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Ignibus inponit sacris, libamina prima,
head of the victim and the throwing of Cerda in the same note, that of first strikthem into the fire as drapxal is a Homericing the victims down with an axe or club, custom, Od. 3. 445, tomà s' 'Aohun Eóxet' afterwards cutting their throats, a process απαρχόμενος, κεφαλής τρίχας εν πυρί βάλ. which seems to have required two persons, Awv, from which we see also that prayers according to a passage from Dionys. Hal. were made during the process, as in v. 247. 7. 72, quoted by Cerda, overv TỐTE tois *Saetae' of the hair of oxen 7. 790. υπηρέταις αυτά εκέλευον. των δε οι μεν,
216.] • Libamina prima, åtapxal, as εστώτος έτι του θύματος, σκυτάλη τους “libare' is used of pouring out or taking κροτάφους έπαιον" οι δε πίπτοντος υπετί. away the first part of any thing. Gell. in detav tds opayloas. Serv. says that 'suphis preface says, “ Primitias quasdam et ponere' was a sacrificial word, being of neuquasi libamenta ingenuarum artium dedi- tral signification and consequently avoiding mus.” Stat. Theb. 6. 224 has“ raptumque a bad omen : and the three last words in suis libamen ab armis Quisque iacit,” of the passage of Dionys. confirm the stateofferings on a funeral pile, each one giving ment, as they would hardly have been As it were a taste or specimen of his wea- translated from an expression found only pons. Inponit' is frequently used of in the poets. “Tepidum cruorem ’8. 106. offerings 1. 49., 4. 453.
249.) The form succipiunt' is sup247.) See on v. 245. The line is imi- ported by Pal. and fragm. Vat., Gud. a m. tated from Apoll. R. 3. 1209, &al dè peyddas 6. &c., and expressly recognized by Serv., xée 101Bàs Bpluc KUKAHOKWv 'Ekátny etap who says "antique : nam modo "susciwydv åéowv. Voce vocans' 4. 680 note. piunt' dicunt:" it has accordingly been For Hecate's attributes see on 4. 510. restored by Wagn. in later edd., here and *Caelo potentem' less strong than “Caeli 1. 175. It was evidently read by Pompotentem,' implying not sovereignty over ponius Sabinus, whose note “antiquum a place, but power in it. “Caeloque Ere- verbum est” is wrongly explained by boque' 7. 140.
Heyne as if the meaning were that the 248.] Cerda, followed by Heyne and more ordinary word would be 'excipiunt.' Forb., explains .supponunt cultros' of The object of catching the blood is said the custom of sacriticing victims to the by Donatus to be “ ne iam sacratus in gods below with their heads downwards, terram cadat." The Greek feeling would those devoted to the gods above being seem to have been just the reverse, as what sacrificed with their heads upturned, the was poured on the earth was supposed to al épvoav of Homer. For this he quotes reach the powers below. So Od. 11. 35 Myrsilus De Rebus Lesbiacis 2 (? the Ulysses cuts the throats of the sheep into passage does not occur in the remains a trench, that the shades may flock round of Myrsilus in Müller's Fragmenta Histo- it. Virg. however seems to mean that the ricorum Graecorum), ειώθασιν οι ιερείς τα blood is caught in bowls that it may be έντομα τους κάτω θεοίς εναγιζόμενα εν τη afterwards poured out, apparently on the γη αποτέμνεσθαι τας κεφαλάς: ούτω γαρ ground (3.67., 5. 78). Perhaps we may say θύουσι τοις υποχθονίοις τοις δε ουρανίοις then that this mode of offering was adopted άνω αναστρέφουσι των ιερείων τον τράχηλον as giving more solemnity to the act, and opácortes. The same words however have involving as it were a separate consecration already met us in G. 3. 492, where we of the blood apart from that of the victims. cannot suppose that a sacrifice to the in- 'Ipse :' Aeneas also acts as sacrificer, in fernal gods is specially meant. All that the Homeric fashion. Stat. Theb. 4. 445 is said is that the throat is cut from be. has “Velleris obscuri pecudes." neath, and this might be done equally well 250.] The mother of the Eumenides was whether the victims' heads were turned Night (7. 331., 12. 816, Aesch. Eum. 416 up or down-more easily indeed in the &c.), her great sister Earth, both being former case.
