerous examples mighe grave,) to degenerate, to grow out of kind, to differ in be adduced from his contemporaries to prove this. The conditions with his ancestors. That less than kind and question is, Are the writers of that time to be cried by out of kind have the same meaning, who can doubt? modern rules of grammar, with which they were not

10 It is probable that a quibble is intended between sun. acquainted ? Steevens, with a sweeping assertion,

The old spelling is sonne. which no one conversant with MSS. of the time will 11 i. e. with eyes cast down. atlow, would auribute all such inaccuracies to illiterate

Vail your regard transcribers or printers. We have Malone's assertion, Upon a wrong'd, I'd fain have said a maid.' that such errors are to be met with in almost every

Measure for Measure, vol. I, page of the first folio. The first quarto reads :

12 “My grief lies all within,
-no further personal power

And these external manners of lament
To business with the king

Are merely shadows to the unseen grief,
Than those related articles do sheu.

That swells with silence in the tortur'd soul 7 The various parts of the body enumerated are not

King Richard II. more allied, more necessury to each other, than the 13 i. e. your father lost a father, (your grandfather, throne of Denmark (i. e. the king) is bound to your which lost grandfather also lost his father. The first Lacber to do him servico.

quarto reads, “That father dead, lost his '

and son.

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ever.

To do obsequious sorrow. But to persevere Or that the Everlasting had not fix'd
In obstinate condolement,o is a course

His canon' gainst self-slaughter! 0, God. O, Of impious stubbornness; 'tis unmanly grief:

God!
It shows a will most incorrect to heaven ;) How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable
A heart unfortified, or mind impatient;

Seem to me all the uses of this world!
An understanding simple and unschool'd :

Fie on't! O, fie! 'tis an urweeded garden For what, we know, must be, and is as common That grows to seed; things rank, and gross in na As any the most vulgar thing to sense,

ture, Why should we, in our peevish opposition, Possess it merely." That it should come to this! Take it to heart? Fie! 'tis a fault w heaven, But two months dead !--nay, not so much, not two. A fault against the dead, a fault to nature, So excellent a king; that was, to this, To reason most absurd ; whose common theme Hyperion'? to a satyr: so loving to my mother, Is death of fathers, and who still hath cried, That he might not beteem's the winds of heaven From the first corse, till he that died to-day, Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth! This must be so. We pray you, throw to carth Must I remember? why, she would hang on him, This unprevailing* wo; and think of us

As if increase of appeute had grown As of a father: for let the world take note, By what it fed on : And yet, within a month, You are the most immediate to our throne; Let me not think on't ;--Frailty, thy name is wo And with no less nobility of love,

man! Than that which dearest father bears his son, A little month; or ere those shoes were old, Do I impart toward you. For your intent

With which she follow'd my poor father's body, n going back to school in Wittenberg,

Like Niobe, all tears ;-why she, even she, at is most retrograde to our desire :

O, heaven! a beast, that wants discourse of reason," And, we beseech you, bend' you to remain Would have mourn'd longer,-married with my Here, in the cheer and comfort of our eye,

uncle, Our chiefest courtier, cousin, and our son, My father's brother; but no more like my father, Queen. Let not thy mother lose her prayers, Than I to Hercules: Within a month ; Hamlet;

Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tears I pray thee, stay with us, go not to Wittenberg. Had left the Aushing in her galled eyes, Ham. I shall in all my best obey you, madam. She married :-0, most wicked speed, to post

King. Why, 'tis a loving and a fair reply ; With such dexterity to incestuous sheets ! Be as ourself in Denmark. -Madam, come ; It is not, nor it cannot come to, good ; This gentle and unforc'd accord of Hamlet But break, my heart: for I must hold my tongue ! Sits smiling to my heart: in grace whereof

Enter Horatio, BERNARDO, and MARCELLUS. No jocund health, that Denmark drinks to-day,

Hor. Hail to your lordship!
But the great cannon to the clouds shall tell;
And the king's rouse® the heaven shall

bruit again, Horatio, -—or I do forget myself.
Ham,

I am glad to see you well; Respeaking earthly thunder.

Come away.
(Exeunt King, Queen, Lords, fo. Polo-

Hor. The same, my lord, and your poor servant
Nius, and LAERTES.
Ham. O, that this too too solid flesh would melt,

Ham. Sir, my good friend ; I'll change that name

with you. Thaw, and resolve' itself into a dew!

1 Obsequious sorrow is dutiful, observant sorrow. regelo,—The snow is resolved and melted. To till the Shakspeare seems to have used ihis word generally ground, and resolve it into dust.?--Cooper. This is with an allusion to obsequies, or funeral riles

another word in a Latin sense ; but it is not peculiar to 2 Condolement for grief.

Shakspeare. 3. It shows a will most undisciplined towards hea.

