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Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penatis :
Incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppis,
Aut age diversos et disiice corpora ponto.
Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore Nymphae,
Quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopea,
Connubio iungam stabili propriamque dicabo,
Omnis ut tecum meritis


talibus annos Exigat et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.

Aeolus haec contra: Tuus, o regina, quid optes


taken_with "mulcere' as well as with culty of the quantity in connubio' by tollere. Comp. note on E. 2. 26. making it a trisyllable. The analogy of

67.] 'Navigat aequor ;' comp. Cic. Fin. “ pronubus," "innubus," might be pleaded, 2. 34, “cum Xerxes mare ambulavisset, as proving a variation of quantity; a view terram navigasset” (if the reading "mare strongly supported by Luc. Müller, De Re be certain).

Metrica, p. 258, Munro on Lucr. 3. 776. 68.] Imitated by Ov., F. 4. 251, “ Cum •Propriam dicabo,' 'make her thine for Troiam Aeneas Italos portaret in agros," ever.' See E. 7. 31, note. Juno speaks and again Ep. 7. 51, Ilion in Tyriam not only as the mistress of the nymph, but transfer felicius urbem." See on 2. 703, as the goddess of marriage. It is in the and comp. (with Weidner) 7. 233. Vic. same character that she offers to dispose of tosque Penatis,' 8. 11.

the hand of Dido, 4. 126, where this line 69.] ‘Incute vim ventis,' 'throw fury is repeated. The line in Il. 14. 268 is into the winds.' Serv. quotes Enn. A. inc. dúow ÓTviéueval kalonin kekaņotai ŠKOLTIV. fr. 117, "dictis Romanis incutit iram.” Virg. characteristically keeps the form, Henry adopts another suggestion of Serv., while expressing himself in a different making ventis’abl., like “dictis” in Enn. fashion. Shu kekaņoba. ŠKOLTI may re1. c., i. q. “incute vim Troianis per ventos.” mind us of “coniunx quondam tua dicta," • Submersas obrue puppis :' comp. note on 2. 678, and we may remember that “dico," “iactatos arcebat," v. 29 above.

“dicare” has an affinity in usage, if not 70.] •Diversas' was the old reading, in form, with “dico," “ dicere (comp. supported by inferior MSS. Heins. re. 6. 138 note). • Tibi' is not expressed, stored diversos,' which would naturally being really given in the two following be changed by copyists as slightly the lives. more difficult. The idea of age di 74.] Il. 14. 269, Od. 5. 210, hs aièy versos' is kept up in disiice,' though déadeau Huata návra. Virg. appears to *corpora belongs rather to the notion have taken ééxdeal as the future, which, conveyed in 'submersas.' Med. originally as Heyne remarks, would be supported by had .aut' for 'et.'

Od. 6. 281, EFEL ulv Guara távta. 71.] In Il. 14. 267, Here bribes Sleep by “ Pro talibus ausis," 2. 535. the offer of one of the Charites in mar 75.] The sense will be the same, whether riage, they being represented in Hom. as pulchra prole' is taken with faciat' her attendants, like the Nymphs here. (per pulchros liberos, quos tibi pariat, te • Praestanti corpore,' G. 4. 538.

faciat parentem," as Forb. has it), or with 72.] Deiopea’ is the reading of all parentem,' as a descriptive ablative. Ribbeck's MSS. The common and easier Weidner comp. Hor. 3 Od. 5. 5, “ Milesne reading “Deiopeam,' which Heyne re Crassi coniuge barbara Turpis maritus tained, is supported by quotations by vixit ?" Donatus and Maximus Victorinus. Deio 76—80.] · Acolus says he cannot refuse pea’ is mentioned with the epithet 'Asia' the goddess to whom he owes his power.' in G. 4. 343, as one of the companions of 76.] He throws the responsibility on Cyrene. Forma pulcherrima, v. 496 her. Thine is the task to see well what below.

thou askest. So 'fas est' is exculpatory. 73.) Heyne, whom Hermann (El. Doc. “I am doing my duty in executing thy Met. p. 63) approves, gets over the diffi. commands.' The general sense is from

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Explorare labor; mihi iussa capessere fas est.
Tu mihi, quodcumque hoc regni, tu sceptra Iovemque
Concilias, tu das epulis accumbere divom,
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem.

