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Arma virumque ferens; tum summa ipsius ab hasta
Ducis exemplum eventumque secuti
747.] 'Arma virumque,' Virg.'s fa “discludere Nerea ponto” E. 6. 35. vourite combination. •Ipsius’ is doubt 753.] With ‘sinuosa volumina' comp. less Venulus's spear, which agrees with 2. 208 “sinuat volumine terga,” G. 3. ‘arma,' and makes the triumph more 192 “ sinuet volumina.” “ Volumina vercomplete.
sat” in a different sense 5. 408. 748.] • Partis rimatur apertas,' looks, or 754.] “Squamis adstantibus hydri”G.3. feels, for an exposed place. Comp. Il. 22. 545. “Sibila colla Arduus attollens” 5. 277. 321, εισορόων χρόα καλόν, όπη είξειε μά 755.] • Adunco’ Rom., the reading beAlota, where, as here, the throat is the part fore Heins. fixed on.
756.] Αυτός δε κλάγξας πετετο πνoιής 749.] •Volnus ferat' like “plagam åvéuoco 11. 1. c. ferenti” 12. 299.
757.] *Tiburtum :' we learn from vv. 750.] ‘Sustinet a iugulo dextram,' holds 465, 604, 640, that these were engaged. his enemy's hand off from his throat. From this line to v. 793 Rom. is wanting. Comp. the use of sustineo 'in such pas 758.] “ Exemplum, quod coepit, evensages as Cic. Acad. Prior. 15 “sustinere se tum, quod prospere ” Serv. They imitate, ab assensu,” and in such phrases as not necessarily his action, but his bold. tinere remos.” “Exit' with acc. 5. 438 ness, and have like success. Maeonidae note : see also Munro on Lucr. 5. 1330. 8. 479, 499. · Vim' and `viribus' are distinguished as 759—798.] • Arruns watches his opporviolence and strength.
tunity to throw a spear at Camilla, and 751.] Here and in 10. 454 Wagn. prays to Apollo for success.' makes 'que' part of the form of compa 759.) Arruns is ‘fatis debitus,' both as rison, like “ac;" but this seems unneces the destined slayer of Camilla, and as sary. Serv. inquired with what alte' is destined himself to be slain. •Fatis’ is constructed : Heyne replies rightly, that here dat., not, as in 7. 120, abl. The • volans alte' is a translation of Vietns, name is doubtless taken from the son of which occurs in Il. 12. 201, a description Tarquin, the man here being an Etruscan. which Virg. has imitated, though he does 760.] _“Iaculo' coupled with multa not follow Hom. in making the eagle let arte.' * Prior,' podoas, anticipating all the snake go.
Hom.'s description had her movements, not, as Forb., before he already been imitated by Cic. in his poem strikes her, nor, as Gossrau and Peerlon Marius, quoted by himself Div. 1. 47. kamp, 'prior iaculo et arte,' like “ "pietate “ Fulvus Iovis ales” 12. 247.
prior" above, v. 292. 752.] • Inplicuit' perf., not aor. • Un 761.] Ribbeck's cursives give 'circumit:' guibus' abl., the case for haesit' being see Forc. s. v. •Fortuna' of a favourable understood. Comp. such expressions as chance 7. 559, G. 3. 452.
Qua se cumque furens medio tulit agmine virgo,
762.] · Furens' l. 491 of Penthesilea. “equites loricati” (Livy, 37, 40), who 763.] · Vestigia lustrat’ 2.754, E. 2. 12. had their horses cased in armour as well “Tacitus’i.q.‘furtim’v. 765. Comp. 4. 306. as themselves. Serv. quotes a description
764.] “ Inde pedem sospes multa cum from Sallust Hist., fr. inc.: “Equis lande reflexit” Catull. 62 (64). 112. paria operimenta erant, quae lintea ferreis 765.] • Detorquet ’5. 165.
laminis in modum plumae adnexuerant." 766.] “Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, Lersch cites from Justin, 41. 2, Muniomnemque pererrat Arte locum ' 5. 441. mentum ipsis (the Parthians) equisque For the rhythm comp. 9. 550, “ hinc acies loricae plumatae sunt, quae utrumque atque hinc acies.” Some copies, in- toto corpore tegunt.” Comp. also Val. cluding one of Ribbeck's cursives, have Fl. 6. 233, quoted in Dict. A. Lorica.' ' iamque hos abitus,' which Donatus pre- Virg. apparently constructs this with the ferred: but ‘hos-hos' are used like "hic 'pellis,' or horsecloth (8. 552), perhaps, -hic” 12. 479, “ hunc-hunc-hunc” 7. as Heyne suggests, that the metal might 473, 474.
