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man may be a Whig, or a Tory; a Radical, or an admirer of the desirability of a belief on the part of other men, that despotism; a believer, or an infidel; and may yet decide God will punish crime, do not themselves affirm or believe with the most unbiassed mind a question of a contract that He will certainly do so in every case. Seeing this, certain between Brown and Robinson whom he has never seen before, politicians are in the habit of enlargiug upon the duty of and will, probably, never see again. It is otherwise with the believing that human law is guarded by divine sanctions. But ecclesiastical suits which are decided by Lord Penzance and what sane human being ever really believed a thing simply the Judicial Committee ; in them the individual defendant is because he is told that it is his duty to believe it? Give him but the peg upon which certain doctrines or principles hang; | a motive to belief—a legitimate motive ; and it does not the suit might, to all intents and purposes, be conducted in always follow that this must be an intellectual or argumentafictitious names; the proceedings are in appearance judicial ; tive motive, children do not believe their parents on these in reality, and in their effects, they are legislative.

grounds ; give him such a motive and he may be led to faith It must, we think, sometimes occur to the New Judge, 1-but simply to tell a man he ought to have faith, is like whether he is after all not somewhat disqualified for his telling him he ought to be as strong as an elephant. present office by the nature of that which he previously held.) But there is another flaw in this way of answering our Whether any man, professedly a Churchman, ought to accept question, and that is its selfishness, and more than that, its such an office as that of Judge of the Divorce Court, we will offensive selfishness, its manifest selfishness. We are dealing not here discuss; but, as a matter of fact, Lord Penzance with a subject which relates to the general motives of the has filled that office; and has, when Judge of the Divorce conduct of the mass of mankind. These general motives have Court, repeatedly done that which, according to the Prayer | a tendency which is irrepressible, to make themselves known. Book, no man ought to do. The individual who is thus | I can easily conceal my motive to a particular act, but the situated would seem, apart from any legal or technical argu- motives which actuate my entire life cannot be hid. Accord. menis, to be the last person who should undertake to be the ingly, when a man asks me whether it is matter of conscience Judge of the conformity of the clergy to the Book of with me to obey the laws, Imay answer him in words that it Common Prayer. It would be interesting to have Lord is. But if in giving this answer I am merely influenced by a Penzance's judicial interpretation of the formula: “ Those desire to direct his conduct, he is sure to find me out in the whom God hath joined together, let no man put agunder.” | long run. My actions are sure to speak louder than my We are not sure that the most effectual way of meeting the words. The assertion of the utility of a general belief in Public Worship Regulation Act would not be to prosecute divine sanction of human law is thus obviously futile, it is a some individual in Lord Penzance's Court for denying the favourite view of our shallow and sceptical age, and in truth indissolubility of Christian marriage. The Court and its can impose upon nobody. present Judge could hardly survive such a suit. Solverentur | On the other hand, if we believe that human law is cerrisu tabulæ,?

tainly and invariably consecrated by a divine sanction, our

estimation of it will be grounded upon this truth. The WHAT IS CONSERVATISM? NO. III.

responsibility of the legislator as well as that of the subject

will be indefinitely enhanced. Of the legislator, we say, for CYANOTION is whatever is added to a command for the he too is in his measure is a subject of law-he comes under

purpose of enforcing obedience; thus it is either the prescription of the existing laws, and he is moreover res

attractive or deterrent. It is again either intrinsic or ponsible in proportion to his power in addition. As we shall, extrinsic. The whole sanction of Divine law, whether in the sequel, have to point out, permanence is one of the implicit or explicit, is intrinsic; that is to say is altogether first characteristics of good legislation, inasmuch as the effiwithin the competence of the legislator. The sanction of cient obedience of the subject depends upon his knowledge of human law, as far as regards rewards, is, as we have seen, the law, and a reckless spirit of innovation is inconsistent wholly extrinsic, that is to say beyond the competence of the with the requirement of the subject in this respect. Accordlegislator (rewards, so-called, promised to informers or the | ingly, if there be sin in disobedience-in anomia ; as there like, are mere compensations for trouble, obloquy, &c.); as certainly is ; and if, in consequence of rash or bungling alterafar as regards punishments, the sanction of human law is tion of the law, the subject be led into it-then the sin, partly extrinsic, partly intrinsic.

with all its consequences, lies at the door of the legislator. Here an enquiry arises which demands our closest attention ; it is fundamental in relation to the general subject we are considering. Can human law claim a divine sanction ?

Reviews and Notices of New Books. The utilitarians and secularists hold that intrinsic utility should be the sole motive of human conduct, and that it is

SCIENCE, THEISM, AND REVELATION : Considered in relation to needless to look for any further sanction to law.

