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B. C. 595.
The ruin of the Chaldeans
and of Babylon foretold. A. M. 3409. 22 - A sound of battle is in the recompense her according to her
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2. land, and of great destruction. work; according to all that she Ol. XLVI. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,
23 How is b the hammer of the hath done, do unto her: m for she Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman, 22. whole earth cut asunder and hath been proud against the R. Roman, 22. broken! how is. Babylon become a desolation LORD, against the Holy One of Israel. among the nations !
30' n Therefore shall her young men fall in 24 I have laid a snare for thee, and thou the streets, and all · her men of war shall be art also taken, O Babylon, and thou 'wast cut off in that day, saith the LORD. not aware : thou art found, and also caught, 31 Behold, I am against thee, O thou most because thou hast striven against the LORD. proud, saith the Lord God of hosts : for Pthy
25 The LORD hath opened his armoury, and day is come, the time that I will visit thee. hath brought forth the weapons of his indig-| 32 And a the most proud shall stumble and nation : for this is the work of the Lord God fall, and none shall raise him up: and I will of hosts in the land of the Chaldeans. kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour
26 Come against her from the utmost bor- all round about him. der, open her storehouses : fcast her up as 33 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The heaps, and destroy her utterly: let nothing of children of Israel and the children of Judah her be left.
were oppressed together : and all that took 27 Slay all her 5 bullocks; let them go down them captives held them fast; they refused to to the slaughter: wo unto them! for their day let them go. is come, the time of h their visitation.
34 Their Redeemer is strong; ' the LORD of 28 The voice of them that flee, and escape hosts is his name : he shall thoroughly plead out of the land of Babylon, i to declare in their cause, that he may give rest to the land, Zion the vengeance of the Lord our God, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon. the vengeance of his temple.
35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, saith 29 Call together the archers against Baby- the Lord, and upon the inhabitants of Baby lon : * all ye that bend the bow, camp against lon, and upon her princes, and upon her it round about; let none thereof escape: wise men. · Chap. li. 54. -b Isa. xiv. 6; chap. li. 20. Chap. li. 8,
Ver. 15; chap. li. 56; Rev. xviii. 6. Isa. 31, 39, 57; Dan. v. 30, 31.
Heb. from the xlvii, 10.- Chap. xlix. 26; li. 4. - Heb. pride.md. - Or, tread her. - - Psa. xxii. 12; Isa. xxxiv, 7; chap. | 27.— Heb. pride.- --Chap. xxi. 14. * Rev. xvii. 8. xlvi. 21.- - Chap. xlviii. 44; ver. 31.-i Chap. li. 10, 11. "Isa. xlvii. 4.-u Dan. v. 30.- Isa. xlvii. 13. literal. The words are addressed to the Medes and Verse 28. Declare in Zion the vengeance of the Persians; and the country is Chaldea, doubly rebel Lord] Zion was desolated by Babylon ; tell Zion that lious by its idolatry and its insufferable pride. In these God hath desolated the desolator, two, it was exceeded by no other land.
The vengeance of his temple.) Which NebuchadVerse 23. The hammer of the whole earth] Nebu- nezzar had pillaged, profaned, and demolished, transchadnezzar dashed to pieces the nations against whom porting its sacred vessels to Babylon, and putting them he warred. He was the scourge of the Lord. in the temple of his god Bel.
Verse 24. I have laid a snare for theel It was not Verse 29. Call together the archers] The preceding by storm that Cyrus took the city. The Euphrates verses are the prediction : here, God calls the Medes ran through it; he dug a channel for the river in an- and Persians to fulfil it. other direction, to divert its stream; he waited for that Verse 31. O thou most proud] 1171 zadon. PRIDE timne in which the inhabitants had delivered themselves in the abstract; proudest of all people. up to debauchery: in the dead of the night he turned Verse 32. And the most proud] 1977 zadon, as beoff the stream, and he and his army entered by the old fore. Heré pride is personified and addressed, as if channel, now void of its waters. This was the snare possessing a being and rational powers. of which the prophet here speaks. See Herodotus, Verse 34. Their Redeemer is strong] And it was lib. i., c. 191.
