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B. C. 595.

A. M. 3409.

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The time and place of


Ezekiel's prophesying. 2 In the filth day of the month, 1 5 ? Also out of the midst thereOl. XLVI. 2. which was the fifth

year of king of came the likeness of four Tarquinu Prisci, Jehoiachin's captivity.

living creatures. And.m this was Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22.

3 The word of the Lord came their appearance; they had n the R. Roman., 22. expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son likeness of a man. of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the 6 And every one had four faces, and every river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was one had four wings. there upon him.

7 And their feet were straight feet; the 4 And I looked, and, behold, ha whirlwind sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's came out of the north, a great cloud, and a foot : and they sparkled Plike the colour of fire k infolding itself, and a brightness was burnished brass. · about it, and out of the midst thereof as the .8 .4 And they had the hands of a man under colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire. their wings on their four sides; and they

e2 Kings xxiv. 12, 15.

—Heb. Jehezkel. *1 Kings xviii. 46; 2 Kings iii. 15; chap. iii. 14, 22; viii. 1; xl. 1. - Jer. xxu. 19; xxv. 32.—i Jer.'i. 14; iv. 6; vi. 1.

Heb. catching itself.- Rev. iv. 6, &c.mChap. x. 8, &c. - Ver. 10; chap. x. 14, 21. Heb. a straight foot.- op Dan. x. 6; Rev. i. 15. Chap. x. 18, 21.

after the high priest Hilkiah had found the book of living creatures.] As the amber-coloured body was the the law, in the house of the sanctuary," &c. This centre of the fire, and this fire was in the centre of the was in the twelfth year of Josiah's reign, The thir- cloud ; so out of thiş amber-coloured igneous centre tieth year, computed as above, comes to 4. M. 3409, came the living creatures just mentioned. the fourth year from the captivity of Jeconiah, and Verse 6. Every one had four faces) There were the fifth of the reign of Zedekiah. “Ezekiel was then four several figures of these living creatures, and each among the captives who had been carried away with of these figures had four distinct faces : but as the Jeconiah, and had his dwelling near the river Chebar, face of the man was that which was presented to the Chaborus, or Aboras, a river of Mesopotamia, which prophet's view, so that he saw it more plainly than any. falls into the Euphrates a little above Thapsacus, after of the others ; - hence it is said, ver. 5, that each of having run through Mesopotamia from east to west.- these figures had the likeness of a man; and the whole Calmet.

of this compound image bore a general resemblance to Fourth month] Thammuz, answering nearly to our the human figure. July.

Verse 7. Their feet were straight feet] There did I saw visions of God.] Emblems and symbols of not seem to be any flexure at the knee, nor were the the Divine Majesty. He particularly refers to those legs separated in that way as to indicate progression by in this chapter.

walking. I have before me several ancient Egyptian Verse 2. Jehoiachin's captivity) Called also Jeconiah images of Isis, Osiris, Anubis, &c., where the legs and Coniah ; see 2 Kings xxiv. 12. He was carried are not separated, nor is there any bend at the knees; away by Nebuchadnezzar; see 2 Kings xxiv. 14. so that if there was any motion at all, it must have

Verse 3. The hand of the Lord] I was filled with been by gliding, not progressive walking. It is a rehis power, and with the influence of the prophetic mark of Ælian, that the gods are never represented spirit.

as walking, but always gliding; and he gives this as . Verse 4. A whirlwind came out of the north] Ne-a criterion to discern common angelic appearances buchadnezzar, whose land, Babylonia, lay north of from those of the gods : all other spiritual beings Judea. Chaldea is thus frequently denominated, by walked progressively, rising on one foot, while they Jeremiah.

stretched out the other; but the deities always glided A great cloud, and a fire infolding itself] A mass without gradual progressive motions. And Heliodorus of fire concentrated in a vast cloud, that the flames in his. Romance of Theogines and Charicha, gives the might be more distinctly observable, the fire never es- same reason for the unita' feet of the gods, &c., and caping from the cloud, but issuing, and then returning describes the same appearances. in upon itself. It was in a state of powerful agitation ; Like the sole of a calf's foot] Before it is stated to but always involving itself, or returning back to the be a straight foot ; one that did not lay down a flat centre whence it appeared to issue.