Mr. Mill's Essays on Nature, Religion, and Theism. By Others teach that it useful and beneficial that men should

John T. Seccombe, M.D., F.R.A.S. London : Simpkin, believe in a divine sanction to human law, since the considera

Marshall and Co., 1875. tion of mere intrinsic utility has not sufficient weight with TTE heartily commend to the attention of our readers, the bulk of mankind.

this masterly and well-timed exposition and Others again, setting aside all consideration of utility or

exposure of fallacies, which underlie the so-called expediency, affirm that human law is certainly accompanied rationalistic literature of modern evidential discussion. by divine sanctions, and they adduce certain positive declara The specific line of argument which Bishop Batler 80 tions of such divine sanctions.

admirably developed in antagonism to the coarser, broader, It is manifest that the entire range of social science must and less scientific infidelity of the eighteenth century, Dr. be influenced fundamentally, according as we adopt one or Seccombe has here ably continued, in refutation of the more the other of these answeres to the questions we are consider- intellectual, subtle and exact method of attack initiated by ing. This is certain upon the very face of it. For if human the so-called “philosophers” of the nineteenth. law cannot be, nay if it is not absolutely certain that it is in As the "Analogy" enables us to clear away the rubbish which fact, enforced by divine sanction, it cannot be binding upon has been so freely shovelled upon the fair domain of Christian the conscience-in this case, disobedience to law may be a Evidences by the brilliant emptiness of a Voltaire, the bold crime-it cannot be sin. This is the a priori method of | ignorance of a Paine, and the abstruse crotchets of a Hobbes ; arguing the matter. But when we consider it in the light of and as the “Fundamental Philosophy” of the great Balmez experience, the conclusion is even more forcibly shown. We laid anew the basis of certitude, in opposition to the attempts have therefore carefully to reflect upon the force of these of a Spinoza, a Kant, and the small-fry of more modern several answers, and thoroughly to discuss the positions they | transcendentalists, to overthrow objective truth in the regions take up. And in the first place it is of moment to point out of philosophy and faith; so does the Essay before us effecthat the two opinions placed first, do not really differ essen- / tually deal with the latest development of the infidel-scientific tially in what they actually affirm. For they both set forth method of which the writings of the late Mr. Mill are at once utility as sole object in view, and the utilitarians and secu the most concise and, it may be, the most conscientious larists themselves would not deny that it is desirable to secure examples. obedience to the law. They, it is true, positively deny the | Dr. Seccombe, in the first place, lays down the theory of existence of divine sanction at all; but then many who hold Evolution as accepted by scientific men, and joins issue on this ground; not only fighting the enemy with his own various, and, though continuous, they are changeable; indeed motion, by weapons, but carrying the war with consummate skill and

its very essence, consists in change-change of place. But motion

implies a mover and all that is wanted to complete the generalisation is ability into the heart of the enemies' country. Thus, on the

the recognition of a prime motor, an unit of activity, the common antevery basis of their own theory of Evolution, he shows, by cedent of all modes of motion. Such prime motor may be regarded as analogy, how it renders probable, e.g., the doctrine of eternal the opposite pole of activity to the motion it originates, so that, in itself, punishment. In fact the keynote of the greater part of the

it involves the notion of absolute immobility and unchangeableness, Essay will be found in the proofs afforded that intellectual

itself unmoved, all motion's source. (P. 15.) and moral evolution-indeed the whole Thomist ontology-is

And he proceeds to show, from Mr. Mill's own admission, corroborated to demonstration by an extended application of

that force itself is essentially one and the same, that he must the doctrine (for so we may term it) of mental and sensible refer to something beyond these varieties of motion which evolution, i.e., correspondence of mental processes to environ they presuppose, and the conclusion is logically drawn outment of the subject to the object-by selection. A few

that they infer a necessary common antecedent-a prime, passages bearing upon this subject will serve to show the

unmoved motor unit, the Eternal Source of all motion ; whilst author's method :

under the heading of “Final Causes" the argument is carried Matter assumes shape, organization, and life, at the expense of certain

further; and from admissions of the fact of a concerted force or motion, which becomes, as it were, latent. Molecolar motion is

action in nature, which amounts to a proof of control and thus latent in living matter, to which it imparts life. Thus we have a design, the conclusion is forced upon us that not only does a continual accession of new lives; and it is by the operation of a process

Supreme Force most certainly exist, but also that this of natural selection upon this raw material, so to speak, of life, that

Supreme Being knows and wills. The chapter on “Evidences" actual existing forms are brought about. .. Mr. Herbert Spencer has appropriately termed this process “survival of the fittest," and illustrates closes with the following graphic passage :it strikingly in these words: “That organisms wbich live, thereby 1 We have already mentioned Professor Tyndall's allusion to "kosmic prove themselves fit to live, in so far as they have been tried; while life,” which is the formula adopted by him for expressing his belief in a organisms which die, tbereby prove themselves, in some respects, un fitted | Supreme Force. Professor Huxley has given utterance to a correfor living; are facts no less manifest tban is the fact that this self-acting | sponding belief. Mr. Mill, though guarded in his language, has yielded purification of a species must tend ever to ensure adaptation between it his contribution to it. So that it would be as difficult now, as it bas and its environment." Mr. Darwin is careful to point out that “vatural been at all times, to indicate any considerable body of men who can selection depends on the survival, under various and complex circum properly be denominated rational Atheists. The conclusion to be drawn stances, of the best-fitted individuals, but has no relation wbatever to the by the reflective unbiassed thinker, from the general drift of public primary cause of any modification of structure." So it is clear that this opinion on these matters-not, be it remembered, of physicists only, but theory does not affirm a vague and fortuitous productiveness in nature, also of moralists, statesmen, historians, publicists, and, in short, the limited only by the use. And if this be pot affirmed, we are again whole of those who in any way are engaged in studying the entire con. brought face to face with that unifying, plastic, and determinaticg force ditions of human existence-will assuredly amount to this, that at no which pervades the universe, and renders it instinct with the principle time in the history of mankind was there a more general and intelligeot of life, intellect, and will. (Pp. 10–12.)