not that he wanted power, and that Nebuchadnezzar Verse 26. Open her store-houses) At the time that had much, that Jerusalem was taken; but because the Cyrus took the city, it was full of provisions and trea- people had sinned, and would not return; and therefore sures of all kinds; the walls had suffered no injury; national sins called for national punishments. These and when the inhabitants heard that the enemy was have taken place; and now the Lord of hosts shows within, they thought they must have arisen out of the them that the power of the Chaldeans is mere weakearth in the centre of the city!
ness against his might. Verse 27. Slay all her bullocks) Princes, magis- Verse 35. A sword] War and its calamities, or trates, &c., &c.
any grievous plague; and so in the following verses,
k Ver. 14.
_d Isa. xiii. 5.
Ver. B. C. 595.
The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold. A. M. 3409. 36 A sword is Wupon the they are cruel, and will not show
A. M. 3409. B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2. * liars;y and they shall dote: a mercy : their voice shall roar Ol. XLVI. 2.
Anno Tarquinii Prisci, sword is upon her mighty men; like the sea, and they shall ride Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. and they shall be dismayed. upon horses, every one put in
R. Roman., 22. 37 A sword is upon their horses, and upon array, like a man to the battle, against thee, their chariots, and upon all z the mingled O daughter of Babylon. people that are in the midst of her; and a
a they 43 The king of Babylon hath heard the shall become as women: a sword is upon her report of them, and his hands waxed feeble : treasures; and they shall be robbed. .
anguish took hold of him, and pangs as of a 38 A drought is upon her waters; and woman in travail. they shall be dried up: for it is the land of 44 m Behold, he shall come up like a lion graven images, and they are mad upon their from the swelling of Jordan unto the habiidols.
tation of the strong : but I will make them 39 d Therefore the wild beasts of the desert suddenly run away from her: and who is a with the wild beasts of the islands shall dwell chosen man, that I may appoint over her ? there, and the owls shall dwell therein : * and for who is like me ? and who will appoint it shall be no more inhabited for ever; neither me the time? and who is that shepherd that shall it be dwelt in from generation to gene- will stand before me? ration:
45 Therefore hear ye'r the counsel of the 40.8 As God overthrew Sodom and Gomor- LORD, that he hath taken against Babylon ; rah and the neighbour cities thereof, saith and his purposes, that he hath purposed the LORD; so shall no man abide there, against the land of the Chaldeans : Surely the - neither shall any son of man dwell therein. least of the flock shall draw them out : surely
41 Behold, a people shall come from the he shall make their habitation desolate with them. north, and a great nation, and many kings 46 9 At the noise of the taking of Babylon shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth. the earth is moved, and the cry is heard 42 They shall hold the bow and the lance: among the nations. w Isa. xliv. 25; chap. xlviii. 30.-Or, chief stays. :y Heb. 19; chap xlix. 18; Lam. iv. 6; Amos iv. Il; Zeph. ii. 9; 2 Pet.
- Chap. xxv. 20, 24; Ezek. xxx. 5.- Chap. li. 30; ì. 6; Jude 7, Ver. 9; chap. vi. 22 ; xxv. 14; li. 27; Rev. Nah. ii. 13.b Isa. xliv. 27; chap. li. 32, 36; Rev. xvi. 12. xvii. 16. – Chap. vi. 22.- i Isa. xiii. 18.(Ver. 2; chap. li. 44, 47, 52. - Isa. xii. 21, 22; xxxiv. 14; Chap. xlix. 24. m Chap. xlix. 19, &c. - Or, convent me chap. li. 37 ; Rev. xviii. 2. Isa. xiii, 20; chap. xxv. 12. to plead. Job xli. 10; chap. xlix. 19. - Isa. xiv. 24, &c.; Gen. xiii. 10; xix. 24, 25, 28; Deut. xxix. 23; Isa. i. 9; xiii. chap. li. 11. - Rev. xviii. 9.