Haec ubi dicta, cavum conversa cuspide montem
Inpulit in latus : ac venti, velut agmine facto,
Qua data porta, ruunt et terras turbine perflant.
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis
Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis


ΙΙ. 14. 196, αύδα και τι φρονέεις τελέσαι δέ 81.] Henry rightly explains the meanμε θυμός ανωγεν. .

ing to be that Aeolus, going to the cave, 77.] So Juno, 4. 115, “Mecum erit iste pushed the mountain on the side with his labor."

spear. turned towards it (conversa cus78.] Lucr. 2. 15, “Qualibus in tene- pide'), and so opened the “claustra,” which bris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc are to be conceived of as folding doors aeri quodcunque est." In both cases the opening inwards. Comp. 7. 620, " Tum form is depreciating, and here it denotes regina deum caelo delapsa morantis Inthe depreciation of modesty. This poor pulit ipsa manu portas," and the imitation realm of mine.' "Tu sceptra Iovemque of Val. F. (1. 608), “Cum valido conConcilias,' you make power and Jupiter's tortam turbine portam Inpulit Hippopatronage mine.' Jupiter is the dispenser tades." The words and rhythm of the of the powers of the universe. Aesch. line are imitated from Enn. A. inc. 77, Prom. 229. Concilias—das—facis,' in the “nam me gravis impetus Orci Percutit in present, to express the tenure on which he latus," quoted by Serv. 'Excipit in latus' continues to hold his station. Aeolus is occurs 12. 507, and Stat. Theb. 1. 119 has far more complaisant than Sleep in Hom., “ dubiumque iugo fragor inpulit Oeten In who at first demurs violently to the request latus.” The cuspis' is perhaps the same as dangerous to himself, and when pro as the sceptre, v. 57; but we need not mised a bride, exacts an oath from Here press these details. that she will keep her promise. In Il. 14. 82.] ·Velut agmine facto,' as it were 212, Aphrodite tells Here she cannot re with one accord, the sense of combination fuse one who is the partner of Zeus' bed. lying in the facto. Comp. G. 4. 167,

79.] Virg. possibly, as Heyne suggests, and Juv. 3. 162, ‘agmine facto Debuerant had in his mind Here's first offer to Sleep, olim tenues migrasse Quirites.” 11. 14. 238, of a banqueting throne and a 83.] Qua data porta,' through the footstool; though this need not have been 'claustra,' so opened. at the feast of the gods. He may also 81.] For the instantaneous effect exhave thought of the "lectisternium.” This pressed by the transition to the perfect proof of equality, bowever, is sufficiently here and in v. 90, comp. G. 1. 330. common: comp. E. 4. 63, Hor. 3 Od. 3. •Heavily they are fallen on the sea.' 11, Aesch. Eum. 351.

85.) Od. 5. 295, Eův 8° Eupós Te Nótos 80.] Virg. probably refers to some phy- τ' έπεσε, Ζεφυρός τε δυσαής, Και Βορέας sical theory or legend connected with the αιθρηγενέτης, μέγα κύμα κυλίνδων. Comp. character of Juno as queen of the air: also Enn. A. 17, fr. 5. Seneca (Nat. this conception of her as making interest Quaest. 16) reproves Virg. for having with an inferior god is however perfectly made three out of the four winds blow at Homerie. There is an awkwardness about once. Trapp and Heyne try to defend the present line, which apparently merely him on the plea that shifting winds are repeats v. 78, and this when the mention

But this obviously is not his of the banquet bas intervened.