assent to the great truth of the existence of a Supreme Beiog. Such, And again :

then, is the fairly ascertained statement of the common measure of human

intellect in relation to this inquiry. (P. 32.) There appear very clear indications of rational and moral selection, evolution of mind, evolution of will, a general development of moral

The section on the Divine Attributes, Power, Wisdom and beings, and purification of species. And, if we adınit this, as natural

Goodness, will well repay the most careful perusal. Mr. selection or survival of the fittest is attended with a destruction and Mill's statements are in every case followed up with a zest elimination of the less fitted, surely we may expect to discover some and ability which plainly prove a thorough mastery of his analogue to that physical death which plays so important a part in natural selection. (P. 13.)

subject on the part of Dr. Seccombe. We had marked many Then as to the application of these principles to Christian

passages for quotation in this and the following chapters on

“ Immortality” and “Revelation;" but the space at our doctrine on the existence of Hell :

command will allow us to transcribe only a few. In reply to The doctrine of a future state of retribution is a sublime complement the dilemma which Mr. Mill proposes, that every indication of the theory of physical evolution : to the different stages of both, the same terms may be, and often are, applied. Both doctrines imply a stage

of design is so much evidence against the omnipotence of the of probation, including struggles, variation, inequality, difficulty, and

Designer ; design implying the adaptation of means to an danger; the operation of selection and rejection tending to ultimate end, but the necessity for contrivance being a consequence of development, advance, and purification of race. And as to that part of the limitation of power—for “who would have recourse to the result which involves rejection; the objection taken by Mr. Mill to the goodness of God, or he acceptableness of Christianity on account of

means if to obtain his end his mere word was sufficient ?" its affirmation of the existence of a hell is, in great measure, removed

our author says: by reflection on the analogous notions in the physical order. Individuals The more or less extended application of this thought forms the gist who attain to the future state of happiness thereby prove themselves fit of all three Essays. But, with all due submission, it may be asked, WAS for it; those who are excluded thereby prove themselves unfitted. It there ever a more coinplote speciinen of a sophistical argument? Once will, I believe, satisfy the teaching of orthodox Christianity to hold that for all, therefore, it is necessary that it should be met and considered. Ia hell is strictly the realization of a state of moral evil, being the necessary ils simplest form it may be reduced, I think, to the following syllogism:condition of a moral being who has deliberately and perversely chosen If God be infinite in power, wisdom, and goodness, He will mako the ill, and has at last arrived at a knowledge of his actual state, so nothing but what is as perfect as is conceivable. that it does not imply that there is any material region constructed for But, by hypothesis, nothing conceivable can be as perfect as God his torment, but simply the sinner's own chosen sphere in its ultimate Himself. development. .... Though it be true that God must have foreseen Therefore God can make nothing besides Himself. the failures, the inevitable rejections consequent upon the process of The major premiss can only be sustained on the supposition that we moral selection; yet it does not follow that we are to postpone His know precisely what line of action is consistent with attributes of a will to His forekaowledge any more than His foreknowledge to His being of iofinite power, wisdom, and goodness; but so far is this from will. And in the operation of the laws of moral evolution, moral being the case, that it has been denied that we can even conceive of the selection-one taken and the other left-we koow not what infinite existence of such a being. However, it is perfectly obvious that creatures developments may yet unfold themselves. On the whole, the theory of with such limited capacities as we possess cannot determine what is con. the origin of species proves that evolution is favourable to the general sistent or inconsistent with the possible modes of operation of such a progress of beings, and thus, in itself, it is indicative of benevolence, being. The minor premiss depends upon the denial of the possibility of regarded as an efficacious will of the general good of being, for it tends any such thing as relative perfectness. Thus the whole argument to such general good of being, notwithstanding the non-survival of the amounts to a fallacy, but in its application it will be again met and conless fitted. (Pp. 70, 71, 72.)

sidered. (Pp. 33, 34.) In the second chapter, under the heading of "Evidences,” | The vexata quæstio of the origin of evil, as it has ever been we are presented with a most clearly-arranged view of the

to those who have not received the gift of faith and the à posteriori arguments, upon which class the author alone blessing of Catholic dogmata, was, as is well known, the relies, which establish the thesis that God exists. In this

special crux of the late Mr. Mill. The evidences of evil, category he comprises Abstract Reasonings, Final Causes,

physical and moral, observable in nature are the subject of and Reflex or Indirect Arguments, under all of which heads continual “lamentation, and mourning and woe" throughout Mr. Mill's positions and difficulties are analyzed and shown to his Essays. “If,” he wrote, “we are not obliged to believe be susceptible of no other solution than that offered by

the animal creation to be the work of a demon, it is because Christianity. For instance, treating of the prevalent scientific we need not suppose it to have been made by a being of theories respecting the phenomena of the universe, which | infinite power ” (p. 58). “To jump to the inference that refer all sensible manifestations to the energies of certain His sole or chief purposes are those of benevolence, and that modes of motion,' he remarks :

the single end and aim of the Creator was the happiness of Every power capable of inducing nerve activity is shown to be a

