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Isque his Aenean solatus vocibus infit:
heaven or demanded by the order of fate, casion of the burning of the ships. •Every to show how completely the responses re- contingency, whether it help us to a fixed presented and were identified with the point or turn us back from it, is to be surevents. The events or responses are said mounted not by resistance but by submisto be portended by the wrath of the gods, sion.' 'Quidquid erit' then will mean not whereas we should rather expect to hear whatever be the issue of this portent,' that the wrath of the gods was itself por- but simply whatever may happen,' nearly tended by supernatural appearances : but the same thing which is expressed by though 'portendere' seems generally to 'omnis. Serv. comp. 2. 77, “ fuerit quodbear the latter meaning, the substantive cumque,” where however the sense is proportentum’ is quite in accordance with bably different. the former. Responsum dare' occurs 711.] ‘Acestes, like you, is a Trojan, elsewhere, as in E. 1. 45, of a god giving and, like you, of divine lineage. Comp. v. forth a response to those who consulted 38 above, where both sides of his descent him, but there can be no reason why it are given. should not be used also of suggesting a 712.) For 'consiliis' some MSS. have response to another which he is to give 'consilii,' but the dat. is more poetical, forth. Ribbeck reads "hac' after Dietsch, without raising the question about this from one of his cursives. “Ordo' of the form of the genitive. With 'coniunge' fates 3. 376. “Poscere' of the fates 4. Forb. comp. “socium summis adiungere 614., 7. 272., 8. 12, 477.
rebus” 9. 199. “Volentem :'. Nautes gua708.] *Solatus :' see on G. 1. 293. •In- rantees Acestes' readiness to act. fit' probably with his vocibus, like “ta- 713.) 'Superant’="supersunt.” The libus infit” 10. 860. Döderlein (Syn. 3. meaning is, those whom the loss of the 160) remarks that Livy is the only prose ships has rendered superfluous, i.e. the writer who uses the word, and that only crews of the four burnt vessels. in the early and, so to say, poetical part 714.] ‘Those who have begun to tire of of his history.
the vastness of the enterprise and of fol. 709.] This and the next line have been lowing your fortunes.' cited on v. 22 above as parallel. If there 715.] “Longaevosque senes:' ita dixit is any special significance in 'trahunt re- Tibull. 1. 8. 50 veteres senes.' Neque trahuntque,' it would seem to be Whether tamen ea est abundantia verborum.” Gossthe fates draw us towards Italy, as they rau, rightly, if he means that in both pashave hitherto done, or apparently repel us sages the idea of old age is intended to be from it, as by this late visitation, let us specially dwelt on and enforced. Fessas follow them in either case-in the one by aequore matres' v. 615 above. prosecuting our voyage, in the other by 716.] The neuter is used, perhaps rather leaving behind us those who have shown slightingly, as in 1. 601. themselves unfit for the enterprise, or 718.] ‘Permisso,' not, as Serv. thinks, whose means of transport have been de- by Acestes, but, as explained by Cerda stroyed.'
(who however himself reads promisso ' 710.] The sentiment is general, not, as from Rom. (?) and others), by Aeneas as a Wagn. thinks, confined to the special oc- compliment to Acestes. Thus the line
Talibus incensus dictis senioris amici,
will be equivalent to “Permitte ut appel. he says, ' when night came, then appeared a lent urbem Acestam.” The city is the vision. Comp. 10. 256, where he has same as Segesta or Egesta, the name of similarly changed the pointing. Et’howAcestes being otherwise given as Egestus : ever does point to what precedes, indicating see on v. 38 above.
that Aeneas was still occupied with these 719—745.] • This advice perplexes thoughts when he retired to rest. Aeneas all the more, when that night 722.] · Facies' = 'species' or 'imago,' Anchises appears to him in a dream, bids as in 2. 622. Caelo delapsa ’ is explained him follow Nautes' counsel, and tells him by Heyne as said “ ad sensum nostrum, de that before landing in Latium he is to rebus quae subito apparent: nam ipse Anvisit him in the shades and learn the chises in Elysio degit vv. 733, 734. But future.'