horizontal sole, like that of the human foot. A brightness was about it] A fine tinge of light And they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass.) surrounded the cloud, in order to make its limits the I suppose this refers rather to the hoof of the calf's more discernible ; beyond which verge the turmoiling foot, than to the whole appearance of the leg. There fire did not proceed.

is scarcely any thing that gives a higher lustre than The colour of amber] This was in the centre of highly polished or burnished brass. Our blessed Lord the cloud; and this amber-coloured substance was the is represented with legs like burnished brass, Rev. centre of the labouring flame. The word next pov, fi. 15. which we translate amber, was used to signify a com- Verse 8. They had the hands of a man under their pound metal, very bright, made of gold and brass. wings] I doubt much whether the arms be not here Verse 5. Also out of the midst thereof came-four represented as all covered with feathers, so that they

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The wonderful


chariot of God. A. M. 3409. four had their faces and their their appearance was like burning OI. XLVI. 2. wings.

coals of fire, and like the apTarquinii Prisci, 9 Their wings were joined pearance of lamps : it went up Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22.

one to another; s they turned not and down among the living crea- R. Roman, 22. when they went; they went every one straight tures; and the fire was bright, and out of the forward.

fire went forth lightning. · 10 As for the likeness of their faces, they 14 And the living creatures eran and refour u had the face of a man, "and the face of turned fas the appearance of a flash of a lion, on the right side : Wand they four had lightning, the face of an ox on the left side ; * they four 15 Now as I beheld the living creatures, also had the face of an eagle.

behold sone wheel upon the earth by the 11 Thus were their faces: and their wings living creatures, with his four faces. were y stretched upward ; two wings of every 16 5 The appearance of the wheels and their one were joined one to another, and · two work was. i like unto the colour of a beryl : covered their bodies.

and they four had one likeness: and their ap12 - And a they went every one straight for-pearance and their work was as it were a ward: whither the spirit was to go, they went; wheel in the middle of a wheel. and they turned not when they went. 17 When they went, they went upon their four 13 As for the likeness of the living creatures, sides : kand they turned not when they went.

Ver. 11.- Ver. 12; chap. X. 11. - See Rev. iv. 7. a Ver. 9; chap. x. 22.- Ver. 20.- Ver.9, 17.- Rev. Num. ii. 10. v Num. ii. 3. Num. ii. 18.- - Num. ii. iv. 5. —e Zech. iv. 10.—Matt. xxiv. 27.

—Chap. x. 9. 25. -y Or, divided above. -2 Isa. vi. 2.

Chap. x. 9, 10.- Dan. X. 6. - Ver. 12.


had the appearance of wings, only the hand was bare ; substance appeared to be of fame; and among them and I rather think that this is the meaning of their hav- frequent coruscations of fire, like vibrating lamps, often ing “the hands of a man under their wings.”

emitting lightning, or rather sparks of fire, as we have Verse 9.. Their wings were joined one to another] seen struck out of strongly ignited iron in a forge. When-their wings were extended, they formed a sort The flames might be something like what is called of canopy level with their own heads or shoulders; and warring wheels in pyrotechny. They seemed to conon this canopy was the throne, and the “likeness of flict together. the man" upon it, ver. 26.