His creatures, is not only not justified by any evidence, but is " mode of motion." Nothing can change or determine directly the con la conclusion in opposition to such evidence as we have" ditions of matter save these modes of motion. Now, these modes are' (p. 192). Our readers will thank us, we are sure, for printing

the following admirable reply, in the words of Dr. of nature, avowedly reject all revelation, as in its very notion incrediblo Seccombe :

and what must be fictitious." Mr. Mill has, in these three Essays,

disposed of this objection as completely as if he had written them for The question before us is not whether benevolence is the sole or chief

no other purpose. And he has illustrated with equal clearness the force purpose of the Creator; or “the single end and aim of the Creator was

of one-half of the saying of Pascal: “Reason confounds the dogmathe happiness of His creatures." Christianity does not teach either; and

tists." Some persons may be inclined to think that he has also corroborated bas, indeed, often been reproached with not doiog so; but what we are

its other half: “Nature refutes the sceptics." .. The difficulties chiefly concerned in is to show that, other attributes being assumed, the

alleged in the Essays do not apply particularly to Christianity, but are evil which is observable in the constitution and course of nature is con

equally obnoxious to any system which attempts to account for the sistent with the supposition that benevolence- that is to say, a com

existing state of the world. Christianity alone affords some kind of placency and efficacious will in favour of the general good of being-is

solution of these difficulties, and it is suprising that Mr. Mill should not a prevailing attribute of God.

have seen this. He has shown an acute perception of the difficulties One remark must be made before we go further. It is obviously

themselves, and of many of the strong points in favour of the Christian improper, and can conduce to no good result, to bring anything like a

revelation, but bas just stopped short of that one central doctrine which mathematical method to bear upon such a subject as the origin of evil,

goes so far to remove all obscurities and reconcile all apparent incon. or the distinction between evil and good. Force and matter are elements

sistencies. For while the Gospel assures us tbat all nature groaned in the relations of which do admit of mathematical investigation, but

travail for the coming of Christ; His advent, His life, and death, were though mind, emotion, and will may be scientifically defined as modes

for the very purpose of effecting an atonement, of removing the curse, of motion, who can expect to state the dynamical equivalent of a

of eventually overcoming evil with good, and of giving us the assurance thought, an emotion, or an intention ? And yet this consideration,

of the goodness of God. But this could only be effected by supreme obvious as it is, has been overlooked by many who have entered upon

goodness in person ; no other assurance would suffice, and accordingly these inquiries.

He has transinitted to us, by the hands of His beloved disciple, and last What is evil ? The Essays afford us no tangible definition of it; and

surviving apostle, the sublime utterance, so consolatory to the perplexed, as to its origin, it is remarkable that they refer with something like

80 assuring to believers, so inexplicable to the sceptic.—“I am Alpha approval to the old Manicbean modification of the Platonic view of a

and Omega, the beginning and the ending, which is and which was, and struggle between a supreme good and a supreme evil a doctrine which

which is to come, the Almighty." (Pp. 7779.) Mr. James Mill, the father of the author, wondered had never been revived... A brief consideration of this doctrine is bere necessary. It consists essentially in the belief in a summum malum, the efficient cause

THE LIFE AND TIMES OF PRINCE CHARLES STUART, COUNT of all evil. But it has been argued that no existing being is or can be OF ALBANY, &c. By A. C. Ewald, F.S.A. In Two Vols. bad in its essence. For every being, purely as such, is, in itself, neces London : Chapman and Hall, 1875. sarily good, and evil does not exist substantially as such, but only in some good thing as an evil good; and, though evil always detracts from

AROM the days of the maligned Queen Mary to the time the goodness of that in which it inheres, yet it can never utterly anni5j

of “ Prince Charlie " the treatment of the Stuarts by late it. And thus there is always remaining some restige of good in - the Knox-ites, Puritains, Hot-gospellers, scheming every being; nothing can be entirely and altogether evil. li evil were

Whigs, Dutch adventurers, sensual Hanoverians, and so-called absolute it would destroy itself; for the destruction of all good, which would be necessary for the integrity of the evil, would extinguish the

“Liberals," has always been most ungenerous and base in the evil itself, which requires some good thing for its subject, just as a extreme. When the persons of the Stuarts could not be disease cannot entirely prevail over the system in which it inberes without harmed and insulted, their memories have been carefully itself ceasing to exist. (Pp. 41, 42.)

traduced and artistically blackened by low and lying scribes. It is in such passages as the above quoted that the peculiar English historians, as manipulated and bribed by such various strength of our author lies. His book proclaims him, in its political cliques as those above mentioned, have carefully every page, an accomplished man of science, and a deeply maintained that black and white, truth and falsehood are thoughtful and learned philosopher. But above all he is a respectively one and the same. Non-a-days there are literary Catholic, and thoroughly at howe in the domain of Oatholic skulkers about, who, in any revolutionary turn of the political Theology. When we express our opinion that his Essay is a wheel in England-not at all impossible-would only be too complete success, and will take its place as a wortby appendix ready and happy to style the Princ. of Wales's children and completorium, to Bishop Butler's “ Analogy," Balmez's Pretenders," and favour them with a taste of their savoury “ Philosophy," and Dr. Newman's “Grammar of Assent," abuse, just as such writers' literary ancestors threw plenty of we are only saying that the Catholic Religion is so essentially mud at the royal but unfortunate exiles of old. The foulreasonable, so thoroughly “rationalistic" (in the good and mouthed Foresters of Folkestone, who yelled like demented true sense of the term), that, cæteris paribus, a Catholic demons at Don Carlos on His Majesty's arrival in England, are Philosopher and Theologian, when he addresses himself to a fine specimen of the unwashed and unmanly British solve the difficulties of scepticism and infidelity, will succeed “Liberal ;”—a wild beast which ought to be either caged or when another would most lamentably fail. Heresy aud, in shot. its measure, even infidelity will generally be found to have We procured the books before us because of their subject : their raison d'etre in the abnormal assertion of some truth