Verse 38. A drought is upon her waters] May not fruitful, and utterly incapable of being inhabited. And this refer to the draining of the channel of the Eu- this is the fact concerning both countries. See chap. phrates, by which the army of Cyrus entered the city. xlix. 18. See on ver. 24. The original is, however, an che- Verse 41. Behold, a people shall come from the reb, a sword, as in the preceding verses, which signi- north] This and the two following verses are nearly fies war, or any calamity by which the thing on which the same with chap. vi. 22–24. But here, destroyers it falls is ruined.
against Babylon are intended ; there, destroyers against Verse 39. The wild beasts of the desert) Dahler | Jerusalem. translates these various terms, “ The wild cats, the Verse 44. Behold, he shall come up like a lion] The jackals, and the ostriches." And Blayney the same. same words as in chap. xlix. 19, &c., where see the note. Wicklif, “ Dragons, woodewoses, and ostriches." Co- Verse 46. At the noise of the taking of Babylon) verdale, “Wild beestes, apes, and estriches.” See the note on the parallel place, chap. xlix. 21. In
Verse 40. As God overthrew Sodom] As the very the forty-ninth chapter, these words are spoken of Ne ground on which these cities stood, with all the plain, buchadnezzar ; here, of Cyrus. · The taking of Babynow lies under the Dead Sea ; so Babylon and the ad- lon was a wonder to all the surrounding nations. It jacent country shall be rendered totally barren and un- was thought to be impregnable.
Isa. y. 30
Sequel of the prophecies of Jeremiah against Babylon. The dreadful, sudden, and final ruin that shall fall
upon the Chaldeans, who have compelled the nations to receive their idolatrous rites, (see an instance in the third chapter of Daniel,) set forth by a variety of beautiful figures; with a command' to the people of The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold. God, (who have made continual intercession for the conversion of their heathen rulers,) to flee from the impending, vengeance, 1-14. Jehovah, Israel's God, whose infinite power, wisdom, and understanding are every where visible in the works of creation, elegantly contrasted with the utterly contemptible objects of the Chaldean worship, 15-19. Because of their great oppression of God's people, the Babylonians shall be visited with cruel enemies from the north, whose innumerable hosts shall fill the land, and utterly extirpate the original inhabitants, 20–44. One of the figures by which this formidable invasion is represented is awfully sublime. “ The sea is come up upon Babylon ; she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof." And the account of the sudden desolation produced by this great armament of a multitude of nations, (which the prophet, dropping the figure, immediately subjoins,) is deeply afflictive. “ Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness ; a land wherein no man dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby.” The people of God a third time admonished to escape from Babylon, lest they be overlaken with her plagues, 45, 46. Other figures setting forth in a variety of lights the awful judgments with which the Chaldeans shall be visited on account of their very gross idolatries, 47–58. The significani emblem with which the chapter concludes, of Seraiah, after having read the book of the Prophet Jeremiah against Babylon, binding a stone to it, and casting it into the river Euphrates, thereby prefiguring the very sudden downfall of the Chaldean city and empire, 59-64, is beautifully improved by the writer of the Apocalypse, chap. xviii. 21, in speaking of Babylon the Great, of which the other was a most expressire type ; and to which many of the passages interspersed throughout the Old Testament Scriptures relative to Babylon must be ultimately referred, if we would give an interpretation in every respect equal to the terrible import of the language in which these prophecies are conceived. 0.034THUS saith the Lord; Behold, though their land was filled with
B. C. 595. OL. XLVI. 2. I will raise up against Baby- sin against the Holy One of 01. XLVI. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, lon, and against them that dwell Israel.
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22.
in the a midst of them that rise 6 Flee out of the midst of R. Roman., 22. up against me, "a destroying wind;
Babylon, and deliver every man his soul; be And will send unto Babylon fanners that not cut off in her iniquity; for i this is the shall fan her, and shall empty her land ; d for time of the Lord's vengeance; "he will in the day of trouble they shall be against her render unto her a recompense. round about.