Verse 14. The living creatures ran and returned) They turned not-when they went] The wings did They had a circular movement; they were in rapid not flap in flying, or move in the manner of oars, or of motion, but did not increase their distance from the the hands of a man in swimming, in order to their pass- spectator. So I think this should be understood. ing through the air ; 'as they glided in reference to their Verse 15. One wheel upon the earth] [t seems at feet, so they soared in reference to their wings. first view there were four wheels, one for each of the

Verse 10. As for the likeness of their faces) There living creatures; that is, the creatures were compound, · was but one body to each of those compound animals : so were the wheels, for there was wheel in the mid.. but each body had four faces; the face of a man and dle of a wheel.” And it is generally, supposed that of a lion on the right side; the face of an or and an these wheels cut each other at right angles up and eagle on the left side. Many of these compound images down; and this is the manner in which they are geneappear in the Asiatic idols. Many are now before me: rally represented; but most probably the wheel within some with the head and feet of a monkey, with the means merely the nave in which the spokes are inbody, arms, and legs of a man. Others with the head serted, in reference to the ring, rim, or periphery, where of the dog ; body, arms, and legs human. Some with these spokes terminate from the centre or nave. I do the head of an ape; all the rest human.' Some with think this is what is meant by the wheel within a wheel ; one head and eight arms; others with six heads.or and I am the more inclined to this opinion, by some fine faces, with twelve arms. The head of a lion and the Chinese drawings now before me, where their deities head of a cock often appear; and some with the head are represented as walking upon wheels, the wheels of a cock, the whole body human, and the legs termi- themselves encompassed with fire. The wheel is simnating in snakes. All these were symbolical, and each ply by itself, having a projecting axis ; so of these it had its own appropriate meaning. Those in the text is said, “their appearance and their work was, as it had theirs also, could we but find it out.

were, a wheel within a wheel.” There were either Verse 12. They went every one straight forward] two peripheries or rims with their spokes, or the nave Not by progressive stepping, but by gliding.

answered for the wheel within. I have examined Whither the spirit was to go] Whither that whirl- models of what are called Ezekiel's wheels, which are wind blew, they went, being borne on by the wind, see designed to move equally in all directions : but I plainly ver. 4.

saw that this was impossible ; nor can any kind of comVerse 13. Like burning coals of fire] The whole plex wheel move in this way.

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R. Roman., 22.

The wonderful


chariot of God. 18. As for their rings, they 24 And when they went, I

so high that they were heard the noise of their wings, ol. XLVI. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, dreadful; and their 'rings were like the noise of great waters, Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22.

m full of eyes round about as the voice of the Almighty, them four.

the voice of speech, as the noise of a host : 19 And o when the living creatures went, the when they stood, they let down their wings. wheels went by them': and when the living - 25 And there was a voice from the firmament creatures were lifted up from the earth, the that was over their heads, when they stood, wheels were lifted up.

and had let down their wings. 20 • Whithersoever the spirit was to go, they. 26 And above the firmament that was over went, thither was their spirit to go ; and the their heads was the likeness of a throne, y as wheels were lifted up over against them :P for the the appearance of a sapphire stone : and upon spirit 9 of the living creature was in the wheels. the likeness of the throne was the likeness as 21. When those went, these went; and when the appearance of a man above upon

it. those stood, these stood; and when those were 27." And I saw as the colour of amber, as the lifted up from the earth, the wheels were appearance of fire round about within it, from lifted up over against them : for the spirit of the appearance of his loins even upward, and the living creature was in the wheels.

from the appearance of his loins even down22 + And the likeness of the firmament upon ward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, the heads of the living creature was as the and it had brightness round about. colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth 28 « As the appearance of the bow that is in over their heads above.

the cloud in the day of rain, so was the 23 And under the firmament were their wings appearance of the brightness round about. straight, the one toward the other : every one - This was the appearance of the likeness of had two, which covered on this side, and every the glory of the Lord. And when I saw it, one had two, which covered on that side, their . I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of bodies.

one that spake.


1 Or, strakes. Chap. x. 12; Zech, iv. 10. Chap. x. Job xxxvii. 4, 5; Psa. xxix. 3, 4; Ixviii. 33. — * Chap. x. 1. 16, 17.