It is more probable that the daughters of Chaos. Comp. Hes. Theog. special reference, if any, is to another 116 foll., where however the birth of Gai (Roman ?) sacrificial custom mentioned by from Chaos is not expressly stated.
Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi, Proserpina, vaccam.
251.] So Od. 11. 30 Ulysses vows that from viscera.' Comp. Aesch. Ag. 1221, on his return to Ithaca he will sacrifice συν εντέροις τε σπλάγχν. Oil was one of to the shades, ateipav Boûv ftis åplotn. the offerings to the dead (see on v. 225), Lersch quotes from Arnob. 7. 21, “Bos si but it may have been intended merely to sterilis (caedatur] Unxiae, quam Proser- feed the fire. Emmen. refers to Schedius pinae tribuitis." Ense ferit' may possi. de Dis German. c. 29 for the statement bly be referred to striking down the vic. that oil was used for wine in sacrifices to tim, according to the distinction taken on Pluto. v. 248. Serv. has a notion that the sword 255.] • Primi sub lumina solis et ortus,' was used rather than any other weapon εν διά δυοϊν. • Primi' = 'prima,' and because, having been consecrated by the prima lumina' = ortus.' “ Lumina act, it became available for keeping the solis” 8. 69, Lucr. 1. 5. Comp. also 7. shades at a distance. “Ense ferit: 12.458. 130,“ primo cum lumine solis.” Med. and
252.]. ‘Stygio regi’ of Pluto, like “ Iovi some others have ‘limina,' an impossible Stygio” 4. 638. Nocturnas : sacrifices reading here, as Burm. remarks, though to the infernal gods were performed by it might stand in a passage where place, night, which is now going on, as we see not time, was spoken of. The description from v. 255. Cerda refers to Turnebus V. here, like parts of that which has preceded, L. 28. 44. Inchoat' is said by Serv. to is modelled on Jason's invocation of Hecate be a sacrificial word: but the only instance Apoll. R. 3. 1191–1223, where the time the commentators adduce is " delubrum in. and circumstances of the approach of the choare” Cic. (?) De Domo 51. 132. Comp. goddess are the same as here. however instauro’ 4. 63 note.
256.] Comp. 4. 490, “mugire videbis 253.] “Solida' = “integra,” as in 2. Sub pedibus terram, et descendere monti. 639: see Forc., where this sense is abun. bus ornos." See also on E. 4. 50. nioea dantly illustrated. Holocausts were offered 8'ét peue mávta Katà otilov Apoll. R. 3. to the infernal gods, Apoll. R. 3. 1033. 1217. Iuga silvarum:' the ridges are reFor 'viscera' see on G. 3. 559., 4. 302. garded as belonging to the woods which It is on this line that Serv. gives the ex. grow on them rather than vice versa. So planation there cited. •Inponere' above “iuga nemorum"11.545, “dorso nemoris” v. 246.
