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Nec minus interea Misenum in litore Teucri
Flebant, et cineri ingrato suprema ferebant.
Principio pinguem taedis et robore secto
Ingentem struxere pyram, cui frondibus atris
Intexunt latera, et feralis ante cupressos
Constituunt, decorantque super fulgentibus armis.
Pars calidos latices et aena undantia flammis
Expediunt, corpusque lavant frigentis et unguunt.

pile, &c.

application of the word to things inanimate ral trees like the yew. comp. G. 2. 236, “glaebas cunctantis." 216, 217.] “Sectaque intexunt abiete * Tecta Sibyllae' seems to be the temple. costas ” 2. 16. Cerda distinguishes 'fron

212—235.] • Meantime the Trojans were dibus atris intexunt latera' from 'feralis conducting Misenus' funeral through all ante cupressos constituunt,' making the its details. Aeneas raises a tomb over his latter refer to the custom of planting remains.'

cypresses at Rome before the doors of the 212.] “Nec minus interea” 1. 633 &c., dead (Pliny 16. 33). This however does a common form of transition in Virg. not prove that cypresses were planted beHom. generally draws the contrast between fore funeral piles, while we know on two contemporaneous actions by repeating other authority that they were used in the first in a summary form before pro- making or dressing the piles. Serv. tells ceeding to the second-ως ο μεν ... αυτάρ: us from Varro that piles were surrounded and so does Virg. sometimes, as in 1. 656 with cypresses that the smell of the burnfoll. The meaning here is that while ing wood might overpower that of the Aeneas is plucking the bough and carrying burning body, and Stat. 9. 460., 5. 54, in it to the temple, the Trojans, having passages apparently imitated from the finished hewing wood, are constructing the present, makes the cypress used in the

composition of the pile. (Sil. 10. 535 has 213.] Flebant' of funeral lamentation “maestas ad busta cupressos,” which may E. 5. 21. “ Ingrato :' tristi, ut gratum possibly support Cerda's view, as the cylaetum aliquid dicimus. Alii 'ingrato' presses are distinguished from other trees dicunt gratiam non sentienti,”Serv. Heyne, which would form a part of the pile : but after Taubm., rightly prefers the latter. the passage is too brief to build upon.) So in the Copa (attributed to Virg.) v. 35, 'Ante constituunt' will then refer to the 'Quid cineri ingrato servas bene olentia laying down or perhaps setting upright of serta ?” Heyne comp. kwohv yalay of the cypress trees or branches before the probody of Hector, Il. 24. 54. The dead cess indicated by intexunt' takes place. body is called cinis' by anticipation, as Or Heyne may be right in taking ante! Donatus remarks. Forc. quotes no in- locally, the pile being faced with trunks of stance of suprema’ for obsequies earlier cypresses. These he supposes to be used than Virg., after whose time it is frequent. for trophies, like the oak in 11. 4, in which Supremis muneribus 11. 25, “

supre- sense of course he understands the next mum honorem” ib. 61. Ferre' of offer. clause decorantque' &c.; but Forb. seems ings 3. 19 &c.

right in arguing from 11. 193 foll. that 214.] With the description of the pile the arms (whether of Misenus himself, II. comp. that of the pile of Patroclus II. 23. 6. 418, Od. 12. 13, or of enemies despoiled 163 foll. On the whole I agree with by him) are thrown on the pile. See on Wakef. and Henry in connecting 'taedis' 4. 496. with pinguem,' robore secto' with in- 218.) The washing and anointing of gentem : see on 4. 505, where taedis' Patroclus' body are described more miand • robore secto’ are also explained. nutely Il. 18. 343 foll. Undantia' with

215.] Ingentem: comp. v. 178 above. 'flammis,' as it is the process of boiling The greater the pile, the greater the honour. that is going on. Comp. Virg.'s own Patroclus' pile measured a hundred feet simile 7. 462 foll. both ways, Il. l. c.; there however many 219.) •Expediunt' 1. 178. The meanbodies of men and horses were burnt. ing is simply that they get the pots boiled, * Frondibus atris,' leafy boughs from fune. or get ready boiling water. The remainder


Fit gemitus. Tum membra toro defleta reponunt,
Purpureasque super vestes, velamina nota,
Coniiciunt. Pars ingenti subiere feretro, ,
Triste ministerium, et subiectam more parentum
Aversi tenuere facem. Congesta cremantur


of the line is from Enn. A. 3. fr. 8, “Tar- found as a variety. Forc. quotes among cuini corpus bona femina lavit et unxit,” others Cic. Div. Verr. 14, “Poterisne eius as Serv. remarks.‘Frigentis corpus' is orationis subire invidiae ?” the reading of more poetical than ‘mortui corpus' or Asconius, who comments on it, “Quasi than ‘frigidum corpus.'