meaning All the winds leave the cave 81–101.] “He opens the cave, the at once. Milton's classicism has led him winds rush out, and there is a dreadful to the same violation of nature, Par. Reg. tempest. Aencas, seeing nothing but death Book 4: "nor slept the winds Within before him, wishes he had died with their stony caves, but rushed abroad honour at Troy, like so many of his From the four hinges of the world, and friends,

fell On the vexed wilderness” (quoted



Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus.
Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum.
Eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemque
Teucrorum ex oculis ; ponto nox incubat atra.
Intonuere poli, et crebris micat ignibus aether,
Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem.
Extemplo Aeneae solvuntur frigore membra ;
Ingemit, et dupliciş tendens ad sidera palmas
Talia voce refert: 0 terque quaterque beati,
Quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altis
Contigit oppetere ! o Danaum fortissime gentis
Tydide! mene Iliacis occumbere campis


by Henry). The effect of the emission of yoúvara kal díxov ihtop. all the winds from the skin in Hom. (Od. 93.] Schirach renders duplicis,''clasped." 10. 54), is that Ulysses is blown back to But see 7. 140, “Et duplicis caeloque the island from which he came. • Ruunt' Ereboque parentes.” So Lucr. 6. 1146, seems here to be upheave' (see note on “Et duplicis oculos suffusa luce rubentis.” G. 1. 105); but it is possible that the 94.] • Referre' cannot here have its aequor' may be conceived of as a kind of usual sense of reply ;' nor can it mean to ceiling, which crashes down on a move recount, as in “quid referam.” Either then ment from below.

the word must be construed simply says, 87.] As in Od. 10. 121 foll., the havoc or it must be explained as an elliptical made on the ships is not expressly men- expression for "refert pectore," which we tioned, but more vividly indicated by the find 5. 409.-'0 terque quaterque beati,' cries of distress on board. Serv. quotes &c. The whole of this is closely imitated a fragment from the Teucer of Pacuvius : from part of the speech of Ulysses, Od. 5.

armamentum stridor, flictus navium, 306–312. The horror of Ulysses is exStrepitus, fremitus, clamor tonitruum, et cited by the prospect of death without rudentum sibilus” (as restored by Her- glory and without burial; that of Achilles mann : see Ribbeck, Fragm. p. 100). when in danger of drowning (II. 21. 272),

88.] Od. 5. 293, oùv vedeeooi kámulle by the prospect of death without glory. Γαϊαν ομού και πόντον ορώρει δ' ουρανόθεν Comp. also for the sentiment Aesch. Cho. vÚg. Comp. 3. 198, “Involvere diem nimbi 345 foll., 363 foll. et nox humida caelum Abstulit."

95.] 'Ante ora patrum’ probably means 90.] •Intonuere poli,' “axes, i. e, ex- dying with the friends, for whom they are tremae partes caeli super quibus caelum fighting, to cheer them on. What is here vertitur, i.e. toreitai, unde vertices La- the consolation of the son, is elsewhere the tine, Graece tódo1 dicuntur: duo enim aggravation of the father's sorrow, as in G. sunt, Notios et Boreos, a quibus totum 4. 477, A. 10. 443. “Troiae sub moenibus caelum contonuisse significat," Serv. It altis, 10. 469. thunders from pole to pole.' Heyne and 96.] Oppetere' is merely a synonym others think it would be more forcible to for obire,' as appears from Phaedr. 3. 16. omit et,' with one or two MSS.; but this 2, Sen. Troad. 3. 6. 9; not, as Forb. and would spoil the sense, as of course the Doederlein think, especially appropriated lightning really comes before the thunder, to death voluntarily or bravely encounwhereas, if the two were mentioned sepa- tered. Aeneas is nearly killed by Diomede, rately, it would seem as if the poet actually from whom he is rescued by Aphrodite, Il. intended to reverse the natural order. 5. 297 foll. Diomede is characterized as

91.] “Ostentant omnia letum,” Catull. the bravest of the Greeks by Helenus, 11. 6. 62. (64.) 187.

98, Achilles being specially not excepted. 92.] “Frigore,' "chilling fear,' in 12. 97.] From a fragment of Ennius quoted 951, where these words are repeated, the by Serv. on 2. 62, “ Morti occumbunt obchill of death. In the same connexion viam,” it would seem as if “morti occumHom. (Od. 5. 297), kal Tór! 'Odvooños Aúto bere " was the full phrase; so that the pre

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Non potuisse tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra,
Saevus ubi Aeacidae telo iacet Hector, ubi ingens
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis

Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit ?

