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church, and repeat the same at night-fall. The tem. In the settlement of Itape, for instance, rest of the day they are employed in assisting there is no vassalage, but the Indians there assist their mothers, whilst the men are employed in with their persons and rafts all those who pass different handicraft works, as carpentering, sculp- in the time of the floods a large arm of the river ture, musical instrument making, weaving, and Tibiquari, by which lies the road to Villarica. other mechanical arts and employments, for This province has suffered, from its first formawhich they have excellent masters. Every night tion, various convulsions and alterations, from the cabildo comes to the curate to inform him being divided into parties, formed from vain of what has happened in the course of the day, ideas of honour or interest, and has been the and the people, after saying the rosary, betake scene of great bloodshed.

To its bishopric, themselves to rest.

which was erected in 1547, belong also the These Indians cannot be said to pay any other settlements of Paraná, situate to the s.e. and of tribute than personal service to those under which we speak in their proper place. [See Pawhom they live, notwithstanding it has been at RAGUAY River.] tempted by the king to introduce a different sysTABLE of the Population of the Government of Paraguay, according to AZARA's Work,

published in 1809.

Note. The letter c. indicates city ; t. town ; p. parish ; s. settlement of Indians ; m. settlement of Mulaitoes or

people of colour.

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Yta, s..
Yaguaron, s.
Ypané, s.
Guarambare, s.
Aregua, s.
Altos, s.
Atira, s.
Tobaty, s.
Ytapé, s.
Caazapa, s.
Yuty, s.
S. Maria de Fé, s.
Santiago, s.
S. Ignacio Miri, s.
S. Ignacio Guazu, s.
Santa Rosa, s.
S. Cosme, s.
Ytapua, s.
Candelaria, s.
Santa Ana, s.
Corpus, s.
Trinidad, s.
Jesus, s.
S. Joaquin, s.
S. Estanislado, s.
Belen, s.

1536 1536 1538 1538 1538 1538 1538 1538 1673 1607 1610 1592 1592 1555 1609 1698 1634 1614 1627 1633 1622 1706 1685 1746 1749 1760 1536

25 30 30
25 33 20
25 27 44
25 29 48
25 18
25 16 6

16 45
25 16 16
25 52 0
26 11 18
26 36 56
26 48 12

8 40 27 14 52 26 54 36 26 53 19 27 18 55 27

2016 27 26 46 27 23 45 27 7 23 27 7 35 27 2 36 25 1 47 24 38 31 23 26 17 25 16 40

57 25 2 57 18 14 57 33 15 57 30 16 57 26 42 57 18 30 57 13 59 57 8 59 56 39 33 56 29 49 56 16 48 56 58 54 56 48 34 55 35 14 56 44 14 56 54 39 56 19 29 55 52 59 55 47 35 55 38 39 55 32 29 55 44 59 56 5 6 56 13 20 56 36 15 57 8 0 57 41 4

965 2093 278 368 200 869 972 932 124 725 674 1144 1097 806 864 1283 1036 1409 1514 1430 2267 1017 1185 854 729 361 7088

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Names of the cities, towns, settlements, and


Years of

their foundation.

Latitude south.

Longitude west
from London.

Number of


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Brought forward


.., Luque, p.

1635 25 15 30 57 32 19 3813 Frontira, p.

1718 25 23 50 57 35 26 2187 Lambaré, p.

1766 25 20 0 57 41 4 825 Limpio, p.

1785 25 10 25 57 31 49 1769 Concepcion, t.

1773 23 23 8 57 16 4 1551 Yquamandiyu, p. 1784 24 6 12 56 58 29

979 Curuguaty, t.

1715 24 28 10 56 54 25 2254 Carimbatay, p.

1760 24 33 35 56 57 7 972 Villarica, t.


25 48 55 56 31 59 3014 Hiaty, p.

1773 25 44 42 56 34 12 1232 Yaca Guazu, p.

1785 25 58 2 56 32 19 866 Boby, p. 1789 26 54 46 56 18 49

427 Arroyos, p.

1781 25 29 36 56 47 15 1227 Ajos, p.

1758 25 26 34 56 30 0 715 Cariy, p.

1770 25 30 27 56 52 6 654 Ybitimiri, p.

1783 25 45 43 56 53 2 620 Piribebui, p.

ld. 1640 25 27 54 57 4 37 3595 Caacupé, p.

1770 25 24 21 57 9 24 1066 S. Roque, p.

1770 25 22 28 57 3 19 733 Quarepoty, p.


24 23 25 57 13 6 540 Pirayu, p.

1769 25 29 19 57 15 12 2352 Paraguary, p.

1775 25 36 51 57 19 50 507 Capiata, p.

1640 25 21 45 57 31 48 5305 Ytangua, p.