not be supposed to come into contact with 767.] It is difficult to say whether cir- the skin. cuitum' is the ordinary acc. of the object, 771.] A comparison of 3. 467, “Lorior a kind of cognate. •Inprobus,' un cam consertam hamis auroque trilicem," wearied, with a notion of blame. See on would tend to show that 'auro conserta G. 1. 119. Certam' seems rather to here refers to the joining of the scales or express that Arruns had a definite object, chain-work; but it is difficult to see how than that the spear was inevitable; but it this could be reconciled with 'aenis,' so may well include both.
that Heyne is probably right in supposing 768.] Ribbeck's MSS. give • Cybelo,' ex- the reference to be to the golden buckles cept Gud., which has • Cybele' (Pal. and which fastened the cloth to the horse. Rom., we must remember, are wanting); 'Auroque inserta' was read by some early and Cybelo' appears to have been read edd., and is found in the Balliol MS. 'In by Serv. and Donatus. Yet it is not easy to plumam' then will qualify “squamis,' as see how Chloreus could be called sacred if it were “squamis in plumam conto Mount Cybelus, whereas ‘Sacer Cybelae' nexis." answers to “Cereri sacrum Polyphoeten” 772.] “Ferrugine clarus Hibera" 9. 6. 484. Pier. mentions another reading 582: sec also on G. 1. 467, and Munro on
satus Cybelo,'which would leave 'sacerdos' Lucr. 4. 76. Ferrugine et ostro’ is a rather bare. 'Olim’ at Troy, as Heyne kind of hendiadys. rightly explains it. For priests in battle 773.] “Libet Partho torquere Cydonia see on 6. 484.
cornu Spicula ” E. 10. 59. “Lycias 769.) 'Longe' may go either with ‘in. sagittas
» 8. 166. “Stabula Gortynia" signis' or with 'fulgebat.' “ Patriis in E. 6. 60. armis” 3. 595.
774.] Ribbeck seems right in restoring 770.] Virg. doubtless was thinking, as erat' for 'sonat'from Med., and one of his Serv. says, of the “cataphracti," cursives (here again we must recollect that
Cassida; tum croceam chlamydemque sinusque crepantis
Pal. and Rom. are deficient). 'Sonat' would 777.] Pictus acu, perhaps with gold naturally be introduced from v. 652, just thread, as in 10. 818.
« Pictus acu as Gud. and some inferior MSS. (followed chlamydem” 9. 582. Barbara tegmina by Wagn.) have introduced humero,' crurum,' Oriental trousers (Dict. A. while erat' is recommended, not only by · Braccae'), barbara' being used like Virgil's love of variety in the midst of barbarico” 2. 504, note. · Picto subrepetition, but by the tenses ‘fulgebat,' temine braccae,” Val. F. 6. 227, a passage &c. and “collegerat.” Forb. reasonably more or less taken from this of Virg. ; see enough asks how we are to reconcile the above on v. 770. On the whole descrip. •Lycio cornu with the 'aureus arcus.' tion Serv, remarks, “ Sane armorum longa Unless we suppose Virg. not to have put descriptio illuc spectat, ut in eorum cupi. the finishing touch to the passage, it seems ditatem merito Camilla videatur esse best to say that arcus' is to be understood succensa.” We may add, that the very of the quiver, awkward as it is so to inter- length of the description expresses the pret it when the bow has just been men- place which the spoils fill in Camilla's tioned. The Balliol MS. omits v. 773, thoughts, and the length of time she which also had occurred to me; but it is spends in trying to obtain them. recognized by both Serv. and Donatus. 778.] For hanging up spoils in temples,
775, 776.] 'Cassida,' a form of “cassis,” comp. 3. 286, &c. Arma Troia ' 1. 248., occurs also Prop. 4. 11. 15, “Aurea 3. 596. · Praefigere puppibus arma cui postquam nudavit cassida frontem.” 10. 80. So “compeda ” for “ compes Varro fr.