hoping to find an impartial and generous treatment of it. We which accident, or untoward spiritual or mental development, I cannot say that this is so. The two volumes which consist of has caused to run to seed ; and Christian Theology, which, I nearly 400 pages each, the first containing ter, and the because it is Catholic, has a recognized place for all truth in

second twelve, chapters, -are written, from end to end, in the its wonderful circle of Divine Revelation and sanctified obvious interest of “Liberalism." Vox populi, with Mr. Human Thought, can alone adequately meet the heresy or Ewald, appears to be vox Dei : with ourselves it is vox Diaboli. the infidelity!

We have, consequently, been almost nnable to read the bookDr. Seccombe's penultimate chapter on “Revelation"

though our duty as reviewers compelled it. The author bas affords an emphatic illustration of this truth ; but we have evidently taken some pains to gather together the old Whig already quoted so largely from his pages that it is hardly fair

traditions and popular misleading misconceptions; while he to take more. To each and all of our readers who admire has added to them several of his own conceiving, with due Butler, Balmez, or Newman, we would say, Study “Science, gusto. The noble attempt of the Prince to re-gain the Throne Theism and Revelation ” from beginning to end-you will of his forefathers is described at length in the first volume. not regret having taken our advice,-for-subtracting its His early successes, his capture of Edinburgh : his bold and criticisms——it is a very masterly exposition, constructive as

ably-planned march southward are all narrated in tolerably well as critical, of Ohristian philosophy.

good English, but in a ponderous and dull style which is very The following, our last quotation, is from the close of wearisome. The account of the Prince's mistaken retreat Dr. Seccombe's Essay :

from Derby is fairly stated. Whether the affrighted HanoHere, then, at last, we have the result of what is, I believe, on the verian monarch,—who had packed up his jewels and hastily whole, the most complete, and by far the most candid, inquiry into the

he most. candid, inquiry into the scraped together what he thought worth carrying away,evidences of religion which has proceeded from the so-called rationalistic school of our day. We have an edifice of argument raised up, from

would have decamped, with his foreign mistresses and German which great results might fairly be expected, but when we regard it as

satellites, can never of course be known. But it is certain a whole it is seen to be so artificially raised that it resembles a pyramid that numbers of the English aristocracy, and more than half supported on its apex. The equilibrium is so unstable, so utterly preca- the middle classes would have rejoiced to have been utterly rious, the balance is so nicely even, that a grain of solid evidence on one

rid of the hungry Hanoverian harpies ; for they were sick of side or the other must suffice to overturn the whole. It is for others to judge whether what has been submitted in these pages will suffice to their rapacity and constant craving after place and pay. Mr. yield the disturbing element. But unless Mr. Mill has estimated the Ewald's accounts of the skirmish at Clifton and the surrender weight of the evidence on both sides with something like a miraculous of Carlisle are narrated with some power. The Battle of correctness, it is evident that the balance will soon be overthrown. Meanwhile, there are some points of great value which we may secure

Culloden is also described with general fairness. No one can jo favour of Christianity. One is the confirmation here afforded to the read it without a pang of sorrow for the brave Highlanders statement of the Abalogy. “Some persons, upon pretence of the light who there fought and fell. The record of the Prince's escape

from Scotland is likewise told with minute detail. The very every principle of either law or justice has been violated by facts make it engrossingly interesting. His Royal Highness's them, serve, no doubt, to excuse its champions for falling into latter days, saddened by disappointment and sorrow, are des- what, nevertheless, seem to us to be grave mistakes. Apart cribed with that gloating glee which is natural to the from what we must plainly call Mr. Mackonochie's lamentable "Liberal” who believes that success is the only test of truth, want of principle, in not having treated the decrees of the and that failure is the sole, single and unpardonable sin. But civil power in things spiritual as mere waste paper, we must the whole truth, we believe, is not generally known even now, also demur altogether to Dr. Littledale's so-called “ Working -while, as to the “ descendants of the Stuarts" still living, Men's" movement. And that for three reasons :-First, no word is forthcoming.