1728 25 24 44 57 24 6 2235 S. Lorenzo, P.

1775 25 21 14 57 37 0 1720 Villeta, p.

1714 25 30 56 57 36 25 3098 Remolinos, p.

1777 26 10 0 58 3 48 458 Cara pegua, p.

1725 25 45 31 57 16 56 3346 Quiindy, p.

1733 25 58 26 57 14 49 1894 Quiquiho, p.

1777 26 13 13 57 0 50 1136 Acaay, p.

25 54 7 57 9

858 Ybicuy, p. 1766 26 0 54 57


1500 Caapucu, p.

1787 26 11 21 57 15 23 659 Neembucu, t.

1779 26 52 24 58 11 28 1730 Laureles, p.


27 13 57 57 20 34 621 Taquaras, p.

1791 26 50 43 57 49 17 520 Emboscada, m.

1740 25 7 42 57 24 5 840 Tabapy, m.

1653 25 54 56 57 21 18 644 Loreto, s.

1555 27 1928 55 34 39 1519

Total of souls, 92,347 Spaniards inhabiting Indian settlements not comprised in the above,

5,133 Total population, 97,480


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Bishops who have presided in Paraguay. manca, where he studied and graduated as licen1. Don Fr. Juan de los Barrios y Toledo, of tiate : he passed over to Peru, and was there the order of San Francisco, native of the town of made archdeacon of Cuzco, and elected bishop of Pedroche in Estremadura : he was one of the Paraguay in 1607 ; promoted to that church in first of the religious who passed over to Peru, 1618. was elected first bishop of Paraguay in 1547, and 12. Don Fr. Tomas de Torres, of the order after passing to his church, was promoted to that of S. Domingo, native of Madrid, collegiate in of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada the college of San Gregorio de Valladolid ; prein 1550.

sented to a mastership in his religion, destined 2. Don Fr. Tomas de la Torre, of the order as its general in Flanders; and after having of S. Domingo, whom the father Pedro Xavier read theology in many convents, and studied in de Charlevoix wrongly denominates, Fr. Pedro the university of Lobaina for eight years and an de la Torre; he was of the order of S. Francisco: half; he returned to Spain, was prior of the elected in 1552, and took possession in 1555. convents of S. Domingo de Zamora and de Nuestra

3. Don Fr. Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta : Señora de Atocha in Madrid, and was presented elected in 1559.

by king Philip III. to the bishopric of Paraguay 4. Don Fr. Juan del Campo, of the order of in 1619, and in 1625 promoted to that of TuSan Francisco, presented in 1575: he lived but cumán. a short time.

13. Dou. Fr. Agustin de Vega, of the same 5. Don Fr. Alonso Guerra, of the order of order as the former, native of Lima, provincial S. Domingo; presented in 1577, and promoted of his religion, calificador of the holy office, preto the bishopric of Mechoacán.

sented to this bishopric in 1625 : he died the 6. Don Fr. Juan de Almaraz, of the order of same year, before he took possession. San Agustin, native of Salamanca, master in 14. Don Fr. Christóval de Aresti, of the order his religion, calificador of the holy office, pro of San Benito, native of Valladolid : he took the fessor of writing, prior various times in his con habit in the royal monastery of San Julian of vent of Lima, preacher of great repute, and pro Samos in Galicia, was lecturer of arts in San vincial: elected bishop of Paraguay in 1591, Vincenti of Oviedo, abbot of Corneliana, probut he died before he received the notice, in the fessor of writing, twice abbot of Samos, and dififollowing year.

nidor general; elected to the bishopric of Para7. Don Tomas Vazquez del Caño, magisterial- guay in 1626, and to that of the church of Buenos canon of the holy church of Valladolid ; pre- Ayres in 1635. sented to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1596 : he 15. Don Fr. Francisco de la Serna, of the died before he was consecrated.

order of San Agustin, native of the city of Gua8. Don Fr. Baltasar de Covarrubias, of the order nuco in Peru : he studied and read arts and theoof San Agustin, native of Mexico; presented to logy in the convent of Lima, was noon and eventhe bishopric of Paraguay in 1601, and promoted ing lecturer in its university, twice provincial to Nueva Carceres in the Philippines the same calificador of the holy office, presented to the year.

bishopric of Paraguay in 1635, and promoted to 9. Don Fr. Martin Ignacio de Loyola, of the that of La Paz in 1610. barefooted order of S. Francisco : he took the 16. Don Fr. Bernardeno de Cárdenas, of the habit in the convent of Alaejos, passed to Ame order of San Francisco, native of the city of rica with the title of commissary of twenty reli- Chuquiavo in Peru, lecturer of theology, difinigious persons, returned to Spain, and was lec- dor, vicar, guardian, and visitor of his religion, turer in theology in the convents of Cadahalso preacher apostolic, a true father to the needy and Segovia, and presented by his majesty and to the Indians, in the conversion of whom Philip III. to the bishopric of Paraguay in 1601; he laboured much; presented to the bishopric of afterwards promoted to the archbishopric of Paraguay in 1638, and settled in his commission Charcas in 1607.

