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against which his supple mind, so indifferent as it was to all constitutional forms, stood inflexible. Yet this, for good or ill, is our system to-day, and the system of the wide host of political communities that have followed our parliamentary model. When it is said again, that it was owing to Cromwell that Nonconformity had time to take such deep root as to defy the storm of the Restoration, do we not overlook the original strength of all those giant puritan fibres from which both the Rebellion and Cromwell himself had sprung? It was not a man, not even such a man as Oliver, it was the same underlying spiritual forces that made the Rebellion, which also held fast against the Restoration. It would hardly be more forced to say that Cromwell was the founder of Nonconformity.

It has been called a common error of our day to ascribe far too much to the designs and the influence of eminent men, of rulers, and of governments. The reproach is just and should impress us. The momentum of past events; the spontaneous impulses of the mass of a nation or a race; the pressure of general hopes and fears; the new things learned in the onward and diversified motions of " the great spirit of human knowledge,"—all these have more to do with the progress of the world's affairs than the deliberate views of even the most determined and far-sighted of its individual leaders. Thirty years after the death of the Protector, a more successful revolution came about. The law was made more just, the tribunals were purified, the rights of conscience received at least a partial recognition, the press began to enjoy a freedom for which Milton had made a glorious appeal, but which Cromwell never dared concede. Yet the Declaration of Right and the Toleration Act issued from a stream of ideas and maxims, aims and methods that were not puritan. New tributaries had already swollen the volume and changed the currents of that broad Ohap. x CONCLUSION 435

confluence of manners, morals, government, belief, on whose breast Time guides the voyages of mankind. The age of Rationalism with its bright lights and sobering shadows had begun. Some ninety years after 1688, another revolution followed in the England across the Atlantic, and the gulf between Cromwell and Jefferson is measure of the vast distance the minds of men had travelled. With the death of Cromwell, though the free churches remained as nurseries of strong-hearted civil feeling, the brief life of puritan theocracy in England expired. It was a phase of a movement that left an inheritance of many noble thoughts, the memory of a brave struggle for human freedom, and a procession of strenuous master-spirits with Milton and Cromwell at their head. Political ends miscarry, and the revolutionary leader treads a path of fire. True wisdom is to learn how we may combine sane verdicts on the historic event, with a just estimation in the actor of those qualities of high endeavour on which, amid incessant change of formula, direction, fashion, and ideal, the world's best hopes in every age depend.

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INDEX

Adwalton, 121

Agitators (army representatives),
192-4, 200, 213

Agreement of the People (1647), 199,
203; (1648), 203; (1649), 203,
329, 392

American Constitution, Instrument
of Government compared with,
333

Anabaptism, Cromwell's relation to,
380-81

Andrews, Dean of Limerick, 28

Anglican Church—
Arminianism in, 46-7
Assumptions of, 18
Charles I.'s devotion to, 182
Cromwell's attitude towards, 338,

380
Ecclesiastical courts, 51
Endowments of, coveted, 154
Episcopacy, abolition of, pro-
posed, 131; excluded from
toleration, 332, 337; forbidden
by ordinance, 338, 341
Influence of, after the Restora-
tion, 4-5
Reform of, attempted (1641), 81-4
Westminster Assembly, non-attendance of Anglicans at, 133

Anne of Denmark, 21

Archers, 104

Areopagilica, 144

Argyle, Marquis of, Hamilton vic-
torious over, 215; Cromwell's
bargain with, 222; defeat of,
285

Arminianism denounced at Synod
of Dort, 8; Pym's attitude to-
wards, 34; doctrines of, 46-7;
parliamentary declaration against,
53

Armour, disuse of, 104

Arms, 104-6

Army, the—

Agitators, 192-4, 200, 213
Agreement of the People issued by
(1647), 199, 203

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Army, the—-continued

Case of the Army Stated issued by,

203
Control and numbers of, regulated by Instrument of Government,

331, 348; control retained by Cromwell, 348-9
Debates of, 199-200, 202-9
Depression of, 216
Disbandment of, attempted, 191-

193, 201
Heads of the Proposals of, 202,

329
Legislative incapacity of, 319
London, march on (1648), 235
Mutiny in, 214
New Model, composition of, 155-

157; contemporary estimates of, 161
Parliament threatened by, 196
Remonstrance presented to par-
liament by (1648), 227-8
Sickness of, in Ireland, 267
Temper of, after Naseby, 199-

200
Artillery, 105

Assassination of Cromwell plotted,
352, 376-7

Baillie, Robert, cited, on Straf-
ford's trial, 74; on independents,
139; on confiscation of church
endowments, 154; on the New
Model, 161

Major-General William, at Marston, 123, 124, 127; ordered
to surrender to Cromwell, 221

Barebones Parliament. See Little
Parliament

Basing House, storming of, 172-3.

