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the good effects of resident authority amongst them, for it has been greatly amended in few years. I was very honorably attended on and accompanied by the Earls of Desmond, Thomond, and Clancare, the Bishops of Cassell and Cork, and the elect of Rosse-Carbrie, the Wiscounts Barry and Roche, the Barons Courcy, Lixnaw, Dunboyne, Power, Barry Oge, and Louthe, who, only to do me honour, came out of the English Pale to that city. There were also divers of the Irishry not yet nobilitated—the Lord of Carbrie, Sir Donnell McCartie, and the Lord of Muskrye, Sir Cormucke McTeg McCartie; “neither of these but (in respect of his territories) were able to be a Viscount, and truly I wish them both to be made barons, for they be both good subjects, and in especial the latter.” “There came to me also Sir Owen O'Sulevan and the son and heir of O'Sulevan More, the father not being able to come by reason of his great years and impotency; Sir William O'Carroll, of Ely Carroll and McDonoghe; never a one of these but for his lands might pass in rank of a baron, either in Ireland or England. There were in like manner with me of the Irishry, O'Kife, McFinine, the sons (or heirs as they would have them) of McAwlive and O'Callaghan; the old men not being able to come by reason of extreme age and infirmity; O'Maghon and O’Driscoll; each of these have land enough (with good order) to live like a knight, here or there. There were with me that descended of the English race, Sir James FitzGerald, brother to the Wiscount Decies, Sir Theobald Butler, whose uncle and cousin germaine were Barons of the Cahir, whose lands he lawfully and justly enjoyeth.” Sir Thomas, Sir John, and Sir James, of Desmond, brethren to the Earl, were continually with me, and a number of other gentlemen. “There came to me also many of the ruined reliques of the ancient English inhabitants of this province, as the Arundells, Rochfords, Barretts, Flemings, Lombards, Terries," and many other, whose ancestors, as may appear by monuments as well of writing as of building, were able, and did live like gentlemen, knights some of them, and now all in misery, either banished from their own or oppressed upon their own. “Lastly there came to me five brethren and the sons of two other brethren of one lineage, all captains of gallowglas, called McSwynes, who, although I place them last of the rest, yet are they of a[s] much consequence as any of the rest, for of such credit and force were they grown unto, (though they were no lords of lands themselves,) as they would make the greatest lords of the province both in fear of them and glad of their friendship. And the better to furnish out the beauty and filling of the city, all these principal lords had with them their wives during all the Christmas, who truly

* “Tirrells,” in the margin.

1576.

kept very honorable, at least very plentiful, houses; and, to
be brief, many widow ladies were there also, who erst had
been wives to earls and others of good note and accompt.” I
found Mr. Dowdall and Mr. Welshe commissioners in this
province.
“They seemed, in all appearance, generally to loathe their
vile and barbarous manner of life; they offered all fealty,
homage, and service to her Majesty and crown for ever; and
I dare undertake there is never a one of the above named,
but (if her Highness will) shall perform it at Westminster.”
They desire to hold their lands of her Highness, and to yield
both rent and service. They agreed to deliver in the names
of their idle men and to answer for them, “and if any were
found unbooked, to be used as a felon or vagabond.”
I caused daily sessions to be held in that city, from the
morrow after Twelfth Day till the last of January; 24 notable
malefactors were condemned and executed. Condon, or
Canton, of Armoy, was attainted and judged to die, and yet
stayed from execution, but his lands, which are great, are