G. 3. 436, comp. by Forb. Seneca Nat. 254.] Modelled on Il. 11. 775, onévowv Q. 6. 13 quotes the words with “juga ayoona olvov dr' aidouévous lepoiow. All celsa,” which might stand, 'visa' being Ribbeck's MSS. give “superque :''super' understood from the next line. is found in a few copies mentioned by 257.] αμφί δε την γε (Hecate) 'Οξείη Heyne, and in the Canon. and Balliol MSS. iarn Xoávioi kúves 200éryouto, Apoll. R. The 'que' seems to have been added as a 3. 1216, which shows that the dogs here support to the verse, as apparently in 1. are infernal hounds accompanying Hecate. 668, where it is similarly found in the best Many MSS. have visi ;' but the fem. is MSS. Between 'infundens' (Med.) and more usual in a context like this: comp. fundens' (fragm. Vat., Pal., Rom., Gud., G. 1. 470. “Ululare' of dogs, as of wolves &c.) there is little or nothing to choose, 7. 18, G. 1. 486. Comp. indokw. So except on external grounds. Both 'super possibly 4. 609 (note), Nocturnisque fundo' and 'superinfundo' are found in Hecate triviis ululata per urbes." composition, though the latter appears to 258,] Procul o, procul este, profani’ is have no higher authority than Celsus. perhaps a translation of Callim. Hymn to Comp. however superinponere.' . Exta' Apollo v. 2, ékás, éxás, 8otis åAirpós. The are the entrails proper, as distinguished uninitiated were warned off at the com,
Conclamat vates, totoque absistite luco;
Di, quibus inperium est animarum, Umbraeque silentes,
Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram,
mencement of the mysteries : comp. Hor. as the most terrible of all. Mythologically 3 Od. 1. 1, and see Lobeck's Aglaophamus, Night and Erebus were children of Chaos, vol. 1, pp. 450 foll. If the words have which represents the formless void out of any distinct reference here, it must be, as which things came and into which they Wagn. points out, to the companions of were resolved. • Loca nocte tacentia late,' Aeneas, who were not to undertake the as the infernal regions are called “ loca journey with him. With ‘procul este,' as senta situ” below v. 462, “loca turbida” used rather than 'procul ite, comp. the v. 534. "Tacentia' was restored by Heins. use of abesse,' àrreivai.
from Med., Rom., and fragm. Vat. for the 260.] “ Invadere viam,' exactly the common reading "silentia,' which is found opp. of evadere viam’ 2. 731, is to enter in the margin of Med. upon a journey, set out,” Henry. Why 266.] Virg. professes to have obtained Aeneas is told to draw his sword does not his information from tradition, like Hom. appear. Ulysses does so, Od. 11. 48 foll., 1. 2. 486, queis de kéos olov åkovojev, as commanded by Circe, and thereby pre- oùdé to youev. _The second sit' is for vents the ghosts from drinking the blood liceat,' as in E. 10. 46, though it would before be chooses that they should do so : be possible to understand 'fas.” Numine,' but when Aeneas uses his sword vv. 290 as in 1. 133., 2. 777 &c., seems to have its foll. below, he is warned by the Sibyl that etymological sense of consent or 'perhe can do them no harm. “Vaginaque mission, though it might also mean aid' eripit ensem 4. 579.
or “influence.' 262.] Furens :' the arrival of Hecate 267.] • To disclose the secrets of the and the greatness of the undertaking world below.' So the Sibyl in Sil. 13. having brought back the afflatus.
790 says of Homer that he revealed to 263.] · Aequare' of keeping pace with the earth all that goes on in the shades 3. 671.
before he had seen it, “haec cuncta, prius 264–267.] Give me leave, powers of quam cerneret, ordine terris Prodidit." the dead, to tell the tale of what they saw.' 268—294.] *As they went on in the
264.] The interposition of a special in- twilight, they saw terrible monsters at the vocation is modelled on Homer's practice, infernal gate---phantoms of all things that e.g. before the catalogue of the ships. on earth make man’s life wretched. There As the commentators bave remarked, it is also a giant elm where dreams congregreatly enhances the solemnity of the pre- gate, and about the door Gorgons and sent passage. “Di, quibus inperium pe. Hydras and Chimaeras dire. Aeneas would lagi est” 5. 235. Umbrae--late' are have struck at them with his sword, had vocatives co-ordinate with Di,' not, as not the Sibyl told him they were mere they might possibly be, nominatives co- spectres.' ordinate with inperium,' though loca' 268.] A few MSS. (including Gud. a m. is perhaps rather awkward of things ad- p.) give obscura solì,' which, as Heyne dressed as persons. • Umbrae' are the remarks, would be the more ordinary disghosts, who are called “silentes ” below v. tribution of the epithets. Obscurus’ of 432 without a substantive.
persons concealed 2. 135, G. 4. 424. For 265.] • Chaos' is classed with Erebus 4. solus' applied to things where persons 510, as here with ‘Phlegethon' (vv. 550 are really thought of, comp. G. 3. 249; foll.), singled out from the infernal rivers though in each case there is of course a
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna:
certain propriety in the epithet as applied ubi passim Palantis error certo de tramite to the thing. Heins. restored ‘umbram' pellit.” for 'umbras' (Gud. a m. s. &c.).