because we do not admit that the mere fact of being a Prince Charles's relations to the Scotch Episcopalians were “Working Man” carries with it any special right to control both cordial and intimate. He trusted them, and they—to public affairs ; secondly, because it seems to us to be sheer their eternal credit-were thoroughly loyal to their own arrogance and cant to limit the title of “Working Men " Prince, and trusted him. His father's Declaration had laid (with a capital “W" and a capital “M”) to those who down a sound principle of toleration ; and his own was equally happen to form one particular class of workers, and that, excellent and commendable. The Anglican Church had been too, the least educated; and, lastly, because we believe that almost entirely Hanoverianized. Atterbury's well-fought | all Government, whether spiritual or temporal, rests upon battle in defence of Legitimacy had been fought and lost: and Authority alone, and not upon the Liberal principle of an Whiggery found itself in excelsis. The following comment appeal to the vox populi. We grant the right of persecuted on the mode of Episcopal preferment in England during the Catholics to seek redress. By all means let communicant eighteenth century is worthy of particular notice. Such a parishioners, as such, whether - Working Men " or not, speak policy is not altogether unknown now:

out plainly in defence, not of their likings or dislikings, but “I remember Dr. Wagstaff (with whom I wish I had of the Faith. So far as they take their stand on the Church's conversed more frequently, for he always told me the truth,)”. law, the St. Alban's people have our cordial sympathy. But wrote the Prince, “once said to me, that I must not judge of we warn them against the mischievous and suicidal notion the English Clergy by the Bishops, who were not promoted that Truth is ascertained by counting heads. Such a prinfor their piety and learning, but for very different talents, ciple would certainly, in the time of Elijah, have condemned viz., for writing pamphlets, for being active at elections, and the minority of seven thousand in Israel, who did not bow voting as the Ministry directed them. After I've won another the knee to Baal. And it cannot do other than turn out a battle, they'll write for me and answer their own letters." very broken reed upon which to lean now. (Vol. I., pp. 218, 219.)

Mr. Ewald has consulted the Stuart papers, the State THE ANNALS OF ENGLAND: An Epitome of English History, papers, and other important documents with some care. from Contemporary Writers, the Rolls of Parliament, and Many more MSS. however, exist, of which he evidently knows other Public Records. Library Edition. London: J. Parker nothing. The present Count of Albany and the Lord and Co., 1876. Viscount Dillon possess several. The words and opinions of

NHIS volume needs no lengthened review. Widely known, Sir Horace Mann, the tool and the toady of the Hanoverian

it has already pushed its way and made its mark. harpies in England-on whom Mr. Ewald has drawn largely

I Previous editions were smaller in size, rather hand-books -should always be taken cum grano salis. He was evidently

than volumes for the Library. The compact and well-printed an untrustworthy partizan; a worshipper of whatever golden

Edition before us, however, is one of the greatest usefulness : calf happened to be then set up; a painstaking scavenger of

for it comprises in a single rolume an amount of historical questionable gossip : sticking at nothing to compass his own

information,-names, dates, facts and authorities,—which ends, or to checkmate his better-principled opponents.

truly make it a necessary book of reference and authority for The record of the concluding volume, relating to the

all students, public writers, statesmen, and educated persons. Prince's death and to the sufferings and losses of the

The numerous illustrations provided add materially to its Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, are interesting, though most

value,—while the corrections of former issues, and the judisad and melancholy. George the Third's timely and touching

cious additions made here and there, render it very complete. gift of £4,000 a year to His Eminence was an act right royal

While we do not profess to follow the compiler in all and in its nobility. It blessed him who gave as well as him who

every statement; yet, on the whole, we cannot do otherwise took. And George the Fourth's good taste, when Prince

-while we recommend it cordially to our readers' attentionRegent, in raising a suitable monument by Canova to the

than testify to its strict impartiality, painstaking care and memory of the Three Royal exiles, at St. Peter's in Rome, is

marked literary integrity. a ray of sunsbine on his fly-blown memory.

Mr. Ewald owns but little imagination, and has no power of picturesque writing; he is ponderous, flat and tedious in W E may very possibly, on some future occasion, deal at the heavy and laboured style in which he has told his story, V length with the subject of Lord Salisbury's “Uniand his judgments are untrustworthy. Obviously meaning to versity of Oxford Bill ” now before Parliament. Meanwhile, be fair,-or as fair as a common-place “Liberal," without very we call the attention of those of our readers who are intenoble aspirations or generous sentiments, can be, -he is almost rested in this question to an able pamphlet by Mr. J. R. always incurably one-sided; following thus the general run | Magrath, Senior Fellow, Tutor and Bursar of Queen's College, of mischievous Radical writers, who, both at home and on University Reform, (Oxford and London: Parker and Co.). abroad, (though they may not be at all aware of the The author, a man of moderate opinions, is, from his position fact,) have for years been painfully striving to render all and his reputation, qualified to pronounce a judgment on the Government impossible, except that stupid and pestilent form subject here treated of, which is entitled to very considerable of it set forth in the newly-twisted Scripture :-"Parents weight. His detailed opinions, and the reasons upon which obey your children in the Devil,”—now apparently as appli- he bases them, are best learnt from the pamphlet itself, which cable to states and kingdoms as to families and individuals. is well worth reading. Suffice it to say here, that Mr. Its end, of course, sooner or later, is Revolution, the Guillo Magrath, who, from our own point of view, himself somewhat tine or Block, Petroleum, the Worship of undraped Harlots, of a Liberal, energetically opposes the perpetual “constituand Moral Chaos.

tion-making and consequent ferment," favoured by many 80-called “Reformers." " What the interests of education

here,” he says, “and in England require, is, not a pulling THE CHURCH IN BALDWIN'S GARDENS : Being a History of the down and building up again every quarter of a century, but First Thirteen Years of St. Alban's, Holborn. London:

. . . . freedom to develope in our own way.” Mr. J. T. Hayes, 1876.