escheated to her Majesty. A younger son of the Wiscount

Roche was condemned to die, but stayed from execution, for,
as the world goes here, his fault was very small. More has
been done for the recovery of the Queen's decayed rents and
embezzled lands than was ever done in the memory of man.
Her Highness has a diligent servant in Lancelot Alford, her
surveyor here.
I have taken pledges of all who are of any regard, especially
of the McSwynes, a brood not a little perilous to this
province.
I have considered how I might satisfy the lords with some
certain revenue instead of their extortions, and find them in
this point very tractable, though the matter in handling is
somewhat tough.
“For the last point of my doings in Cork; I hope I have
laid such a plot as the province shall bear 50 horsemen and
100 footmen of her Majesty's English soldiers continually, if
foreign invasion impeach not the device, and find them both
victuals and wages, and daily pay them their entertainments.
This plot is to begin at May Day next, and none will impugn
this, but it shall take place, if it be not a great one or two ;
neither shall they be able to resist it, if they find not counte-
nance and maintenance there.”
I left Cork the first of this month, and lodged two nights
by the way hitherwards at my Lord Roche's; then I entered
into the county of Limerick, and lodged one night in the town
of Kilmallocke, which was lamentably spoiled and burned by
FitzMaurice, but has been speedily reedified.
From thence I came to this city, the 4th inst., accompanied
by the Earl of Desmond, the Bishops of Cassell and Cork, my
Lord of Louth, and others; I was received with great
pomp.

1576.

All the principal gentlemen of this county, and likewise those that dwell in the lordships adjoining, (who are doubtful whether they be of this county or no) repaired to me, “as namely, the Burkes, Lacies, Suppells, Purcells, the Red Roche, and divers other original English, divers also of the lords cf the Irishry, as, O'Mulrian, McBrian O'Gonoughe, McBrien Araghe, O'Brien of Arloe, which do inhabit the south side of Shenan, and many other of note, original Irish ; all lamenting the waste and spoil of their countries.” They crave to have the forces of their mean lords suppressed, to be equally cessed, to bear an English force, to have English laws planted amongst them, and English sheriffs to execute those laws, and to surrender their lands to her Majesty. To this town the Earl of Ormond came to me and friendly accompanied me five or six days, and likewise my Lord of Upper Ossory, who made report to me of the universal quiet and good state of the Pale, wherein his service and great travel taken therein is worthy of note; likewise both the Earl of Clanrickard's sons, Ulick and John Burghe, who, not many years past, were most execrable evil doers, but since pardoned ; I licensed them both to depart, but with condition that they should meet me again at Galway. To this place came to me (and still continue with me) the Earl of Thomond and all the principal gentlemen of his surname, being near kinsfolk, yet extreme enemies. Two Lords of Thomond, called the McNemaries, came likewise to me, lamenting the ruin and waste of their countries, and craving to have English laws and English sheriffs. As to the O'Briens and their country, as I mean to lay it to the government of Connaught, I will write thereof in my discourse of Connaught, which I will dispatch by the beginning of April next. Two other counties there are in this province, namely, Kerry and Tipperary. The Queen's writ is not allowed currency in them. I conjecture that, as long as any subject has any jurisdiction palatine in either of them, there will be no perfect reformation in Munster. The principal gentlemen of each county have been with me. Thus I end with Munster, in which I have found great towardness of reformation since my late repair into these parts; and “I dare affirm that, if Mr. Perrott had continued till my arrival and maintained the course still he held while he was here, I should have found Munster as well as I left Wales; and Mr. Agard, considering the impediments he found, (which Mr. Perrott left not,) did as much as might be ; and so have two gentlemen of this country birth, James Dowdall and Nicholas Welshe, both professors of the law, and remaining here since the revocation of Mr. Agard, have done as much as was to be looked for of men of their quality, wanting men of war and force to execute their orders, arrests, and decrees.” Munster needs a discreet and active governor, “for these

1576.