Talia iactanti stridens Aquilone procella
Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera tollit.
Franguntur remi; tum prora avertit, et- undis

Dat latus; insequitur cumulo praeruptus aquae mons. 105 position may thus be explained. “Morte by such passages as Livy 1.8,"Locum qui occumbere " and “ mortem occumbere" nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos luhowever also occur. •Mene' with inf. cos est, asylum aperit.” Comp. the Greek v. 37, note.

idiom βουλομένη τινι είναι. . Aquilone,' 99.] 'Saevus' has no special meaning "ab Aquilone,” Serv. But it seems better here, but is the Homeric “EKTopos åvdpo- to render 'stridens Aquilone,” howling φόνοιο.

with the north wind.' Comp. Od. 12. 407 100.] Virg. appears to have forgotten (a passage which Virg. had before him that in Hom. (11. 16. 667 foll.) the body throughout this scene), alya ydp hoev of Sarpedon is carried away to Lycia. Kεκληγώς Ζέφυρος μεγάλη συν λαίλαπι Wagn. and Forb. however understand ouwv. The north wind, as Seneca re

iacet' in the sense of a historic present, marked (see on V. 85), has not been and render it was slain.' Perhaps we may hitherto mentioned; but it is evident that say that Aeneas, who in the line before the variety is in the expression, not in the speaks of the act of dying, is here thinking incident. So in v. 131, Eurus and Zemerely of the moment of death. The ex. phyrus are obviously meant to include all pression however is the same in Od. 3. the winds. 108 foll., which Heyne comp.:

103.] Velum adversa ferit,' 'strikes évea 89 Čretta KaTéktabev 8o podporou the sail full in front. Gud. and the first ένθα μέν Αίας κείται άρήίος, ένθα δ' reading of Med. have fuctum 'Αχιλλεύς κ.τ.λ.,

104.] 'Franguntur remi :' the oars are

broken in the portholes by the sudden where the meaning seems to be “There we stroke of the wave, which dashes them out left Ajax, Achilles,' &c. lacet telo' = of the hands of the rowers. Val. F., in

stratus est telo.' “Ubi tot Simois,' &c.: his imitation (1.618), has “ excussi manibus imitated from Hom. (II. 12. 22), who remi." Rowing and sailing at the same however speaks of the spoils and bodies of time is contrary to the Homeric practice, those who fell on the banks of Simois. so far as it can be gathered ; and in Virg. “ Quos Simois premat ille viros,” 11. 257. himself (3. 207) the crew lower the sail A few MSS. read .sub undas,' a variety first, and then take to the oar. Med., mentioned by Serv., and supported by the Gud., and some other MSS. (not Rom.), parallel passage 8. 539. Jahn and Forb. have ‘proram avertit,' which Jahn adopts. suppose the difference of case to be justified But 'procella,' as Wagn. remarked, can by the difference of tense between volvit' hardly be nom. to 'dat latus,' though it and 'volves,' wbich is the word there. might be to 'proram avertit;' and it would But it is not clear that in the present pas. be very harsh to understand 'navis' with sage we ought not to connect sub undis both. We have “avertens"in an intrans. with correpta,' " volvit quae corripuit sense v. 402. Wagu. now says (Lect. Verg.) sub undis ;" in which case the genius of "proram restituo, sed paene invitus.” the language would bear either reading. Haupt and Ribbeck retain 'prora.' The

102–123.). The storm grows worse : oars being broken, the ship is at the the ships are dashed on rocks, stranded on mercy of the waves, which turn her head sandbanks, or spring leaks, and one is round. Weidner comp. Val. F. 1. c. “conwholly lost.'

versaque frontem Puppis in obliquum re102.] Virg. continues to imitate Hom. sonos latus accipit ictus.” (Od. 5. 313 foll.). lactare' expresses the

• Undis dat latus,' like “ telo dat wild and whirling words of Shakspeare. pectus," 10. 425. 'Cumulo' is an adverbial See on E. 2.5. lactanti' is a variety of ablat. So 2. 498, “amnis Fertur in arva the ethical dative, and may be illustrated furens cumulo," in a mass.' Praeruptus



Hi summo in fluctu pendent; his unda dehiscens
Terram inter fluctus aperit; furit aestus arenis.
Tris Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet-
Saxa vocant Itali mediis


in fluctibus Aras-
Dorsum inmane mari summo; tris Eurus ab alto 110
In brevia et Syrtis urguet, miserabile visu,
Inliditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenae.
Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten,
Ipsius ante oculos ingens a vertice pontus
In puppim ferit : excutitur pronusque magister 115