it appears from 6. 687 foll. that the shade 719.] The later editors rightly follow of Anchises in Elysium was unconscious of Gliemann's suggestion that the period for the effect produced by these visions (comp. merly placed after “amici’ should be 4. 353), so that we need not suppose that changed to a comma, 'tum vero' being this appearance is identical with the An. sometimes found after a participial clause, chises of the lower world. Serv. gives an as Sall. Cat. 61, “ Confecto proelio, tum alternative, “aut secundum quod supra vero cerneres,” Livy 2. 29 “quo repulso, diximus, quia animae caelum tenent, simutum vero” &c. • Incensus' is used of lacra vero apud inferos sunt: aut certe other excitements than those of anger and intelligamus a love missam potestatem love, 4. 360.
aliquam quae se in Anchisae converteret 720.] The MSS. are divided between voltum.” The first view would be coun'animo' (Rom., Pal., Med.), and animum? tenanced by some passages in Homer, but (Serv., Probus, Gud. a m. s. &c.). "Animus' does not seem to have been held by Virg. : was the reading before Heins., who intro- the second is simple and probable enough, duced “animum. We might also have ex- this appearance being really a dream, such pected .animi' (see on 2. 120); but it does as Zeus is said to send Il. 1. 63., 2. 6 foll. not seem to be found. The usus loquendi' Comp. the appearances Od. 4. 796., 6. 22. of Virg. is perhaps rather in favour of 723.] ‘Subito' not with delapsa' but 'animum? (comp.“ animum arrecti” 1. with effundere, as its position shows. 579, “ animum labefactus” 4. 395, with The two really come to the same thing, “animum dividit” 4. 285, “animum ver- the words being heard at the instant when sabat ” 4. 630): “animo' however is sup- the appearance is seen. ported by “animo exterrita” 8. 370, by 724.] Doubtless from Catull. 62 (64). the combination of Rom., Pal., and Med., 215, Nate, mihi longa iucundior unice and by its being less obvious than the acc., vita." “Dum vita manebat” 6. 608, 661. so that I have on the whole been led to 725.] 3. 182. adopt it, with Jahn, Wagn. (ed. mi.), 726.] From Il. 2. 26, Aids 8é ToldyyeLadewig, and Ribbeck. Rom., Gud. a m. λός είμι, “ος σευ, άνευθεν εών, μέγα κή8. &c. have 'deducitur.' With the image detai 18° dealpes. Classibus' dat. : see comp. 4. 285. The cares are here repre. Forc., and comp. E. 7. 47 note. “Ratibus sented as the parts into which Aeneas' quis depulit ignis ? ” 9. 78: comp. ib. 109. being is torn.
727.) Tandem,' in your need: the con721.] Wagn. seems right in connecting flagration being already beyond human his line rather with what follows than power. •Caelo ab alto" is sufficiently exvith what precedes, the meaning being, as plained by avevdey dúv Hom. I. c.; but
Consiliis pare, quae nunc pulcherrima Nautes
there may conceivably be a reference to complexus. But either word would be the character of the aid, rain from heaven. ill chosen here, being inconsistent with 6.
728.] ‘Pulcherrima' seems to be simply 698 foll. For the position of 'namque' transferred from the antecedent to the re- see on E. 1. 14. lative clause, for the sake of the metre 734.] The MSS. are divided between or of poetical variety. 3. 546 is scarcely “tristes umbrae' (Med. a m. pr., Rom., Pal., parallel
, though the words are sufficiently Gud.), 'tristesve umbrae' (Med. a m. sec., similar, as there “dederat quae maxuma and according to Heyne, 'plures,' including seems to mean 'which he gave as being Balliol MS.), and tristesque umbrae' (one the greatest,' -'on which he laid the most of Ribbeck's cursives a m. s). The first, stress.'
though adopted by Heins., Heyne, and Rib729.] ‘Lectos' and 'fortissima' are em- beck, is weak. The third might stand very phatic: he was to take none but picked well, as all that is required by the sense and brave men. Iuvenes, fortissima pec- is that a distinction should be made betora” 2. 348.
tween Tartarus and Elysium : but when a 730.] Comp. Numanus' description of reading well supported in itself affords the his countrymen 9.603 foll. “Aspera cultu' means of observing Virg.'s own division ="aspero cultu.” Comp. “miserandaque into Tartarus, Elysium, and the intermecultu" 3. 591.