Ver. 12. -- Chap. x. 17.- Or, of life.- - Ver. . Exod. xxiv. 10. Chap. viii. 2.- Rev. iv. 3; x. 1. 19, 20; chap. x. 17.- Or, of life. Chap. x. 1. Chap. 1 Chap. iii. 23; viji. 4, Chap. iii. 23; Dan. viii. 17; Acts X. 5,- Chap. xliii. 2;. Dan. x. 6; Rev. i. 15.

ix. 4; Rev, i. 17.

Verse 18. As for their ring 8] The strakes which by which rays of light were refracted, assuming either form the rim or periphery.

a variety of prismatic colours, or an insufferably brilThey were dreadful] They were exceedingly great liant splendour. This seems to be the meaning of the in their diameter, so that it was tremendous to look terrible crystal. Newcome translates, fearful ice. The from the part that touched the ground to that which common translation is preferable. was opposite above.

Verse 23. Every one had two, which covered on this Were full of eyes] Does not this refer to the ap- side] While they employed two of their wings to form pearance of nails keeping on the spokes, or strakes or a foundation for the firmament to rest on, two other bands upon the rim ?

wings were let down to cover the lower part of their Verse 19. When the living creatures went, the wheels bodies : but this they did only when they stood, ver. 24. went] The wheels were attached to the living crea- Verse 24. The noise of their wings] When the tures, so that, in progress, they had the same motion. whirlwind drove the wheels, the wind rustling among

Verse 20. The spirit of the living creature was in the wings was like the noise of many waters ; like a the wheels.] That is, the wheels were instinct with a waterfall, or waters dashing continually against the vital spirit; the wheels were alive, they also were ani- rocks, or rushing down precipices. mals, or endued with animal life, as the creatures were As the voice of the Almighty] Like distant thunder; that stood upon them. Here then is the chariot of Je- for this is termed the voice of God, Psa. xviii. 13; hovah. There are four wheels, on each of which one Exod. ix. 23, 28, 29; xx. 18. of the compound animals stands; the four compound Verse 26. A sapphire] The pure oriental sapphire, animals form the body of the chariot, their wings spread a large well cut specimen of which is now before me, horizontally above, forming the canopy or covering of is one of the most beautiful and resplendent blues that this chariot; on the top of which, or upon the extended can be conceived. I have sometimes seen the heavens wings of the four living creatures, was the throne, on assume this illustrious hue. The human form above which was the appearance of a man, ver. 26. this canopy is supposed to represent Him who, in the

Verse 22. The colour of the terrible crystal] Like fulness of time, was manifested in the flesh. a crystal, well cut and well polished, with various faces, Verse 27. The colour of amber] There are speci. The commission


of Ezekiel.

mens of amber which are very pure and beautifully correctly as possible ; to show their forms, positions, transparent. One which I now hold up to the light colours, &c. But who can explain their meaning ? gives a most beautiful bright yellow colour. Such a We have conjectures in abundance ; and can it be of splendid appearance had the august Being who sat upon any use to mankind to increase the number of those this throne from the reins- upward ; ' but from thence conjectures ? . I think not. I doubt whether the whole downward he had the appearance of fire, burning with does not point out the state of the Jews, who were a clear and brilliant flame. For farther particulars see about to be subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, and carried the notes on chap. x.

into captivity. And I'am inclined to think that the Verse 28. As the appearance of the bow] Over the living creatures, wheels, fires, whirlwinds," &c., which canopy on which this glorious personage sat there was are introduced here, point out, emblematically, the vaa fine rainbow, which, from the description here, had rious means, sword, fire, pestilence; famine, &c., which all its colours vivid, distinct, and in perfection-red, were employed in their destruction ; and that God aporange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. In all pears in all this to show that Nebuchadnezzar is only this description we must understand every metal, every his instrument to inflict all these calamities. What is colour, and every natural appearance, to be in their ut- in the following chapter appears to me to confirm this most perfection of shape, colour, and splendour. “And supposition. But we have the rainbou, the token of this," as above described, “ was the appearance of the God's covenant, to show that though there should be a likeness of the glory of the Lord.” . Splendid and glo- destruction of the city, temple, &c., and sore tribularious as it was, it was only the appearance of the. tion among the people, yet there should not be a total likeness," a faint representation of the real thing. ruin; after a long captivity they should be restored.