Latine dixit, ut 'magno ponderi subire.' 220.] Forb. comp. Ter. And. 1. 1. 101, But the MSS. of Cic. give 'invidiam. To "ad sepulcrum venimus : In ignem inpo- carry the bier was esteemed an honour to sita est : fletur.” “Fit gemitus’ like fit the deceased among the Romans, as to strepitus” 1. 725, “ fit sonitus” 2. 209. bear the pall with us : Taubm. comp. Tac. • Defleta' like “fleti” v. 481, “deflere A. 1. 8, “ Conclamant patres, corpus having the additional force of weeping (Augusti) ad rogum humeris senatorum one's fill, as in 11.59. Toro' = ‘feretro, ferendum.” the bier being laid on the pile and burnt 223.] *Triste ministerium' is not, as with it. Comp. 4. 507, 659, where it is Heyne thought, an interjection, but a used of the lectus iugalis' which Dido cognate acc., or acc. in apposition to the has spread on the top of the pile.

action of the verb. The construction is 221.] Purple robes were used for wrap- infinitely rarer in Latin than in Greek ping the dead at great Roman funerals. (see on G. 3. 41): Forb. however comp. See among a number of testimonies in 9. 53., 10. 311., 11. 383, to which add 8. Cerda's note Livy 34. 7, “ Purpura viri 487. “Subiectam'&c. = subiecere et teutemur magistratibus in coloniis mu- nuere.'

“Subiicere' of setting fire to a nicipiisque ... togae praetextae habendae thing 2. 37., 11. 186. Cerda comp. Lucr. jus permittemus, nec id ut vivi solum 6. 1285, “subdebantque faces," of burning habeant tantum insigne, sed etiam ut cum the dead during the plague of Athens. It eo crementur mortui.” There is also some would seem from 11. 185, “huc corpora Homeric analogy for the custom. In Od. quisque suorum More tulere patrum,” that 24. 59 the ocean nymphs put immortal.more parentum' here refers to the whole garments round the dead Achilles, who is action, probably indeed to the whole proapparently burned in them: in Il. 24. 795 cess of the funeral. If it has any special foli., when Hector has been burned, his reference, it would probably be to aversi, relations collect his bones and put them in as Lersch understands it Antiqg. 9. § 86. a basket, tropoupéous méTMOLOı karbyartes Serv. however says “. More parentum :' μαλακoίσιν. . Virg. makes Aeneas wrap propinquioribus enim virilis sexus hoc Pallas in the same manner 11. 72 foll. dabatur officium,” an explanation which * Velamina nota,' as Heyne remarks, can may either mean that Virg. implies that hardly be understood except of the gar- the nearest male relatives officiated, or ments Misenus had worn when alive. The that Misenus' comrades took the part other alternative would be to refer nota' which would naturally have devolved on to the customariness of thus covering the his parents. This latter view is taken by dead. There is the same sort of doubt Erythraeus, who comp. Lucan 6. 530 foli. about “munera nota” 11. 195.

(of the witch Erichtho): 222.] 'Subire' in the sense of supporting generally takes an acc., sometimes, “Fumantis iuvenum cineres ardentiaque though rarely, the dat. or abl. It is not easy to distinguish these two last cases : E mediis rapit ipsa rogis ipsamque pain sense they would appear to differ, the rentes one being equivalent to the acc. (movo Quam tenuere facem.” towards a thing, place one's self under), the other denoting motion when placed But the sense of more parentum' is fixed under. In the few instances where the by “more patrum ” 11, 1. c. Virg. perconstruction occurs the reading is not haps means that the same who carried the always certain, the acc. being generallybier afterwards applied the torch : but his