in 1640. In his time there was great disputes 10. Don Fr. Reginaldo de Lizarraga, of the and contentions with the Jesuits : he was proorder of S. Domingo, native of Lima: he was moted to the church of Popayáan in 1637, but presented to a degree in his religion, and pro renounced the offer from his advanced age, moted from the church of Imperial in Chile, to though he was at last prevailed to accept that this of Paraguay in 1607.

of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1666. 11. Don Lorenzo de Grado, native of Sala 17. Don Fr. Gabriel de Guillistegui, of the




order of San Francisco, commissary-general of 27. Don Fr. Juan Joseph Priego, of the order his religion ; elected bishop of Paraguay in 1666, of San Francisco : he died in 1779. and promoted in the same year to that of La 28. Don Fr. Luis de Velasco, of the order of Paz, which he renounced: he made the visita- San Francisco, native of Madrid; elected in 1779. tion of the missions of the Jesuits in that province by a special commission from the king,

Governors of the province of Paraguay. and was promoted to the bishopric of La Paz in 1. Don Manuel de Frias, first governor of this 1671.

province ; nominated by the king, when it was 18. Don Fernando de Balcazar, native of Lima, separated from the jurisdiction of the province of chanter of the holy church of Truxillo, theologi- the Rio de la Plata, and when the limits of both cal canon, treasurer and archdeacon in the church were settled in 1620: he had many disputes with of his native place, elected bishop of Paraguay the bishop, with respect to the rights of patronin 1672 : he died before he was consecrated. age; when this prelate thought proper to ex

19. Don Fr. Faustino de las Casas, of the order communicate him, and to take the adminstration of La Merced; elected bishop of this church in of the settlements out of the hands of the mis1672, where he governed till 1683.

sions of the Jesuits; a step which was con20. Don Fr. Sebastian de Pastrana, of the demned by the council of the Indies: he goorder of La Merced, native of Lima, provincial verned till 1630. and professor of Santo Tomas in its university, 2. Don Luis de Céspedes, distinct from anand bishop of Paraguay.

other of the same name who was governor of 21. Don Juan de Durana, archdeacon of Are Buenos Ayres and the Rio de la Plata: he took quipa, his native place, bishop elect of Para- possession of the government of Paraguay the guay, but he never took possession; so that aforesaid year, and exercised it till 1636. the court were induced to confer upon him the 3. Don Martin de Ledesma, nominated to sucappointment of coadjutor for upwards of 20 years ceed the former : he governed till 1639. after, to the end of his life.

4. Don Pedro de Lugo y Navarro, knight of 22. Don Fr. Joseph de Palos, of the order of the order of Santiago : he had a commission from San Francisco, native of Morella in the kingdom the king to visit the settlements of the missions of Valencia, guardian in many convents of S. of the Jesuits, and to give them redress and and N. America, where he was charged with va protection against the insults of the Mamelucos rious ant commissions which he fulfilled Indians : he succeeded in completely routing with ability: he was living retired in the settle- these, and thereby revenged the death of his ment of La Sal, when he was nominated as titu- friend and companion, father Romero, a Jesuit, , lar bishop and coadjutor of the bishopric of Pa who was killed by them : be governed till 1642. raguay during the sickness of the proprietor in 5. Don Gregorio de Hinestrosa, native of 1724 : he died with universal regret in 1738 ; Chile, in whose time occurred the disgraceful and his life was not only memorable for his own dissentions between the bishop Don Fr. Bernarsingular talents, but through the tragical fate of dino de Cárdenos and the Jesuits, the which laid Joseph de Antequera.

the foundation of the disorders which this pro23. Don Fr. Joseph Cayetano Palavicini, of vince afterwards suffered, and which were not the order of San Francisco, a theologist, califi- put a stop to till that the governor removed cador of the holy office, preacher general, difi- the bishop of its diocess, he being, in return, nidor of his province of Charcas, and pro-minis- thrice excommunicated : this government lasted ter of the same to vote in the general chapter: for five years, until 1648. elected bishop of Paraguay in 1739 : he was pro 6. Don Diego de Escobar Osorio, oidor of the moted to Truxillo in 1748.

royal audience of Charcas, who, from the critical 24. Don Fernando Perez de Oblitas, native of state in which affairs were left by his predeLima; elected in 1748, and promoted to the cessor, reigned but a short time ; for his death church of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1756, with was hastened, and he died in 1649. out ever having passed to his diocess.