7 ? Babylon hath been a golden cup in the 3 Against him that bendeth. let the archer Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken: bend his bow, and against him that lifteth him-m the nations have drunken of her wine; thereself up in his brigandine: and spare ye not her fore the nations are mad., young men; f destroy ye utterly all her host. 8 Babylon is suddenly • fallen and destroyed :
4 Thus the slain shall fall in the land of the howl for her ; 4 take balm for her pain, if so Chaldeans, & and they that are thrust through be she may be healed. in her streets.
9 We would have healed Babylon, but she 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, nor is not healed : forsake her, and let us go Judah of his God, of the Lord of hosts; every one into his own country : • for her
A. M. 3409.
a Heb hearl, 2 Kings xix. 7; chap. iv. 11. — Chap: xv. I Rev. xvii. 4. -m Rev. xiv. 8.- Chap. xxv. 16. Lo Isa. 7. - Chap. 1. 14. Chap. I. 14.
Chap. 1. 21. % Chap. xxi. 9; Rev. xiv. 8; xviii 2.- -p Chap. xlviii. 20; Rev. xviii. xlix. 26 ; 1. 30, 37. — Chap. I. 8; Rev. xviii. 4:- Chap. 1. 9, 11, 19:—- Chap. xlvi. 11.- Isa. xii. 4 ; chap. I. 16. 15, 28. —Chap. xxv. 14,
* Rev. xviii. 5.
NOTES ON. CHAP. LI.
cast them wholly off. Even in the midst of wrathVerse 1. Thus saith the Lord] This chapter is a highly deserved and inflieted punishment, he has recontinuation of the preceding prophecy.
membered mercy; and is now about to crown what he A destroying wind.) Such as the pestilential winds has done by restoring them to their own land. I conin the east; and here the emblem of a destroying ceive DUX asham, which we translate sin, as rather army, carrying all before them, and wasting with fire signifying punishment, which meaning it often has. and sword.
Verse 7. Made all the earth drunken] The cup of Verse 2. And will send-fanners) When the corn God's wrath is the plenitude of punishment, that he is trodden out with the feet of cattle, or crushed out inflicts on transgressors. It is represented as intoxiwith a heavy wheel armed with iron, with a shovel cating and making them mad. they throw it up against the wind, that the chaff and Verse 8. Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed broken straw may be separated from it. · This is the These appear to be the words of some of the spectaimage used by the prophet; these people shall be trod- tors of Babylon's misery. den, crushed, and fanned by their enemies.
Verse 9. We would have healed Babylon] Had it Verse 5. For Israel hath not been forsaken] God been in our power, we would have saved her ; but we still continued his prophets among them; he had never could not turn away the judgment of God.
A. M. 3409.
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2
The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold. judgment reacheth unto heaven, men, as with caterpillars; and 01. XLVI. 2. and is lifted up even to the skies. they shall 6 lift h up a shout Tarquinii Prisci, 10 The LORD hath brought against thee.
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. forth our righteousness : come,
R. Roman., 22.
15 i He hath made the earth by and let us u declare in Zion the work of the his power, he hath established the world by LORD our God.
his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heail Make w bright the arrows; gather the ven by his understanding. shields : * the LORD hath raised up the spirit 16 When he uttereth his voice, there is a of the kings of the Medes : y for his device is multitude of waters in the heavens; and he against Babylon, to destroy it; because it is causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends - the vengeance of the LORD, the vengeance of the earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, of his temple.
and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures · 12 · Set up the standard upon the walls of 17 • Every man pis brutish by his knowBabylon, make the watch strong, set up the ledge ; every founder is confounded by the watchmen, prepare the bambushes : , for the graven image : 4 for his molten image is falseLord hath both devised and done that which hood, and there is no breath in them. he spake against the inhabitants of Babylon. 18 They are vanity, the work of errors:
13 0 thou that dwellest upon many waters, in the time of their visitation they shall perish. abundant in treasures, thine end is come, and 19 The Portion of Jacob is not like them; the measure of thy covetousness.
for he is the former of all things : and Israel 14 « The LORD of hosts hath sworn by is the rod of his inheritance : the LORD of himself, saying, Surely I will fill thee with 'hosts is his name:
Psa. xxxvii. 6.