10 The old copy reads, cannon; but this was the old veri.'

spelling of canon, a law or decree. 4 Unprerailing was used in the sense of unarailing

11 i. e. absolutely, solely, wholly. Mere, Lat. as late as Dryden's time, He may often prevail himself

12 Hyperion, or Apollo, always represented as a of the same advantages in English.'—Essay on Dra. model of beauty. matic Poetry, 1st ed.

13 i. e. deign to allow. This word being of uncommon * And dyvers noble victoryes, as the history doth ex. occurrence, it was changed to permitted by Rowe; and press,

to let e'en by Theobalu. Steevens had the merit of That he atchyved to the honour of the town,

pointing out the passage in Golding's Ovid, which Could not him prevayle whan Fortune lyst to frown." seules its meaning :Metrical Visions by G. Cavendish, p. 81.

Yet could he not be teeme 5 This was a common form of figurative expression. The shape of any other bird than egle for to seeme? The Ghost, describing his affection for the Queen,

nulla tamen alite verti says:

Dignatur, nisi quæ possit sua fulmine ferre.' "To me, whose love was of that dignity,' Rowe has an elegant imitation of this passage : 6 I. e. dispense, beslow. Thus Dryden :

'I thought the gentlest breeze that wakes the spring High state and honours to others impart,

Too rough to breathe upon her.'.
But give me your heart.'

The word occurs again in A Midsummer Night's 7 To bend is to incline. "The moste parte bende to, Dream, Act i. Sc. 2. &c. : In hoc consilium maxime inclinani,' &c.- Barel. 14 'Oh heaven! a beast that wants discourse of 8 The quarto of 1603 reads :

reason.' Mr. Gifford, in a note on Massinger, vol. I. * The rouse the king shall drink unto the prince.' p. 149, is of opinion that we should read, 'discourse and A touse appears to have been a deep draught to the reason. It has, however, been shown by several quo health of any one, in which it was customary to empty tations that « discourse of reason' was the phraseology the glass or vessel. Ils etymology is uncertain; but I of Shakspeare's time ; and, indeed, the poet again uses suspect it to be only an abridgment of carouse, which is the same language in Troilus and Cressida, ad ii. Sc. 2: used in the same senge. See Peacham’s Complete

is your blood Gentleman, 1627, p. 194.

So madly hot, that no discourse of reason Carouse, seems to have come to us from the French,

can qualify the same." who again appear to have derived it from the German In the language of the schools, Discourse is that gar-auss, to drink all out : at least so we may judge rational act of the mind by which we deduce or infer one from the following passage in Rabelais, B. iji. Prologue: I thing from another.' Discourse of reason therefore -Enfans, beuvez a plein godets. Si bon ne vous may mean ratiocination. Brutes have rot this reason. semble, laissez le. Je ne suis de ces importuna lifre. ing faculty, though they have wha: bas been called lofres, qui par force, rar outrage, a violence con- instinct and memory. Hamlet opposes the discursite traigneni les gentils compagnons trinquer, boire caraus, power of the intelleci of men to the instinct of brutes in et allauz.'

Act iv. Sc. 4, which may tend to elucidate nis present The reader may consult Mr. Gifford's Massinger, meaning, if the reader has any doubts. The first quarto sol i. p. 240.

reads, a beast devoid of reason.' We have discourse 9 To resolve had anciently the same meaning as to of thought, for the discursive range of thought, ia dissolre * To thaw or resolve that which is frozen ; | Othello, Aci ir. Sc. 2

6

dent;

And what make you' from Wittenberg, Horatio ?- Hor. My lord, upon the platform where we Marcellus ?

watch'd. Mar. My good lord,

Ham. Did you not speak to it? Ham. I am very glad to see you ; good even, sir. Hor.

My lord, I did.' But what, in faith, make you from Wittenberg?" But answer made it none; yet once, methought,

Hor. A truant disposition, good my lord. It lifted up its head, and did address

Ham. I would not hear your enemny say so: Itself to motion, like as it would speak; Nor shall you do mine ear that violence,

But, even then, the morning cock crew loud ; a To make it truster of your own report

And at the sound it shrunk in haste away,
Against yourself: I know you are no truant. And vanish'd from our sight.
But what is your affair in Elsinore?

Ham.

'Tis very strange. We'll teach you to drink deep ere you depart. Hor. As I do live, my honour'd lord, 'tis true; Hor. My lord, I came to see your father's fune- And we did think it writ down in our duty, ral.

To let you know of it. Ham. I pray thee, do not mock me, fellow stu- Ham. Indeed, indeed, sirs, but this troubles me,

Hold you the watch to-night I think, it was to see my mother's wedding.

AU.

We do, my lord. Hor. Indeed, my lord, it follow'd hard upon. Ham. Arm’d, say you? Ham. Thrift, thrift, Horatio! the funeral bak'd AU.

Arm'd, my lord. meats 2

Ham.

From top to toe ? Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.

AU. My lord, from head to foot. 'Would, I had met my dearest foe in heaven, Ham.

Then saw you not Or* ever I had seen that day, Horatio !