Baxter, Richard, ecclesiastical views
of, 83; two interviews with
Cromwell, 397; cited, on re-
ligious ferment in 1644, 133; on
the New Model, 156, 199; on
Cromwell's ecclesiastical settle-
ment, 339-40

2F8

Beard, Dr., 7, 13

Behemoth, cited, 48

Berwick, pacification of, 59; Crom-
well's recovery of, 222

Bible, the, Cromwell's acceptance
of, 44-6; Walton's polyglot ver-
sion of, 396

Biddle, John, Cromwell's protection
of, 372-3

Blake, Admiral, naval successes of,
178, 294, 296; ability of, 398;
sent by Cromwell to Mediter-
ranean, 404; death of, 408

Bossuet, cited, on Queen Henrietta
Maria, 23-4; on universal history,
325

Bourchier, Elizabeth, wife of Crom-
well, 10

Bradshaw, John, president at
Charles' trial, 242, 245; with-
stands Cromwell at the dissolu-
tion of Long Parliament, 309 ; in
first parliament of Protectorate,
343; withstands Cromwell's com-
pulsion of parliament (1654), 347;
Cromwell's efforts against, 366;
remains of, desecrated, 428;
energy and capacity of, 310

Bramhall, John, Cromwell's opinion
of, 83

Bristol, royalist capture of, 121;
capitulation of, to Fairfax, 171;
Naylor at, 372

Brooke, Lord, death of, 117

Bunker Hill, Marston Moor com-
pared with, 152-3

Burke, Edmund, Cromwell esti-
mated by, 2; Cromwell and
Ireton compared with, 203-5

Burnet, Gilbert, cited, on Crom-
well's Latin, 8; on Henrietta
Maria, 26

Burton, Henry, 55, 132

Butler, Bishop, opinion on Charles'
trial, 244

Calvinism, Arminianism crushed
by, 8; scope of, 41-4, 49

Cambridge, Cromwell at Sidney
Sussex College, 8; his repre-
sentation of, in Short Parliament,
60; in Long Parliament, 67; his
activity in (1642), 107

Carlyle, Thomas, estimate of Crom-
well, 2; contrast of French
Jacobins and English sectaries,
199; estimate of Charles' execu-
tion, 248; enthusiasm for action
without rhetoric, 260; descrip-
tion of Dunbar, 280

Camwatb, Lord, at Naseby, 167
Case of the Army Stated, 203
Catholicism—
Court, at, 21, 38
Cromwell's reply to manifesto of prelates, 268-70
France, predominant in, 37-8,

405, 411
Holland, in, 38

Ireland, in, 87, 257-8, 374;
Ormonde's Kilkenny treaty,
258
Laud's attitude towards, 32
Persecution of, 381
Toleration denied to, 145, 332,
337, 381
Cavalry tactics, 103, 105-6, 114-15,

125-7, 166
Chalgrove Field, 118
Chancery, Court of, abolition of,
320; Cromwell's attempted re-
form of, 334-5
Charles I.—

Chronological Sequence of Career.
Attempts religious coercion in
Scotland, 57-8; persecutes Sir
John Eliot, 60, 79, 260 ; dis-
misses Short Parliament, 61;
abandons Strafford, 76-7; de-
clares adherence to Church
of England, 86; returns from
Scotland, 92; approaches par-
liamentary leaders, 94; im-
peaches five members, 95;
raises royal standard, 98; gains
military successes, 121 ; storms
Leicester, 160; Nasebv, 164,
167; escapes from Oxford,
175; surrenders to the Scots,
176; considers terms of settle-
ment, 180; at Holmby, 187;
removed from Holmby, 193-4;
escapes from Hampton Court
to Carisbrooke Castle, 210-11;
concludes secret treaty with the
Scots, 212-13; negotiates with
parliamentary leaders at New-
port, 225-6; transferred to
Hurst Castle, 234-5; conveyed
to Windsor, 236; trial, 242-5;
caution to Duke of Gloucester,
299; execution and burial,
246-7; Cromwell's judgment of
the execution, 247; Fox and
Carlyle on the execution, 248;
popular sentiment aroused by
the execution, 323
Personal Characteristics. Appear-
ance, 225; artistic taste, 9,
22; blindness to events, 184-5;

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