Volvitur in caput; ast illam ter fluctus ibidem aquae mons' is taken from Apoll. R. 2. mediis in fluctibus (exstantia) Itali vocant 580, kuua-åroruñge okoni Yoov. A huge aras.' Med. and Gud. ‘mediisque,' an ob. wave comes down upon the ship.

vious error. 106.] Hi’ is seen from what follows 110.] ‘Dorsum,' 10. 303. Ab alto, (* Tris Notus,' &c.) to refer to different from the deep sea, contrasted with brevia.' ships, not to men in different parts of the 111.] In brevia et Syrtis,' i. e. “in

Here the elevation and depression brevia Syrtium.” We have“ brevibus vaare described as simultaneous; in 3. 564 dis,” 5. 220. So Tac. A. 1. 70, “ Neque foll. they are undergone successively by discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia the whole fleet. •Pendent'as in 10. 303. a profundis.” Serv. compares Bpaxéa.

107.] Henry rightly understands ‘furit 113.] 'Oronten:' Med. and Gud. here, arenis,” raves with the sand,' not on the and in 6. 334 (in the latter passage Rom. sand;' comp."aestu miscentur arenae," in also), have · Orontem.' But the analogy the parallel passage 3. 557, note. As he of other words of the sort formed from the remarks, Virg. may be thinking of, if not Greek, as written in the best MSS. of specially referring to, the Syrtes, which are Virg., is in favour of 'Oronten;' which is described by Sall

. Jug: 78, "Ubi mare supported too by Charisius (see on v. 220), magnum esse et saevire coepit ventis, and defended by Wagn. (Q. V. 3); who limum arenamque et saxa ingentia fluctus however does not appear altogether contrabunt. Syrtes ab tractu nominatae.” sistent in adoptingimas the accus. of Weidner comp. 7. 530, G. 3. 241. Comp. names in is,' though the best MSS. supalso Soph. Ant. 590, kunivdet Broobdev port him. “Fidus' is a natural epithet of κελαινάν θίνα και δυσάνεμον, and Apoll. an ally who had followed the fortunes of R. 4. 1265 (speaking of the Syrtes, and Troy, not only during the siege, but in probably imitated by Virg.), řaida 8 Udup exile. Ξαινόμενον πολιήσιν επιτροχάει ψαμάθοισιν. . 114.] ‘Ipsius,’ Aeneas. Ingens pon. 'Surf and sand are raving together.' tus,''a vast mass of sea,' as we speak of

108.] Latentia, i. e. in a storm, for in shipping a heavy sea.' No authority a calm they are visible, dorsum inmane is quoted for this use of pontus;' and mari summo. Comp. 5.125. These saxa froin the imitation by Val. F. (4. 666), are generally supposed to be the “ Aegimori “magno puppim procul aequore vestit,” it insulae" at the mouth of the bay of Car- would appear to be a phrase invented by thage. Pliny 5. 7, “Contra Carthaginis Virg. bimself. Od. 5. 313, érac ev méya sinum duae Aegimori arae, scopuli verius κύμα κατ' άκρης Δεινόν έπεσσύμενον. “Α quam insulae, inter Siciliam inaxime et vertice' is a translation of kat' črpns. Sardiniam.” Mr. Long, however, identifies 115.] 'Ferit (navim) in puppim, like the 'saxa' with the Skerki Rocks, which “montem inpulit in latus," v. 81. “Ma. are on the Adventure Bank, a shallow pla- gister,' properly the pilot, who is here the teau between Sicily and Tunis.

as the steersman,“ gubernator." 109.] Suspicion has been cast by Heyne Both names are given to Palinurus, 6. 337, on this verse as a prosaic interpolation, 353 (where “excussa magistro”is parallel but it is acknowledged by Quinct. Inst. to 'excutitur'); Comp. Od. 12. 413. Serv. 8. 2; and without it, as Wagn. remarks, says some in his time read 'pronun.' • dorsum inmane mari summo' would con 116.] • Ibidem,' on the spot. Ý 8 de tradict‘latentia.' The order is' saxa quae nixon Taoa, Od. 12. 416.

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