His face. My father, --Methinks, I see my father.

Hor. O, yes, my lord; he wore his beaver up. Hor.

Where, Ham. What, look'd he frowningly? My lord ?

Hor.

A countenance moro Ham. In my mind's eye, Horatio.

In sorrow than in anger.
Hor. I saw him once, he was a goodly king. Ham,

Pale, or red ?
Ham. He was a man, take him for all in all, Hor. Nay, very pale.
I shall not look upon his like again.

Ham.

And fix'd his eyes upon you ? Hor. My lord, I think I saw him yesternight. Hor. Most constantly. Ham. Saw! who?

Ham.

I would, I had been there, Hor. My lord, the king your father.

Hor. It would have much amaz'd you.
Ham.
The king my father? Ham.

Very like,
Hor. Season your admiration for a while Very like: Stay'd it long?
With an attent ear; till I may deliver,

Hor. While one with moderate haste might tell Upon the witness of these gentlemen,

a hundred. This marvel to you.

Mar. Ber. Longer, longer. Ham.

For God's love, let me hear. Hor. Not when I saw it. Hor. Two nights together had these gentlemen, Ham.

His beard was grizzled ? no? Marcellus and Bernardo, on their watch,

Hor. It was as I have seen it in his life,
In the dead waste and middle of the night, A sable silver'd.10
Been thus encounter’d. A figure like your father, Ham.

I will watch to-night ;
Armed to point, exactly, cap-à-pé,

Perchance, 'twill walk again. Appears before them, and, with solemn march, Hor.

I warrant you, it will. Goes slow and stately by them: thrice he walk'd, Ham. If it assume my noble father's person, By their oppress'd and fear-surprised eyes, I'll speak to it, though hell itself should

gape, Within his truncheon's length ; whilst they, distill?d? And bid me hold my peace. I pray you all, Almost to jelly with the act of fear,

If you have hitherto conceal'd this sight,
Stand dumb, and speak not to him. This to me Let it be tenabled in your silence still ;
In dreadful secrecy impart they did ;

And whatsoever else shall hap to-night,
And I with them, the third night kept the watch ; Give it an understanding, but no tongue ;
Where, as they had deliver'd, both in time, I will requite your loves : So, fare you well:
Form of the thing, each word made true and good, Upon the platform, 'twixt eleven and twelve,
The apparition comes ; I knew

your father; These hands are not more like.

AU. Our duty to your honour. Ham. .

But where was this? Ham. Your loves, as mine to you: Farewell.

(Exeunt HORATIO, MARCELLUS, and BERNARDO 1 i. e. what do you. Vide note ou Love's Labour's Lost, Act iv. Sc. 3.

tending a quibble here between waist and waste. There 2 It was anciently the custom to give an entertain. appears to be nothing incongruous in the expression ; on ment at a funeral. The usage was derived from the the contrary, by 'the dead waste and middle of the Roman cana funeralis; and is not yet disused in night,' I think, we have a forcible image of the void the North, where it is called an arvel supper.

stillness of midnight. 3 See note on Twelfth Night, Act v. Sc. 1.

7 The folio reads, bestill’d. 4 This is the reading of the quarto of 1604. The first

It is a most inimitable circumstance in Shakspeare quarto and the folio read, 'Ere I had ever.'

so to have managed this popular idea, as 10 make the bimself behind

Ghost, which has been so long obstinately silent, and of Was left unseen, save to the eye of mind.' course must be dismissed by the morning, begin or ra. Rape of Lucrece. ther prepare to speak, and to be interrupted at the very

Another poet, Chaucer has the expression in his Man of Lawe's critical time by the crowing of a cock. Tale :

according to custom, would have suffered his ghost • But it were with thilke eyen of his mind, lamely lo vanish, without contriving this start, which is

Which men mowen see whan they ben blinde.' like a start of guilt: to say nothing of the aggravation And Ben Jonson, in his Masque of Love's Triumphs :- of the future suspense occasioned by this preparation to

As only by the mind's eye may be seen.' speak, and to impart some mysterious secret. Less And Richard Rolle, in his Speculum Vita, MS. speak. would have been expected if nothing had been proing of Jacob's Dream :

mised.-T. Warlon. • That Jacob sawe with gostly eye.'

9 That part of the helmet which may be lifted up, 1. e. the eye of the mind or spirit.

Mr. Douce has given representations of the beaver, and 6 The first quarto, 1603, has :

other parts of a helmet, and fully explained them in his In the dead past and middle of the night.' Illustrations, vol. I. p. 443. suffer the following note to stand as I had written it 10 'And sable curls all silver'd o'er with white.' previous to the discovery of that copy.

Srakspeare's Twelfth Sonnel. We have that rast of night' in The Tempest, Act i. 11 The quarto of 1603 reads tenible. The other quar Sc. 2. Shakspeare has been unjustly accused of in- los, tenable. The folio of 1623 trevle

I'll visit you.

5

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