Turea dona, dapes, fuso crateres olivo.
Postquam conlapsi cineres et flamma quievit,
Reliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam,
Ossaque lecta cado texit Corynaeus aeno.
Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda,

words need not be pressed. Comp. G. 4. 228.] ‘Lecta, collected from the pile, 167 note. Pal. and Gud. seem to have Néyelv or néyertai in Hom. 11. cc. The had another reading, subiectas faces.' process was called ootoroyla : Aesch. wrote

225.] Lersch, $ 86, comp. Arnob. 7. 51, à play named 'Oorobyou. Cadus' is “Pulticulae, tura cum carnibus, rapacium doubtless an urn, as ráðos is used for a alimenta sunt ignium et parentalibus con- balloting urn. In Hom. the vessels differ: iunctissima mortuorum,"

," Tac. A. 3. 2, Patroclus' bones are placed in a golden “ Pro opibus loci vestem, odores, aliaque pidan, Hector's in a golden λάρναξ, funerum sollemnia cremabant.” The first Achilles' in a golden åupipopeús, the work passage explains dapes,' which doubtless of Hephaestus and gift of Dionysus. refers to the victims, not as some have Brazen urns are common among Italian thought, to the spices and oil. So perhaps remains. Corynaeus is specified, as Heyne 3. 301, where see note. In 5. 92 the re- remarks, merely for specification's sake. ference is doubtful. For the application The name occurs again 9. 571., 12. 298. of .dapes' to sacrifices see Forc. Victims This man may be identified with either, as are also mentioned 11. 197 foll., after Il. both are probably Trojans. The name is 23. 166, Od. 24. 65, none of which passages variously spelt in the MSS.; but Heyne however speak of spices or oil. Libations remarks that it must be Kopuvaios from of oil were made in the subsequent offer. Kopúvn. ings to the grave (E. 5. 68 note : see other 229.] Corynaeus also performs the lus. passages quoted by Lersch, § 68, “De tration, that the crews might be purified Libationibus”), which seem to have had from the pollution contracted by the dead much in common with the actual funeral body, v. 150 above. It does not appear solemnities. See also Od. 24. 73, referred whether lustration formed a regular part to on v. 227 below. Fuso crateres olivo' of a Roman funeral, as of course we canis doubtless the abl. of description, cups of not argue from this passage that it did : poured out oil. Really of course it is not but there was a lustration in the month of the cup that is burnt, but its contents, so February, the month of special solemnities that crateres' is used somewhat like in honour of the Di Manes. Macrob. Sat. “pocula” E. 8. 28.

“lustrari eo mense civitatem 226.] The line, as Heyne remarks, is necesse erat, quo statuit ut iusta dis Mani. modelled on Il. 9. 212, aŭrdp étel Katà bus solverentur.” “Ter :' comp. E. 8. 73, TTÜP érán kal pads euapávan, compared with 75 notes.

« • Circumtulit;' Il. 23. 228, riuos tupkain duapalveto, naú- purgavit. Antiquum verbum est. Plautus : gato de oro. “Conlapsi cineres' is from Pro larvato te circumferam,' i.e. purgaΠ. 23. 251, βαθεία δε κάππεσε τέφρη. bo.” This passage is not in the extant

Serv. says

227.] In Il. 23. 250., 24. 791 the flame works of Plautus: but there is a similar is quenched with wine and then the bones one in Amph. 2. 2. 143, “quin tu istane are collected : but in Od. 24. 72, the bones iubes Pro cerrita circumferri ?" It is to are collected after the body is consumed be explained on the analogy of the double and are placed in (a vessel containing ?) structure of circumdare &c. 'aliquam wine and oil. (In Il. 23. 253 a double rem alicui' and 'aliquem aliqua re,' cirlayer of fat is spread over the bones.) cumtulit socios pura unda' being a variety Virg. seems to follow the Od., probably for circumtulit socios puram undam. See understanding éyouev ev olva kal àselpari on G. 4. 337. If not originally Virg.'s of something which took place before the own expression, it is at any rate precisely bones were placed in the vessel. In the such a one as we should expect him to three passages of Hom. the fire is allowed affect, so that we nee not be tempted by to burn all night and is quenched or varieties like 'puram undam,' the reading quenches itself the next morning: and of one MS., circumvenit,' found in Virg.'s account in Book 11 (vv. 201, 210) another, or “circumluit,' which is found in 's somewhat similar.

the margin of a MS. of Macrob. Sat. 3. 1.

