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the ground, the additional warmth it receives adds materially to its ripening in perfection.
Espaliers. Several very valuable sorts of Pears may be successfully cultivated in Espaliers, which would not succeed on the tall and exposed orchard standard, and such as do not necessarily require a wall. The Quenouille training, which has been explained under the head of Propagation, is admirably adapted for small gardens, and for ripening many of our finest autumnal fruit; but the Espalier possesses some advantages over that, being less exposed to high winds, and affording greater security to heavy fruit.
Pears intended for Espaliers, as well as for Quenouille training, should be propagated upon the Quince stock; and grafted plants, as I have observed before, are preferable to those which have been raised from buds. Horizontal training, as recommended for Apples, is that which is best adapted for the Pear, and the method laid down for forming the tree the same: the horizontal branches may also be trained at nine or ten inches apart, unless it be for those sorts whose fruit are very large; these will be better if they are allowed a foot.
In July, the superfluous young shoots should be shortened to two inches, and the extreme ones continued at their full length. By the beginning or middle of September, most of the spurs, which had been cut back at the former pruning, will have thrown out another shoot from the extreme bud of each ; such, therefore, should now be cut back below this shoot, which will then leave the spur one inch instead of two. Should these artificial spurs be nearer to each other than three inches, they should be thinned out, which will. finish the pruning for the summer season.
In the winter pruning, these must be looked over
again, and wherever there are any natural spurs, the artificial ones must be cut out close, so as to give them room; and such of the older ones which have produced fruit reduced in length, by cutting off that part which produced the fruit to the next bud : this will keep the spurs close, and render them productive.
Trained Pears, both as espaliers and against walls, through negligence and mismanagement, always abound with long naked spurs, not one in twenty of which produces fruit; and on those which do, it is small, ill-shaped, and worthless. When trees are found in this state, those spurs must be reduced by degrees, cutting some clean out where they have stood too close together, and shortening others. On the neck part of some of these long spurs, there will be frequently one or two good buds to be found ; if so, the spurs must be cut back to those buds; and where there are none, they should be shortened to within one or two inches of the main branch. In the course of the following summer there will, in all probability, be buds formed at their base, where the old spurs should at the winter pruning be finally removed.
In the course of two or three years, by following up this method, the trees in most cases may be reduced into a fruit-bearing state ; if, however, they have been too long and too much neglected to be reduced in this manner, they must be headed down.
Pears against Walls. The management of this description of wall trees scarcely differs from that of the espalier : they should be formed in the same manner, by having an upright stem furnishing horizontal branches on each side, and which require both in the winter and summer a similar treatment. The spurs on wall trees can only be allowed from the sides and front of the branches, as those produced from the back or near to it would, in the progress of their growth, not only derange in some measure the straight direction of the branch, but receive material injury by their pressure against the wall ; such, therefore, should at all times be removed on their appearance, leaving those only which are either situated on the front, or so far from the wall as not to be injured by it, at any future stage of their growth.
The spurs of Pears, indeed, require the principal part of the gardener's attention in the management of the tree, for on these depend the bulk and value of the crop: short spurs, at a moderately wide distance, produce fine fruit, whilst those on long ones in a crowded state are proportionately inferior; on the contrary, very vigorous sound spurs, at wide distances, produce fruit of the very largest size, and of the greatest excellence. This I have before noticed, when describing the Chaumontel Pear, as grown by the Jersey gardeners.
Pear trees which have been too long neglected to be recovered by the reduction of their spurs, should be headed down in the following manner:
In February or the beginning of March, with a thin fine-toothed saw, cut every branch back to within nine inches of the main stem from which it issued, making the cut in a sloping direction, and as little exposed to view in front as possible, smoothing it afterwards with a sharp knife, and particularly the bark round the edge, so that its lacerated parts may be effectually removed ; at the same time every spur, whether good or bad, upon the remaining part of the tree should be cut off close and smooth, but not so close as to touch the ring of bark at its base, from beneath which the young shoots will make their appearance.
After this operation is finished, the wounds should be covered with a small portion of well-beaten grafting
clay, reduced into a paste with water, or with Mr. For-
When the young shoots make their appearance, they
If the branches headed down in the spring had been
· This being accomplished, the branches must be con-
INDEX OF THE PEARS.
Ah Mon Dieu .
. 61 Amoselle . - - 114
- - 154
* The preparation and application of this composition will be
.. . 15 Beurré Doré . - 71 Autumn Bergamot - 42 Beurré Epine
. 121 Autumn Colmar
- 63 Beurré Gris - Barland
- 157 Beurré Knox . Beau Present .. • 20 Beurré Plat .
- 48 Bein Armudi
- 46 Beurré Rance Belle de Jersey
- 156 Beurré Rouge Belle et Bonne . . 43 Beurré Royale . - 119 Belle Gabrielle - - 108 Bezy de Caissoy . Belle Lucrative - - 64 Bezy de Chassiez . - 50 Bellissime d'Automne - 65 Bezy de Chaumontelle Bellissime d'E'té - - 30 Bezy d'Heri Bellissime d'Hiver -151 Bezy de la MotteBergamotte Bugi - - 110 Bezy de Landry : - 50 Bergamotte Cadette · 44 Bezy de Montigny Bergamotte d'Alençon . 114 Bezy de Quessoy
- 122 Bergamotte d'E'té - - 13 Bezy Vaet - - 68 Bergamotte d'Hiver - 110 Bishop's Thumb - - 69 Bergamotte de Hollande - 114 Black Pear of Worcester - 152 Bergamotte de la Pentecôte 126 Blanquet à longue queue - 24 Bergamotte de Pâques - 110 Bonchrétien d'Espagne - 144 Bergamotte de Soulers - 109 Bonchrétien d'Eté - - 36 Bergamotte Rouge - 2 Bonchrétien d'E'té Musqué 27 Bergamotte Suisse · · 59 Bonchrétien d'Hiver - 147 Bergamotte Sylvange - 53 Bonchrétien Fondante - 70 Bergamotte Tardive - 124 Bonchrétien Nouvelle éspèce 127 Besideré - • 45 Bonne de Malines - - 148 Beurré
- 71 Bonne de Soulers - - 109 Beurré Blanc
. 107 Bonne-ente - . 107 Beurré Blanc de Jersey - 107 Bonne Malinoise Beurré Colmar Gris, &c. - 137 Bonne Rouge Beurré d' Amboise
71 Bouche Nouvelle -Beurré d'Ambleuse . . 71 Bourdon Musqué Beurré d'Angleterre - 81 Brilliant . Beurré d'Anjou - · 71 Brocas Bergamot Beurré d'Aremberg - 119 Brown Admired Beurré d' Arembert - 119 Brown Beurré Beurré de Capiaumont - 73 Bujaleuf
- 146 Beurré d'Hiver - - 123 Calebasse Beurré d'Hiver de Bruxelles 124 Cabelasse Musquée Beurré d'Or - - 71. Capiaumont Beurré de Yelle . . 120 Carlisle . - - 107 Beurré du Roi - - 71 Cassolette - - - 16 Beurré Diel - · 120 Catillac . - . 159