diate state, where the sorrows of life are 731.] Pal. has 'est Latio,' which Rib. continued after death, it seems a pity not beck adopts. Helenus had told Aeneas that to adopt it. There is no force in Jahn's he would see the Sibyl at Cumae, and learn objection that 'tristesque’ is required to his destiny from her (3. 441 foll.), but had sustain the balance between Tartara umsaid nothing about going down to the braeque' and piorum concilia Elysiumshades. Assuming that it was necessary que,' as it is a mere assumption that any to bring him thither, we need not com- such balance exists. plain of the mode of effecting it here as 735.] «Concilia' here simply means a inartificial : still, it looks almost like an meeting, perhaps with an additional notion after-thought, as Aeneas in effect learns of a place of meeting. 6. 673 foll. will his destiny not from the Sibyl but from show that no formal assembly is intended. Anchises, and the very words in which her 736.] Comp. 6. 153, 243 foll. "Sanassistance is promised (3. 458, 459) are guine' abl. instrum. • Multo’implies that transferred to what is actually done by the sacrifice is to be large, as is the case Anchises (6. 890_892).
6. 243 foll. 732.] Averna per alta' seems to be 737.] The first part of the promise is used generally of the shades (7. 91), per- fulfilled at length 6. 756 foll. ; the second haps with a special reference not so much is perhaps meant to be included in the to the lake and valley of Avernus as to the general words of 6. 890 foll. Dentur whole of the region before they reach moenia ' 3. 85, 255 notes. Elysium.
738.] Night is just at its full, and the 733.] ‘Amplexus' was found by Pierius first faint breath of morning is making itself in most of his MSS. Some others have felt. VOL. II.
Et me saevus equis Oriens adflavit anhelis.
Extemplo socios primumque arcessit Acesten,
739.] Comp. G. 1. 250 note. "Saevus,' have occurred to Virg., even with his love as excluding Anchises from the upper air, for combining allusions, though it might and breaking in on the intercourse of father have suited the less chastened taste of and son. The belief in the exclusive con- Ovid. nexion between ghosts and night is natural 745.] “Farre pio" Hor. 3 Od. 23. 20, enough. An English reader need hardly where as here offerings to the Penates are be referred to the Ghost in Hamlet. Goss- spoken of. Comp. ib. 9 where the Lares rau has quoted his words from Tieck's are propitiated "ture” (Virgil's 'acerra) translation, “ich wittre Morgenluft." "et horna fruge” (the far pium') "avi.
740.] Comp. G. 4. 499, 500. Pal. has daque porca." ‘ad auras.'
748–761.] ‘He tells the vision to his 741.] Serv. says “Ordo est, Aeneas comrades and Acestes, and they agree to deinde, Quo ruis?" an inversion which here act on it. The ships are repaired-the at any rate is of course quite impossible. new city begun, and honours paid to Venus The words seem to answer exactly to our and Anchises.' •Whither are you hurrying now?' con- 746.] Comp. 3. 58, “Delectos populi veying a reproach for not remaining longer. ad proceres primumque parentem Monstra
Proripis' E. 3. 19, where the full re- deum refero," thongh there the reference flexive form is used.
seems to be more formal : see note there. 742.] “Quem fugis ? " 6. 466, E. 2. 60. ‘Accersit,' the old reading before Heins., is Comp. Aeneas' words 6. 698.
supported here by Med., Rom., Gud. a m. s. 743.) Aeneas offers sacrifices after super- &c. The question is of course one to be de. natural appearances 3. 176 foll., 8. 542 cided on grounds far wider than can be supfoll. The latter passage is closely parallel plied by the MSS. of a single author in a to this. The words cinerem et sopitos single passage. The result seems to be that suscitat ignis' recur 8. 410 in a simile. "arcesso' is apparently the correct form They must be explained here from the according to analogy, but that 'accerso next line, as Aeneas is in his own house, has everywhere such respectable support and so would only have household deities from the MSS. that it is probably to be about him: otherwise we might have admitted as a co-ordinate form in use in supposed that he revived the sacrificial the best ages of Latinity. A mistaken fire, which had doubtless been burning for spelling founded on a mistaken analogy his father the day before.
may easily come into vogue in the purest 744.] 'Pergameumque Larem' is pro- period of a language. Which form Virg. bably the same as "Assaraci Larem," men- preferred we cannot of course tell
, nor is tioned by Ascanius along with the Penates, the point of any importance. Med. is inand Vesta 9. 259, where “canae penetralia consistent, giving accerso' here and in Vestae” is repeated. So perhaps 8. 543. 6. 119, ‘arcesso’ in 10. 11, G. 4. 224.