Chap. I. 28. Chap. xlvi. 4. -* Heb. *& Heb, utter. Chap. I. 15. Gen. i. 1, 6; chap. x. 12, pure,
- Isa. xiii. 17; ver. 28. -y Chap. 1. 45. —- Chap. 1. 28. | đc. - -k Job ix. 8; Psa. civ. 2; Isa. xl. 22.- Chap. x. 13. * Nah. ii. 1; ui. 14. Heb. liers in wait.- Rev. xvii. 1; 15. m Or, noise. -- Psa. cxxxv. 7. Chap. x. 14. — Or, is & Chap. xlix. 13; Amos vi. 8. - Heb. by his soul. — Nah. more brutish than to know.-Chap. I. 2. Chap. x. 15. iu. 15.
* Chap. x. 16.
Verse 10. The Lord hath brought forth our right- He hath established the world by his wisdom] The eousness] This is the answer of the Jews. God has omniscience of God is particularly seen in the governvindicated our cause.
ment of San tebel, the inhabited surface of the globe. Verse 11. Make bright the arrows] This is the What a profusion of wisdom and skill is apparent in prophet's address to Babylon.
that wondrous system of providence by which he goThe Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of verns and provides for every living thing. the Medes] Of Cyaxares king of Media, called Da- And hath stretched out the heaven by his understandrius the Mede in Scripture ; and of Cyrus king of ing:] Deep thought, comprehensive design, and conPersia, presumptive heir of the throne of Cyaxares, summate skill are especially seen in the formation, his uncle. Cambyses, his father, sent him, Cyrus, magnitudes, distances, revolutions, and various affecwith 30,000 men to assist his uncle Cyaxares, against tions of the heavenly bodies. Neriglissar king of Babylon, and by these was Baby- Verse 16. When he ultereth his voice] Sends lon overthrown.
thunder. Verse 12. Set up the standard] A call to the ene- There is a multitude of waters). For the electric mies of Babylon to invest the city and press the siege. spark, by decomposing atmospheric air, converts the
Verse 13. O thou that dwellest upon many waters) hydrogen and oxygen gases, of which it is composed, Thou who hast an abundant supply of waters. It was into water; which falls down in the form of rain. built on the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates; 'Causeth the vapours to ascend] He is the Author the latter running through the city. But the many of that power of evaporation by which the water is waters may mean the many nations which belonged to rarified, and, being lighter than the air, ascends, in the Babylonish empire; nations and people are fre- form of vapour, forms clouds, and is ready to be sent quently so called in Scripture.
down again to water the earth by the action of his Verse 14. I will fill thee with men] By means of lightnings, as before. And by those same lightnings, these very waters through the channel of thy boasted and the agency of heat in general
, currents of air are river, thou shalt be filled with men, suddenly appearing formed, moving in various directions, which we call as an army of locusts ; and, without being expected, winds. shall lift up a terrific cry, as soon as they have risen Verse 17. Every man is brutish by his knowledge] from the channel of the river.
He is brutish for want of real knowledge; and he is Verse 15. He hath made the earth by his power) brutish when he acknowledges that an idol is any thing The omnipotence of God is particularly manifested in in the world. These verses, from fifteen to nineteen, the works of creation.
are transcribed from chap. x. 12–16.
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2.
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2.
The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold. 20 · Thou art my battle axe and for a corner, nor a stone for foun
weapons of war: for u with thee dations ; but i thou shalt be Tarquinii Prisci, will I break in pieces the nations, 2 desolate for ever, saith the Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. and with thee will I destroy LORD.