Magrath holds up to deserved ridicule the absurd argument, TADE up for the most part of cuttings from the cheap for which the University Commission is primarily to blame, as

Church newspapers, this book narrates the persecu to "the great disparity between the property and income of

- tion suffered for the Catholic Faith's sake by the the several colleges and the numbers of the members.” The Clergy and Laity of St. Alban's, Holborn. The impediments amount of this disparity was calculated by the ingenious which the enemies of the Truth have thrown in the way of device of adding together the Revenues of each college, God's work in that parish, and the gross manner in which I and (after some deductions) dividing the sum by the number


of Undergraduates. The result was called the expense of 2. The Eighth of the Constitutions of Clarendon, A.D. 1164: “Of education per head." So that, according to this precious

Appeals ; If they arise, they ought to proceed from the Archdeacon to

the Bishop, from the Bishop to the Archbishop, and lastly, (if the Archsystem of reckoning, each of the Bible Clerks at All Souls'

bishop fail in doing justice,) to the King, that by his precept the controcosts £4,500 a-year.

versy be ended in the Archbishop's Court, so that it go no further" fi.e

to Rome] “ without the King's consent,” VERY short but suggestive Essay, Christianity and 3. The Magna Charta, A.D. 1215: “First; We have granted to God, a Astronomy (London: Williams and Norgate), is written and by this our present Charter have confirmed, for us and for our heirs with much good feeling and true charity by its author, Mr.

for ever, that the Church of England shall be free, and shall have her

whole rights and liberties in violate.” Willis Nevins. Its aim is to apologize for “honest doubt," 4. The Statute of Appeals, A.D. 1533 : “ The body Spiritual .... and to counsel the disuse of hard judgments. Mr. Nevins is usually called the English Church, which always hath been reputed a Roman Catholic ; and the lesson he recommends is quite and is also at this hour, sufficient and meet of itself, without the interworthy of consideration by those on his, as well as those on

meddling of any exterior person or persons, to declare and determine all

such to their rooms Spiritual doth appertain." our, side of the wall of separation.

5. The Declaration prefixed to the XXXIX Articles. A D. 1628: "If any differences arise about the external policy, concerning the Injunc

tions, Canons, and other Constitutions whatsoever thereto belonging, CAN CHURCHMEN RECOGNIZE THE NEW JUDGE ? the Clergy in their Convocation is to order and settle them;" recognized

by and acted upon in the Roval Licence and Letters of Business to ConWe reprint the following, because of its inherent value and practical vocation in the years 1661, 1689. 1710, 1713, and 1715. importance :

6. The Bill of Rights, A.D. 1289: “The Commission for erecting the I. CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES IMPLY THAT

late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other 1. The Church of Christ, of which the Anglican Church claims to be

Commissions and Courts of a like nature, are illegal and pernicious." a part, is an organized Society founded by her Divine LORD, indepen

7. The Coronation Oath, A.D. 1837: 16. Will you preserve unto the dently of the will of the Civil Power,

Bishops and Clergy of this Realm, and to the Churches committed to 2. The Church was founded to teach mankind the Divine Will in

their charge, all such rights and privileges as by law do or shall apperregard to Faith, Worship, and Morals; and for this purpose she received tain unto them, or any of them ?': 'All this I promise to do.'”

tain unto them, or any of Authority from her LORD for the instruction, guidance, and government


CONTRAVENES THE FOREGQING PRINCIPLES : 3. The Words, “ All power is given unto Me in Heaven and in earth: go ye therefore and teach all nations . . . . and lo, I am with you

1. Because the new Judge was created by the sole authority of Parliaalway, &c.," show that the Au hority possessed by the Church for the

ment, in order to decide Spiritual suits and to inflict Spiritual censures. teaching, discipline, and edification of her members is derived from

2. Because the pew Judge was created without the consent and against CHRIST, and in things Spiritual is independent of any Civil Power, and

the will of the Church, so far as it was formally expressed ; apart from superior to it.

all authority from Convocation, and in defiance of a Resolution of the 4. The aforesaid Spiritual Authority, conferred upon the Apostles,

Lower House. was, under the guidance of the Holy SPIRIT, transmitted by them to

3. Because the constitutional rights of Convocation have thus been their succes ors, 10 be exercised in conformity with the original Commis

violated and denied ; and the Clergy have been deprived of their presion and the low of the Church Universal

scriptive rights by the House of Commons, from which they alone, as an . 5. This Authority, being the gift of GOD Incarnate to His Church,

order, are excluded. and a trust committed by Him to the Priesthood, is inalievable; and,

4. Because, for certain causes, the Act virtually suppresses the Diocesan therefore, comes within the scope of the Divine Rule, “ Render unto

Courts, and, for all causes, actually suppresses the Provincial Courts. Cæsar the things that be Cæsar's, and unto God the things that be

5. Because, by the operation of the Act, the Spiritual Jurisdiction of

the Episcopate is in some cases practically suspended, and in others 6. A national Church which surrenders this Authority to any Civil absolu'ely abolished. Power is unfaithful to the trust committed to her by Christ.