1. 13 says


Spargens rore levi et ramo felicis olivae,
Lustravitque viros, dixitque novissima verba.
At pius Aeneas ingenti mole sepulchrum
Inponit, suaque arma viro remumque tubamque,


Dicitur, aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen.

His actis propere exsequitur praecepta Sibyllae.
Spelunca alta fuit vastoque inmanis hiatu,

Sophocles, whose inversions of language but such things cannot be pressed in Virg. are very like Virgi's, has a similar ex. The setting up of a tomb in Hom. follows pression El. 709, 86 auto's oi tetayuévoi similarly at once upon the burning and Bpaßnis Kahpois annav, which has been the collecting of the bones, Il. 23. 255 foll., similarly altered by reading kahpovs. 24. 797 foll., Od. 12. 14., 24. 80 foll. The

230.The manner of the lustration is first and last of these passages will illusdescribed, sprinkling with a wetted branch. trate ‘ingenti mole,' the size of the barrow, Bay was used as well as olive, Juv. 2. 158. of earth and stones, being greater accordServ. quotes Donatus as saying that Virg. ing to the honour intended. So Aesch. substituted the olive for the bay out of com- Cho. 351, nonúXwOTOY dy elxes Tápov pliment to Augustus, whose birthday was διαποντίου γας, Δώμασιν ευφόρητον. marked by the springing up of a bay on the 233.] *Arma' seems to refer to rePalatine, and that it was not thought well mumque tubamque,' like “Cerealia arma” that the triumphal associations of the tree 1. 177 &c., as his arms in the strict sense should be mixed up with funeral reminis. appear to have been burnt with him, v. cences. Lersch shows that the olive was 217. Serv., who felt the difficulty, took connected with funerals from Pliny 35. the meaning to be that the arms were 46, “Quin et defunctos sese multi fictilibus sculptured on the tomb. Viro' explains soliis condi maluere, sicut M. Varro, Py“sua,' which would naturally refer to thagorico modo, in myrti et oleae et populi Aeneas himself. The oar Misenus has in nigrae foliis.” Cerda shows the same con common with Elpenor, Od. 11. 77., 12. 15, nexion from Demosth. and Artemidorus. who has his fixed åkpotáty Túußw : the

Rore et ramo' is a good instance of ev trumpet is his own. dià dvoîv : see on G. 2. 192. “Felici comp 234.] The 'aerial promontory' still tus oliva” 7.751, distinguished from the bears the name * Punta di Miseno. oleaster.

235.] Comp. the promise to Palinurus 231.) For 'viros' Rom., Pal. a m. p., below v. 381. “Et nunc magnum tenet and others give 'domos,' apparently in Ardea nomen” 7. 412. troduced by some one who thought of the 236—263.] · Aeneas then begins the lustration of houses at Rome. Pierius preliminaries of his descent. Black cattle thought it might be explained of the camp. are sacrificed to the infernal powers at Another Ms. has choros,' which Heins. the mouth of a mephitic cave. As the preferred, but Heyne rightly rejects. day dawns, the approach of Hecate is * Dixitque novissima verba " 4. 650. The perceived, and Aeneas and his guide dereference seems to be to the vale' with scend.' . which they took leave of the dead, not to 236.] • His actis '12. 843. the “ilicet, with which the assembly was 237. This grotto is not the same as dismissed. Serv. objects to the former that mentioned v. 11 above. Heyne idenview that the vale' was not said till after tifies it with one now called Baian, as the burial : but 11. 97 seems to show that looking towards Baiae. With the latter it might come even before the burning. part of the line comp. Lucr. 5. 376, “sed In v. 506 below, 3. 68 we may remember patet inmani (“inmane' Wakef.) et vasto that the erection of the tomb stood in respectat hiatu.” The description seems place of a proper burial.

partially taken from that of the onéos 232.] The mention of Aeneas may be 'Atdao (in the [Asiatic] Acherusian prointended to intimate that it was at this montory) in Apoll. R. 2. 735 foll., though point that he returned (see v. 212 above); the vapour there is not mephitic, but icy.