I have endeavoured to explain these appearances as The rainbow is an illustrious token of mercy and love.


The pro

The prophet, having been overwhelmed with the glorious vision in the preceding chapter, is here strengthened

and comforted, 1, 2; and then commissioned to declare to the rebellious house of Israel the terrible judg. ments that would very shortly come upon the whole land, if they repented not ; with a gracious assurance to Ezekiel that God would be constantly with him while executing the duties of his office, 3-5. phet is also commanded to be fearless, resolute, and faithful in the discharge of it, 6-8, as he must be the messenger of very unpleasing tidings, which will expose him to great persecution, 9, 10. A. M. 3409.

A. M. 3409. B.'C. 595. AND he said unto me, Son of | 3 And he said unto me, Son of

B. C. 595. QI. XLVI. 2. man, a stand upon thy feet, man, I send thee to the children Ol. XLVI. 2 Anno

Anno Tarquinii Prisci, and I will speak unto thee. of Israel, to a rebellious e nation Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. 2 And the spirit entered into that hatḥ rebelled against me:

R. Roman., 22 me when he spake unto me, and set me upon a they and their fathers have transgressed my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me. against me, even unto this very day. a Dan. x. 11.- _b Chap. iii. 24 Heb. nations.

a Jer. iii. 25; chap. xx. 18, 21, 30. NOTES ON CHAP. II.

sinners must be influenced by the Holy-Ghost; otherVerse 1. And he said unto me! In the last verse wise he can neither be saved himself, nor become the of the preceding chapter we find that the prophet was instrument of salvation to others. 80 penetrated with awe at the sight of the glory of And set me upon my feet] That he might stand as God in the mystical chariot, that "he fell upon his face;" a servant before his master, to receive his orders. and, while he was in this posture of adoration, he heard Verse 3. Son of man] This appellative, so often the voice mentioned here. It is evident, therefore, that mentioned in this book, seems to have been given first the present division of these chapters is wrong. Either to this prophet ; afterwards to Daniel ; and after that the first should end with the words “ This was the ap- to the man Christ Jesus. Perhaps it was given to the pearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord,” two former to remind them of their frailty, and that ver. 28; or the first verse of this chapter should be they should not be exalted in their own minds by the added to the preceding, and this begin with the second extraordinary revelations granted to them; and that verse.

they should feel themselves of the same nature with Verse 2. And the spirit entered into me] This spirit those to whom they were sent; and, from the common was different to that mentioned above, by which the principle of humanity, deeply interest themselves in wheels, &c., were moved. The spirit of prophecy is the welfare of their unhappy countrymen. To the lalhere intended; whose office was not merely to enable ter it might have been appropriated merely to show that him to foresee and foretell future events, but to purify though all his actions demonstrated him to be God, yet and refine his heart, and qualify him to be a successful that he was also really man; and that in the man Christ preacher of the word of life.

Jesus dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. He who is sent by the God of all grace to convert When the acts of Christ are considered, it is more easy


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The prophet is


encouraged to preach 4 . For they are impudent 7, o And thou shalt speak my

children and stiff-hearted. I do words unto them, P whether they ol. XLVI. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, send thee unto them; and thou will hear, or whether they will for- Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22.

shalt say unto them, Thus saith bear: for they are most rebellious. R. Roman., 22. the Lord God.

8 But thou, son of man, hear what I say 5 And they, whether they will hear, orunto thee; Be not thou rebellious like that whether they will forbear, (for they are a rebellious house : open thy mouth, and ' eat rebellious house,) yeth shall know that there that I give thee. hath been a prophet among them.

9 And when I looked, behold, a hand was 6 And thou, son of man, i be not afraid of sent unto me; and, lo, a roll of a book was them, neither be afraid of their words, though therein:

briers 1 and thorns be with thee, and thou 10 And he spread it before me; and it was dost dwell, among scorpions : - be not afraid written within and without : and there was of their words, nor be dismayed at their looks, written therein lamentations, and mourning, * though they be a rebellious house.

and wo.