272.] 'Iuppiter,' as the god of the sky, 269.] Vacuas' and 'inania' both give E. 7. 60. * Colorem :' the early comthe notion of empty space, indicating that mentators discuss this doctrine of the rethe mansions of the dead are capable of moval of colour by night. Serv. says receiving all comers, and that their pre- “Hoc et videmus, et tractatur ab Epicureis, sent inmates are unsubstantial, so that rebus tollere noctem colorum varietatem : earthly travellers there would feel a sense of unde et apud inferos omnia nigra esse didesolation, the same which has been al- cuntur. Contra hos Academici una reready expressed by ‘sola sub nocte.' Hom. pugnant: nam squamas piscium lucere per makes the unburied Patroclus say aar' noctem comprobatur." Comp. the exposiαύτως αλάλημαι αν’ ευρυπυλές 'Αϊδος δω, tion of Lucr. 2. 730-841. Il. 23. 74. With ‘inania regna' Taubm. 273.] “ Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque well comp. “ domus exilis Plutonia” Hor. in limine” 2. 469, where see note on the 1 Od. 4. 17. "Locus inanis” is applied meaning of vestibulum.' • Primis fauci. to Avernus by Lucr. 6. 832 in a different bus' is distinguished from vestibulum sense, the inability of the birds to exist by Gell. 16.5, who reports Sulpicius Apol. there being accounted for by the supposi- linaris as explaining it as " iter angustum, tion that there is no atmosphere.
per quod ad vestibulum adiretur;" but it 270.] 'Per incertam lunam' answers to would seem more simple to understand per umbram,' v. 268, sub luce maligna' the two expressions as poetically equivato sola sub nocte.' The moonlight is lent. Comp. G. 4.467, “Taenarias fauces, looked upon as a medium through which alta ostia Ditis." Orcus, the god of the they pass. Comp. 2. 255, “per amica dead, is here as elsewhere used for the silentia lunae,” ib. 340 “ oblati per lunam,” place, like "A18ns. Donatus remarks of though in both cases the expression is the assemblage of personified evils that somewhat less harsh : see also G. 4. 59, follows, “ In hoc erant omnia quae cruciant “nare per aestatem liquidam.” Henry is vivos aut defunctos affligunt.” Germ, re. rather hypercritical in objecting to the fers very happily to a bold personification ordinary view of 'incertam lunam' as in Lucr. 3. 65 foll., which not improbably "the struggling moonbeam's misty light,” suggested this mythological picture to like “incertos soles” 3. 203, though the Virg., and at any rate furnishes an admiraepithet doubtless includes the sense which ble comment on it: he maintains, ‘unsure, not to be depended on,' a general attribute of moonlight as “Turpis enim ferme contemptus, et acris compared with sunlight. Serv. mentions egestas a reading “inceptam,' still found in some Semota ab dulci vita stabilique videntur, MSS., and apparently supported by Dona- Et quasi iam leti portas cunctarier tus, who explains “in ipsis initiis positam," ante." though Serv. thinks the two words mean the same thing, as it must be the new We may well be reminded also of such moon that is spoken of. “Maligna' churl- passages as Psalm lxxxviii. 2 foll., “For ish or niggardly, as in G. 2. 179.
my soul is full of trouble, and my life 271.] “ In silvis,' quae etiam exiguum draweth nigh unto hell. . . Free among the illud lucis sua densitate possunt eripere.” dead, like unto them that are wounded Donatus. There is also of course a refer- and lie in the grave, who are out of reence to the difficulty of picking one's way membrance, and are cut away from thy where there is no road. Comp. the de. hand.” scription of Nisus and Euryalus 9. 381 274.] ‘Luctus' is half personified 2. follo: also Hor. 2 S. 3. 48, * velut silvis, 369. Ultrices Curae' seems rightly ex.