Canae' points to the old religion, of which 748.] Nunc' and constet' both point the worship of Vesta formed part, like to previous indecision.
* Quae nune cana Fides et Vesta” 1. 292 note. animo sententia surgat” 9. 191. Serv. gives an alternative, “aut antiquae, 749.] . Haud mora consiliis seems to aut propter ignis favillas.” The last notion mean the plan does not take long to apshows ingenuity, but is hardly likely to prove itself to them,' or 'to put in action :
Transcribunt urbi matres, populumque volentem
comp. v. 639 above. But it might possi- vant, either make new benches or repair bly be “the debate is not delayed,' i. e. it the old. Comp. “ tecta novantem” 4. 260. is short, or they do not debate at all. “Reponere' of repairing, i.e. setting up “ Iussa,' voluntatem - aut certe quae again, in a new form. Forc. quotes Tac. A. Iuppiter iusserat,” Serv. The first inter- 1.63,"ruptos vetustate pontis reponeret." pretation seems the right one: comp. 4. 753.] Navigiis' not "in navigia,” like 503. In each case perhaps the choice of “vina reponite mensis” 7. 134, but in the the word may have been regulated by the same sense as “ponere alicui," to give fact that the request has something of the a thing to a person. There was a doubt authority of a command, embodying here about the pointing even in Serv.'s time, the injunction of a deity, there that of a some putting the stop after robora, as priestess.
Heins. has done, with the approbation of 750.] Serv. says of transcribunt' Heyne : but the old commentator rightly “ Romani moris verbum est : transcripti prefers punctuating after 'navigiis.' 'Apenim in colonias deducebantur.” No other tare' is used elsewhere of getting a ship instance is however quoted of this use of into order, 4. 289. As applied to oars, it the word, which is perhaps only adapted refers more particularly to shaping them by Virg. from 'adscribi,' the regular word (comp. 1. 552), as applied to ropes, to for entering a colony already formed. attaching them to the vessel (comp. 3.
751.] “ Deponunt, quasi de navibus” 472). Serv., rightly. “Caesar deponit legiones, 754.] “Virtus' forms rather a bold apequitesque a navibus egressos iubet de position to exigui numero;' but there is languore reficere," Hirt. Bell. Alex. 1. 34. a similar one in 11. 338, “Largus opum, They had of course been already landed : et lingua melior, sed frigida bello Dextera” but the word expresses with some vivid- (comp. also by Forb.). “Vivida virtus" ness the fact of their subtraction from 11.386. It matters little whether 'bello' the ships' crews. It is perhaps hardly be dative, ad bellum,' or abl. worth while to combine with this Heyne's 755.] With the passage generally comp. explanation, “ut inutile onus." Serv. the description of the building of Carthage mentions another interpretation, according 1. 423 foll. • Designat aratro :' the custo which a stop is placed at 'volentem, tom is thus explained by Serv., “Quem and deponunt taken with animos '- Cato in Originibus dicit morem fuisse. Con
quae lectio et sententia Nascimbaeno ditores enim civitatis taurum in dextram, castior visa est,” says Taubmann. 'Ani. vaccam intrinsecus iungebant, et incincti mos' forms an apposition like . corda ritu Gabino, id est, togae parte caput above v. 729. Egentis' expresses not velati, parte succincti, tenebant stivam the absence of the thing, but the sense of incurvam, ut glebae omnes intrinsecus its absence--a change of meaning equally caderent, et ita sulco ducto loca murorum observable in our word 'want,' as Henry designabant aratra suspendentes circa loca remarks. Thus the expression is exactly portarum.” The same account is given more contrasted with “laudum cupido " v. 138 briefly by Varro L. L. 5. 143 Müller. The above, 6. 823. With the construction passage of Cato is given by Isidorus 15. 2, Henry comp. G. 2. 28, “Nil radicis egent 3, “Qui urbem novam condet, tauro et aliae." One or two MSS. have agentis,' vacca aret, ubi araverit, murum faciat, which has met with some approbation in ubi portam vult esse, aratrum sustollat et later times.
portet et portam vocet.” So when Aeneas 752.] •Ipsi' contrasts those who go with first lands in Latium, “humili designat those who stay. "They provide for the moenia fossa” 7. 157. weaker sort, and then prepare vigorously 756.] •Sortitus’ is found in a few MSS., for their own departure.' Transtra no- and was adopted by Burm. and Heyne,