6. Because, by the office of the new Judge, the Spiritual rights of the 7. Spiritual Courts, or “Courts Christian," whether Diocesan or Priesthood are infringed, both in the Courts of first instance and in those Provincial, if rightly constituted, are, among other means, the Canonical

of appeal. instruments of the Church for the regulation and exercise of the afore

7. Because the Act (j.) violates the laws of Canonical Discipline even said Authority.

to a greater extent than the Bill originally introduced by the Arch. 11. CATHOLIC PRINCIPLES ARE VIOLATED BY

bishops ; (ij.) creates a new Court for the decision of questions not only 1. The creation of a Court for the trial of Spiritual causes by the Civil

of Ceremonial but also of Doctrine, by enacting that the new “Judge Power alone.

shall become ex officio” the “Official Principal of the Arches' Court of 2. The acquiescence of the Church in the suppression, whether partial

Canterbury," and that “all proceedings thereafter taken before the or total, of her Courts Chuistian, by the Civil Power.

Judge ..shall be deemed to be taken in the Arches' Court of 3. Judgments in Spiritual causes pronounced by a secular Court.

Canterbury; "and (iij.) furnishes unbelievers with a weapon of offence

| against Casholic Faith and Worship. 4. Sentences in Spiritual causes inflicted by a secular Judge. 5. The appointment, without the consent of each several Bishop or

THE DECISJONS, THEREFORE, OF THE NEW JUDGE CANNOT IN CONSCIENCE Archbishop, of one and the same person as Judge in the Spiritual Court


AUTHORITY BY ENGLISH CHURCHMEN. 6. The appointment, by the Civil Power, of the Judges of Spiritual Courts. 7. The interference of the Civil Power with the right of Bishops and

ANCIENT TRIPTYCH.— A triptych. belonging to the Duke of exercise a free and independent choice in the appoint

shire, is exciting some attention at Burlington House. It has very great ment of the Judge of their respective Courts.

historical significance for antiquarians. The centre panel shows, in a

kneeling attitude, Sir John Donne, of Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, and III. ANGLICAN PRINCIPLES AFFIRM

Elizabeth, his wife, sister of the first Lord Hastings. Sir John wears 1. That “alterations” which are “ of dangerous consequence (as the collar of the Rose and Sun, with the Lion sejant badge. He was secretly striking at some established Doctrine or laudable Practice of killed in 1469 at the Battle of Edgcote. the Church of England, or indeed of the whole Catholic Church of CHRIST)" should be "rejected." (Preface to the Prayer Book.)

ST. ETHELDREDA'S, ELY PLACE, E.C.- The Roman Catholics have 2. That “Cungregations” are committed” to the “charge" of

recently purchased the old Church of St. Etbeldreda, Ely-place, London, “Bishops and Curates;” not Clergy to the charge of congregations.

a gem of Catholic art, dating from the thirteenth century, which formed Morning Prayer ; and Order ing of Priests.

part of the palace of the Bishops of Ely. It is a place full of sacred and 3. That it is the duty of Ihe Clergy "to fashion themselves after the

historic memories. About a century ago, the Bishop of Ely of that day Rule and Doctrine of CHRIST;” not after Public Opinion or the National

obtained an Act of Parliament, to enable him to sell his London Palace, Will. (Ordering of Priests.)

in order to build the more convenient family residence in Dover-street, 4. That the Clergy are bound by their Ordination Vow "so to minister

known as Ely House. A sketch of the ancient and modern Episcopal the Doctrine and Discipline of CHRIST as the LORD hath commanded,

mansions figures in “ Pugin's Contrasts." The property was bought by and as this Chuich and Realm bath received the same, according to the

a builder, who erected on it the fine street known as Ely-place. The Commandments of God;"not as the Realm apart from the Church may

chapel was, until lately, leased to the Welsh Episcopalians. Last year, decree. (Ordering of Priests.)

however, the greater part of the property was sold under an Order of 5. That “the Church hath power to decree Rites or Ceremonies, and

the Court of Chancery, and the chapel of St Etheldreda, and spacious authority in Controversies of Faitk." (Article XX.)

mews adjoining, were bought by the Fathers of Charity. All their 6. That “we give pot to our Princes the ministering either of God's

available funds having been expended in the purchase, which cost more Word or of the Sacraments, the which thing the Injunctions lately set

than £8,000, the Fathers think they have some claim to appeal to the forth by Elizabeth our Queen do most plainly testify; but that only

Catholic public to enable them to restore the ancient church in a way prerogative, which we see to have been always given, to all godly

worthy of its sacred and archæological character. They hope without Princes in Holy Scripture, by God Himself." (Article XXXVII.)

delay to reopen it, but all they can themselves hope to do, is to clear 7. That “the government of the Church of England under his

out pews and galleries, and restore the strict necessaries of Roman Majesty,” is “by Archbishops, Bishops, Deads, Archdeacons, and the

Catholic worship. To bring out the beauties of the ancient roof and rest that bear office in the same;" not by Parliament and a secular

architectural details, to add stained glass and an altar worthy of the Judge. (Canon VII.)

ancient work around, they trust will be the work of generous bene

factors, who feel that the first ancient Church in England restored to IV. CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES ARE ASSERTED IN

Roman Catholic worship is, in itself, no ordinary appeal for generosity 1. The Oidinance of William the Conqeror, A.D. 1085: "I command to help in a loyal attempt to restore an ancient historical monument. and enjoin, by Royal authority, that no Bishop or Archdeacon or anyone Any one wishing to see ihe church can do so by calling on the Rev. else .... bring a cause which pertains to the cure of souls to the judg- / W. Lockhart, 14, Ely-place, by whom donations will be gratefully ment of gecular mon.”


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