Pallentesque habitant Morbi, tristisque Senectus, 275
In medio ramos annosaque bracchia pandit
plained by Serv. of the stings of conscience. why they are represented here among the The commentators refer to the well-known guardians of the gate. It has been replied passage in Juv. 13. 192 foll.
that the Furies may be distinguished from 275.] “Subeunt morbi tristisque senec- the Eumenides—that the meaning may be tus, Et labor et durae rapit inclementia that they sleep here, but work elsewhere mortis” G. 3. 67.
-a view somewhat favoured by the form 276.] •Malesuadus' occurs in Plaut.: of expression, which speaks of their chamsee Forc. The sense is not unlike that bers, not of themselves, though it would which is sometimes borne by inprobus' naturally stand for the Furies and their in Virg., e.g. 2. 80, 356. Comp. Hom.'s chambers—that Virg. has been inconsislanguage about the stomach Od. 17. 286 tent, perhaps following different legends. foll. Turpis' seems to refer to physical Either of the two latter views seems prounsightliness. * Ac' was restored by bable. Virg. however has doubtless an Heins. for et.'
object in placing the Furies on the thres277.] “ Horribili visu portenta ” 11. hold, which seems to have been their seat 271. Letum’appears as if strictly speak- (see on v. 563 below), and there is someing it ought not to have been placed be thing of the same inconsistency in his lanfore the gates of Orcus: but it is regarded guage about the Hydra, vv. 287, 576. as one of the many human ills. Labos' The • thalami’ are chambers, compared was restored by Heins. forLabor.' by Heyne to the cells of the porters in
278.) As Macrob., Sat. 5. 7, points out some Roman houses (Dict. A. * Domus,' from i. 14. 231, ένθ' “Υπνη ξύμβλητο, * Ianua'). Vulcan’s ‘thalamus' is of gold, Kao iyvŕtu Oavátolo (comp. Il. 16. 682, 8. 372, where the synizesis ' aureo' illuswhere Sleep and Death carry off the dead trates “ferrei' here. Another question Sarpedon to Lycia). Mala mentis gaudia' was raised by Serv. about the propriety of i. q. 'malae mentis gaudia.' Sen. Ep. 59 the word as applied to the Furies, thalathinks the epithet an improper one, as joy mus' generally meaning a bridal chamber : is always a good thing, since none but the but Cerda shows from Ov. M. 2. 738 &c. wise can feel it. Virg. doubtless means to that it is attributed to maidens also. include evil pleasures of all kinds, as real *Discordia' had been already personified evils, the end of which is death.
by Ennius, whose words are quoted by 279.] “ Adverso in limine below v. Hor. 1 S. 4. 60. So the Homeric "Epis. 636. Here it is merely poetical surplusage, 281.] Virg. represents Discord as a saying, what has been said before, that Fury, with snakes for hair. Vipereum these figures are at the gate fronting those crinem' like “anguino capillo " Catull. 62 who wished to enter, unless we choose to (64). 193. Vipereus' occurs again 7. say with Serv. that war, being the chief 351, 753. cause of death, is placed at the threshold 282.] 'In medio' is explained by Donatus when the others are at the vestibule, or, of the impluvium,' perhaps rightly, comp. what would be the same thing, that the 2. 512 foll., where a bay treo grows in the thought is repeated in order to call special “impluvium’of Priam's palace, We must attention to the case of war. For the not however expect to be able to trace personification of War comp. 1. 294., 7. such details in the description of these 607, and see Aristoph. Peace 205 &c. vast shadowy realms, Heyne explains it 280.] The Furies are mentioned below, 'in medio vestibuli : see
v. 285. vv. 570 foll., as carrying on their work “ Ramos et bracchia tendens " G. 2. 296. within : so that it has been questioned 283.] “Opaca, ingens” 3. 619. The