people are of the most part Papists, and that in the maliciest
decree, et movarum rerum cupidi, delighted in ravyne and
licentious life.”
“James FitzMaurice lieth still in St. Maloes, and keepeth a
great port, himself and family well appareled and full of
money; he hath oft intelligence from Rome and out of Spain;
not much relief from the French King that I can perceive,
yet oft visited by men of good countenance. Thus much I
know of certain report, by spial of my own from thence, the
man is subtil, malicious, and hardy, a Papist in extremity, and
well esteemed and of good credit amongst the people. If he
come and be not hotly dealt withal at the first, (as without
an English commander I know he shall not,) all the loose
people of this province will flock unto him; yea, the Lords,
though they would do their best, shall not be able to keep
them from him. So as if he come and in show and appear-
ance like a man of war (as I know he will), and that I be in
the North—as, God willing, I will be at Carrigfergus before
Midsummer Day—he may take, and do what he will, with Kin-
sale, Cork, Youghall, Kilmallock, and haply this city, too before
I shall be able to come to the rescue thereof. Hasten therefore
my good Lords, him that shall take the charge here" in the
Queen and country's behalf—I crave it; and the only man I
hope you will find is Sir William Druerye.”
The like [governor] is requisite in Connaught, and also
a Chancellor for the whole realm. The Queen has paid, ever
since the death of Mr. Weston, late Lord Chancellor, 300l. a year
to the Keeper of the Great Seal, who never sits in court, or does
anything else incident to the office of a Chancellor, but only
keeps the Seal. I once heard that Mr. Rookebie was ready
to embark hitherward to have supplied that office, and since
that Mr. William Gerrard was appointed to it. If it be so, I
beseech you that he may be here before the beginning of next
term. I have had long experience of him, having had his
assistance in Wales now 16 years.
At Cork, certain pieces of counterfeited coin of Spanish
stamps were brought to me, uttered from hand to hand. I
found out that the money was made in a castle of the Earl of
Ormond's, in his liberty of the county of Tipperary, whither
I sent. The parties were brought to me, with some of their
money pots for melting stuff for minting, and other instru-
ments. The parties were but two, “the master and the ser-
vant, both Englishmen, born in the north; the master, a
gentleman (as he saith) and is called Harrison, and much de-
lighted (as he confesseth) a long time in alchymistical practices;
his man an excellent artizan in sundry occupations.” The
fact they confess, having been persuaded it is not felony
and treason by the law of this iand by some of the best
lawyers in England; and the like is affirmed to me by some

* i.e., in Munster.

1576.

of the like profession here, though I am given to understand
that the fact is treason, by others of better trust about me,
as namely, Sir Lucas Dillon. If the matter be tried here by
the ordinary course of law, it must be tried before my Lord of
Ormond's officers, for the offence was committed within his
liberty, or else he will think himself much wronged and his
grant infringed. After their apprehension a barque arrived
at Waterford, which brought them certain stuff, pots, and
instruments, which I have caused to be stayed, and the party
that brought it. Certain pieces of English counterfeits were
found in those quarters with simple people.
My servant, John Gefford, has just arrived here, with letters
from your Honours, dated at Hampton Court, the 24th of the
last, in answer to mine of 4th Nov. and 15th Dec.
“Touching my suit for McGennes, wherein you desire more
fully to understand my meaning, whether it be meant that
he shall have the captainry by inheritance, and the land he
holdeth presently as his own freehold, leaving the rest to
other freeholders, or else to have the captainry of the whole;”
though I am of opinion that, the dissipation of the great
lords and their countries, and the reducing of their lands
into many hands, is a sound way of proceeding to perfect
reformation, yet the attempting of it is perilous. My
Lord of Essex's plot for the reformation of the North is
the best and surest foundation to build on. But if that
enterprise be not pursued, but let fall, what better mean is
there to make the lords of countries to apply to obedience,
than to assure them of their own : Then, if obedience and
rent may be had, it seems better to take some rent and
service than to forego it, since a better composition cannot
be had of them except by force. As for the lands of McGennys,
they are her Majesty's, and given her by Act of Parliament,
so that she may give him part and reserve part to herself, if
she please. It is objected that the rent is small in respect
of the greatness and quantity of the soil, since O’Hanloyne's
country, being a less scope of ground and territory, is valued
at a greater rent. I answer that the one person is an open
enemy, and the other has continued a dutiful subject, since
the overthrow of Shane O'Neale.
I thank you for having in remembrance to deal with
Chatterton and Malbie; “and because at May 1)ay, commonly,
the Irish captains and lords use to bargain and compound
with their tenants, which time now approacheth, I am the
bolder eftsones to renew the matter to your Honours, so
that, your resolutions therein known, I may take order
accordingly.”
I thank you for having considered Tirloughe Lenaghe's
requests. According to your directions I will conclude the
best bargain that I can. His agent is not yet returned, and
I cannot have his warrant drawn, or anything done in good
form, before I come to Dublin. As to “the articles your Lps.

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