R. Roman., 22. kingdoms;
27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow 21 And with thee will I break in pieces the the trumpet among the nations, prepare the horse and his rider; and with thee will I nations against her, call together against her break in pieces the chariot and his rider; d the kingdoms of .Ararat, Minni, and Ashche
22 With thee also will I break in pieces man naz; appoint a captain against her; cause the and woman ; and with thee will I break in horses to come up as the rough caterpillars. pieces old and young ; and with thee will I 28 Prepare against her the nations with the break in pieces the young man and the maid; kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and
23 I will also break in pieces with thee the all the rulers thereof, and all the land of his shepherd -and his flock; and with thee will I dominion. break in pieces the husbandman and his yoke 29 And the land shall tremble and sorrow, of oxen ; and with thee will I break in pieces for every purpose of the Lord shall be percaptains and rulers,
formed against Babylon, fto make the land of 24 " And I will render unto Babylon and to Babylon a desolation without an inhabitant. all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil 30 The mighty men of Babylon have forborne that they have done in Zion in your sight, to fight, they have remained in their holds : saith the Lord.
their might hath failed; they became as 25 Behold, I am against thee, * O destroying women: they have burned her . dwellingmountain, saith the Lord, which destroyest places ; "her bars are broken. all the earth : and I will stretch out mine hand 31. One post shall run to meet another, and upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, one messenger to meet another, to show the y and will make thee a burnt mountain. king of Babylon that his city is taken at 26 And they shall not take of thee a stone one end, Isa. x. 5, 15; chap. 1. 23.-4 u Or, in thee, or by thee.
Chap. xxv. 14. Chap. l. 41. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17.—w Chap. I. 15, 29. - Isa. xiii. 2; Zech. / 11.- Chap. 1. 13, 39, 40; ver. 43.- <Isa. xix. 16; chap. xlviii. iv. 7.Rey. viii. 8. Chap. 1. 40.- Heb.. everlasting 41 ; 1. 37.- +Lam. ü: 9; Amos i. 5; Nah. ii. 13.- Clap.
b Isa. xiii. 2.
Verse 20. Thou art my battle axe] I believe Nébu- useless, like the cooled lava, which is, properly speakchadnezzar is meant, who is called, chap. I. 23, the ing, fit for no human purpose. hammer of the whole earth. Others think the words Verse 27. Set ye up a standard] Another summons are spoken of Cyrus. All the verbs are in the past to the Medes and Persians to attack Babylon. . tense : “ With thee have I broken in pieces,” &c., &c. Ararat, Minni] The Greater and Lesser Armenia.
Verse 24. And I will render] The 1 vau should And Ashchenaz] A part of Phrygia, near the Helbe translated but, of which it has here the full power : lespont. So Bochart, Phaleg, lib. i. c. 3, lib. iii. c. 9. “ But I will render unto Babylon."
Concerning Ashchenaz Homer seems to speak, Il. ii. Verse 25. O destroying mountain] Another epithet 370, 371:which he applies to the Babylonish government; it
Φορκυς αυ Φρυγας ηγε, και Ασκανιος θεοειδης, is like a burning, mountain, which, by vomiting con
Τηλ’ εξ Ασκανιης. tinual streams of burning lava, inundates and destroys all towns, villages, fields, &c., in its vicinity.
Ascanius, godlike youth, and Phorcys led And roll thee down from the rocks) I will tumble
The Phrygians from Ascania's distant land.” thee from the rocky base on which thou' restest. The Calmet thinks that the Ascantes, who dwelt in the vicombustible matter in thy bowels being exhausted, cinity of the Tanais, are meant. thou shalt appear as an extinguished crater; and the Verse 29. And the land shall tremble] It is represtony matter which thou castest out shall not be of sented here as trembling under the numerous armies sufficient substance to make a foundation stone for so- that are passing over it, and the prancing of their lidity, or a corner stone for beauty, ver. 26. Under horses. this beautiful and most expressive metaphor, the pro- Verse 30. The mighty men-have forborne to fight] phet shows the nature of the Babylonish government; They were panic-struck when they found the Medes setting the nations on fire, deluging and destroying and Persians within their walls, and at once saw that them by its troops, till at last, exhausted, it tumbles resistance was useless. down, is extinguished, and leaves nothing as a basis to Verse 31. One post shall run to meet another] As erect a new form of government on; but is altogether the city was taken by surprise, in the manner already