7. Don Fr. Bernardino de Cárdenos, bishop of 25. Don Manuel de la Torre, elected in the this diocess, who was tumultuously proclaimed aforesaid year; promoted to the church of Bue- by his partizans as governor in the vacancy : he nos Ayres in 1763.

began his reign by exterminating the Jesuits 26. Don Manuel Lopez de Espinosa, elected from the city, as well as from the other settlein the above year: he died in 1772.

ments, and causing them to leave the country. VOL. IV.


and to embark, with great violence. This some riots which had lately arisen by certain rise to fresh disputes, and the Jesuits, by virtue misunderstandings between the bishop Don Fr. of the pontifical bull which they possessed, esta. Joseph de Palos and the Jesuits. blished a judge conservator. In the mean time 17. Don Martin de Barua, nominated provisi. the audience of Charcas disapproved this intru- onally by the field-marshal Don Bruno Mauricio sive government, and nominated, provisionally, de Zavala, by special commission of the viceroy,

8. Don Andres Garavito of Leon, knight of the marquis del Castelfuerte, to pacify the prothe order of Santiago, oidor of the aforesaid au-' vince, the administration of which underwent dience of Charcas, and whilst he was proceeding some changes from some representations which to his destination, Don Sebastian de Leon, a he made to the king concerning the Jesuits : he colonel, who was rejected by the bishop, who de governed five years. fended himself by some armed Indians; but 18. Don Bartolome de Aldunate, captain of these dissentions were soon put to an end on the horse of the garrison of Buenos Ayres : who did arrival of the aforesaid governor Garavito; and not arrive to take possession, although nominated he took possession of the government and held it by the king. till 1651, when he returned to the duties of his 19. Don Iquacio de Soroeta, who had been place.

corregidor of Cuzco : accredited for his skill and 9. Don Juan Vazquez of Valverde, oidor of justice, and nominated by the viceroy of Peru in the same royal audience as the former, and no 1730 : his entry was disputed by the inhabitants, minated by it as provisional governor, with a who took up arms against him, and obliged him special commission of visiting the province, and

to fly. of examining into the late occurrences : he en 20. Don Isedro Mirones y Benavente, oidor tered the government in 1661 and held it till of the audience of Charcas, whose prudence 1665,

and talents, testified by his pacification of the dis 10. Don Felipe Rege Corbulon, till 1679. turbances of the province of Cochabamba, led

11. Don Juan Diaz de Andino, till 1685, when to his election to Paraguay by the viceroy, that he died.

he might call his talent into action on similar 12. Don Antonio de Vera Moxica, nominated circumstances; but, whilst on his journey, he provisionally by the viceroy of Peru.

received intelligence that the proper successor 13. Don Baltasar Garcia Ros, serjeant-major appointed by H. M. had arrived; and upon this of the plaza of Buenos Ayres, appointed here as he returned to his former office. a recompense by the king, for his services per 21. Don Manuel Augustin de Ruiloba, who formed in the conquest of the colony of Sacra was general of Callao, and general of the armies mento, established by the Portuguese on the of Peru, when he entered Asuncion, 1733 ; but shore of the river La Plata of Buenos Ayres : being out with a troop, and some Indians of the he entered the government in 1705, with a par- missions, for the purpose of quelling some disticular charge to make the visit of the settle- turbances, and being deserted by his party, he fell ments of the missions of the Jesuits, which he did, a sacrifice at the hands of the insurgents in the rendering an accurate account of his discoveries

same year. to his majesty.

22. Don Fr. Juan de Arregui, of the order of 14. Don Juan Gregorio Bazán de Pedraza. San Francisco, bishop of this diocess, and pro

15. Don Diego de los Reyes Balmaseda, na claimed governor by the insurgents; and, tive of the port of Santa Maria : he entered in although he was endeavouring to escape secretly 1717, but the constant complaints made against from the city, he was brought back and forced to him, and particularly of his partiality towards reign till the arrival of the judge Don Juan Vazthe Jesuits, obliged the audience of Charcas to quez de Aguero, as visitor, nominated by the nominate a provisional judge visitor, the same king: being made also provisional governor by the 23. Don Bruno Mauricio de Zavola, fieldviceroy of Peru in 1721, and the person so ap- marshal and governor of Buenos Ayres; promoted pointed was,

to the presidency of Chile, and ordered by the 16. Don Joseph de Antequera y Castro, knight viceroy, the Marquis de Castelfuerte, to proceed of the order of Alcántara, fiscal-protector of with a force to Paraguay, to quell the disturbanthe Indians of the audience of Charcas. His ces there ; accordingly causing himself to be acunlucky stars had brought him hither to meet his knowledged governor, in 1785 he dispersed the death on a scaffold, in the city of Lima, through insurgents, inflicted punishment on the chief

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