Scrupea, tuta lacu nigro nemorumque tenebris,
Quam super haud ullae poterant inpune volantes
Tendere iter pennis : talis sese halitus atris
Faucibus effundens

supera ad convexa ferebat:
[Unde locum Graii dixerunt nomine Avernum.]
Quattuor hic primum nigrantis terga iuvencos
Constituit frontique invergit vina sacerdos,
Et summas carpens

media inter cornua saetas


238.] • Scrupes' is found in Enn. νεκά μιν και φωτες επικλείουσιν 'Αορνον, Androm. fr. 8, and Pacuvius Nipt. fr. 6 rendered by Priscian, Perieg. 1056, “Unde speaks of "scruposam specum.” “Tuta' locis Graii posuerunt nomen Aornin.” participle, sheltered, as in 1. 571 &c. The Heyne thinks it a gloss, and Wagn. and ineaning seems to be that the darkness Ribbeck remove it from the text. There appears to afford it a protection.

is nothing un-Virgilian about it: Virg. is 239.] Translated from Apoll. R. 4. 601, fond of talking of the names of places, as oudé tis Yowp Keivo (the lake of the Erida- Henry remarks (comp. e. g. 3. 693): he nus) did trepà koupa ravúooas Olwrds refers to a Greek name G. 3. 148 (a comdúvatal Baréerv ÚTEp. With the whole mon habit with his master Lucr.) : and passage comp. Lucr. 6. 740 foll. :

the expression 'nomine dicere,' to which

Wagn. objects, is found v. 441 below, as is * Principio, quod Averna vocantur nomine, observed by Forb. On the other hand id ab re

the external evidence is such as to leave Inpositumst, quia sunt avibus contraria the question doubtful, so I have placed the cunctis,

line in brackets. There is a further quesE regione ea quod loca cum venere vo- tion whether • Aornon' or 'Avernum' lantes,

ought to be read. The MSS. which retain Remigii oblitae pennarum vela remit- the line would seem generally in favour of tunt,

this latter, which I have adopted : but it Praecipitesque cadunt molli cervice pro- would seem more likely that Virg. would fusae

use the Greek word than the Latin transIn terram, si forte ita fert natura lo- formation of it, which hides the etymology. corum,

Is it certain that Lucr. in talking of the Aut in aquam, si forte lacus substratus etymology of 'Avernus' did not mean to Avernist.

derive it from 'avis ?' Possibly however Is locus est Cumas apud, acri sulfure Virg. may have so far complied with the montes

Latin form as to give 'Aornum,' the readOppleti calidis ubi fumant fontibus ing of Gud. and others, adopted by Heins. aucti.”

243.] Comp. G. 4. 538 foll., where four

bulls and four heifers are sacrificed to the See also ib. 818 foll. Volantes' used Manes of Orpheus and Eurydice. “Ni. substantively, as in v. 728 below, Lucr. 2. grantis terga iuvencos” 5. 97. Black was 1083. So volitans' G. 3. 147.

the colour of the victims sacrificed to the 240.] “Tendit iter velis” 7.7.

shades, v. 153 above, Od. 10. 523–527. 241.j Comp. Lucr. 6. 819; “Mortiferam 244.] ‘Constituit’ 5. 237. Frontique vim, de terra quae surgit in auras. invergit vina :' comp. 4. 61 note. Plaut. “Supera convexa v. 750 below. Ribbeck Curc. 1. 2. 12 has “Invergere in me lireads 'super' from Pal. and Med. a m. p., quores tuos sino ductim.” Serv. draws a and Rom.; but the cause of the mistake distinction between 'fundere' and `ver. is obvious.

gere’ in sacrifices : “Fundere' est supina 242.] This line is wanting in fragm. manu libare, quod fit in sacris supernis ; Vat. and others, and is added in Med. by 'vergere' autem est conversa in sinistram a later hand. Rom. however has it. Serv. partem manu ita fundere ut patera condoes not explain it, nor does Non. quote it vertatur: quod in infernis sacris fit." s. v. 'Avernus,' as he might have been ex- Invergo' however is used by Val. Fl. 2. pected to do. There is a similar line in 611 of pouring sacrificial wine into the sea. the Periegesis of Dionysius, v. 1151, Toő. 245.) The plucking of hairs from the


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