Chap. u. 7.
Heb: hard of face. - Chap. iii. 11, 26, 27. Chap. iii. 9; 1 Pet. iii. 14. Chap. iii. 9, 26, 27.

- Jer. Chap. xxxiii. 33. — Jer. 'i. 8,17; Luke xii. 4.- - Or, re- i. 7, 17. —p Ver. 5.- - Heb. rebellion. Rev. x. 9.- -- Ch. bels.- Isa. ix. 18; Jer. vi. 28; Mic. vii. 4.

viii. 3; Jer. i. 9.- Chap. iii. 1.

to believe his eternal Godhead, than to be convinced messages of God may come should so hear it, read, that the person we hear speaking, and see working, is mark, learn, and inwardly digest it, that it may

become also a man like unto ourselves.

efficient nourishment to their souls. I send thee to the children of Israel] To those who Verse 9. A hand was sent

] Here the hand signifies were now in captivity, in Chaldea particularly; and to not only the instrument of conveyance, but an emblem the Jews in general, both far and near.

of the Divine power, which the hand of God always Verse 4. Thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the signifies. Lord] Let them know that what thou hast to declare A roll of a book] 790 nhao megillath sepher. All is the message of the Lord, that they may receive it ancient books were written so as to be rolled up; hence with reverence.

volumen, a volume, from volvo, I roll. - Every preacher of God's word should take heed Verse 10. It was written within and without] Conthat it is God's message 'he delivers to the people. trary to the state of rolls in general, which are written Let him not suppose, because it is according to his own on the inside only. The Hebrew rolls are generally creed or confession of faith, that therefore it is God's written in this way. There are several of such Heword. False doctrines and fallacies without end are brew rolls before me, all written on the inside only, foisted on the world in this way. Bring the creed first consisting of skins of vellum, or parchment, or basil, a to the Word of God, and scrupulously try whether it sort of half-tanned sheep or goat skin, sewed together, be right; and when this is done, leave it where you extending to several yards in length. Other Asiatic please ; take the Bible, and warn them from God's books were written in the same way. . A Sanscrit roll word recorded there.

of sixty feet in length, also before me, is written all on Verse 5. Yet shall know that there hath been a pro- the inside ; and a Koran, written in exceedingly 'small phet among them.] By this they shall be assured of characters, about two inches broad and twelve feet long, two things : 1. That God in his mercy had given them and weighing but about half an ounce. But the roll due warning. 2. That themselves were inexcusable, presented to the prophet was written on both sides, befor not taking it.

cause the prophecy was long, and to the same effect; Verse 6. Be not afraid of them] They will mal- that they might see the mind of God wherever they treat thee for thy message ; but let not the apprehen- looked. sion of this induce thee to suppress it. Though they There was written therein lamentations, and mournbe rebels, fear them not; I will sustain and preserve ing, and wo.) What an awful assemblage! 0171 d'IP thee.

ni kinim, vahegeh, vehi, lamentations, and a groan, and Verse. 7. Whether they will hear] Whether they alas! Lamentalions on all hands; a groan from the receive the message, or persecute thee for it, declare dying; and alas, or Wo is -me! from the survivors. it to them, that they may be without excuse.

It was the letter that killeth, and is the ministration of Verse 8. Open thy mouth and eat that I give thee.) death. What a mercy to have that which is emphatiTake my word as thou wouldst take thy proper food; cally called To Evayyedsov, The glad tidings, the good receive it into thy heart; ponder it there, that it may news !

Christ Jesus is come into the world to save be the means of strengthening and preserving thy soul, sinners; and he wills that all men should be saved and as proper nourishment will strengthen the body, and come to the knowledge of the truth. Here are rejoice preserve from death. And the people to whom such ing's, thanksgivings, and exultation.


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