779,1 «Captivo auro' like captiva Parmeno ap. Non. p. 28, “ chlamyda” for vestis » 2. 765, note. Se ferre ' 1. 503, “chlamys ” Appul. M. 10, p. 353, &c. &c. In auro’ like “in veste 4. 518., Comp. also “crater,” “cratera.” • Cre. 12. 169. pantis,'rustling, a natural epithet of sinus 780.] · Venatrix'is coupled by Ribbeck, carbaseos.' Gossrau comp. Lucr. 6. 109, after H. Stephens, with what goes before ; which, however, is not quite parallel. but such an accoutrement would seem Heyne supposed the carbasa' to be to be more natural in the case of Dido, quilted with gold-leaf or embroidered with whom hunting is a holiday pastime with gold thread (see on 3. 483), in which (4. 138), than in that of Camilla, with case "crepantis' would be tinkling, like whom it is a serious business. It is better, “leni crepitabat brattea vento " 6. 209; with Peerlkamp, to suppose that it indicates but the earlier interpretation, understand the spirit with which she pursues Chloreus, ing ‘fulvo auro' of the 'fibula,' is more than, with Wagn., to connect it with natural. Comp. Stat. Theb. 7.658, “Car- 'virgo,' as part of the definition of Camilla. baseique sinus et fibula rasilis auro Tae. •Ex omni certamine' for “ex omnibus naricum fulva mordebat jaspide pallam," certantibus,” like “pugnae in certamine" and see
on 10. 134., 1. 320. With 12. 598, perhaps, as Cerda suggests, from •sinus crepantis carbaseos' comp. “corpus Lucr. 4. 843. exsangue Hectoreum ” 2. 543, note. For 781.] • Incensa,' the reading of one or instances of this use of a double epithet, two of Ribbeck's cursives, is found in where one adjective may be resolved into some early editions. • Per agmen’ conthe genitive of a substantive, from Lucre. structed with ardebat,' the notion of tius and Virgil, see Munro on Lucr. 1. 258. movement being implied in the context, For the position of 'que' after ‘chlamy. as in G. 4. 82, 83, which Wagn. comp. dem 'see G. 2. 119, note.
783.] • Ex insidiis concitat,' rouses from
Concitat et superos Arruns sic voce precatur
its ambush, like “ ex insidiis consurgere," plained by “freti pietate,' but means in “invadere,” &c., quoted by Forc. «Tem. the exercise of our worship.' Serv. quotes pore capto' like “arrepto tempore "above, from Varro “Ut solent Hirpini, qui ambuv. 459.
laturi per ignis medicamento plantas tin784.] Coniicit,' the reading before guunt.” Premimus' set down; not, as in Heins., is found in two of Ribbeck's cur. 7. 197, 331, check. Multa' denotes the sives; but we are not to suppose the thoroughness of the ordeal. weapon actually thrown till after the 789.j . Pater: see on G. 2. 4. Dedecus' prayer. Superos' used generally, only is Camilla herself: comp. “exstinxisse Apollo being meant. Wagn. comp. 1. 4: nefas ” 2. 585, a passage generally similar. see also on 6. 322. Gossrau prefers sup. It would be possible however to underposing that the other gods are really stand the words to mean “grant that this included in the invocation, for which comp. disgrace may be wiped off from our arms.' 3. 19, G. 1. 21. Voce precatur' 9. 403, 790.] Omnipotens: see on v. 785. The where, as here, we should rather have passages where the epithet is used of expected the prayer to be a silent one. Juno are not parallel, she being supposed
785.] “Summe deum' ex affectu co to share Jove's omnipotence. It is diffilentis dicitur: nam Iuppiter summus est,” cult to say whether pulsae' here and Serv. So apparently 'omnipotens' v.790. pulsa' v.793 mean beaten off or wounded. The address seems to represent the fact The first would on the whole be the more that Apollo was the peculiar god of Arruns' natural meaning here, as answering to countrymen. Wagn. comp. Ciris v. 245, the etymological sense of tropacum' where Dictynna is called “prima deum." (comp. "pulsi Turni gloria" 10. 143), and He cites also a remark of Herm. on Soph. being undoubtedly the more usual meaning Ant. 338, 06wv Tày Úneptáray râv, “istae of the word. The second would suit y. appellationes deum designant eo de quo 793 better, and is supported by Prop. 5.9. sermo est in negotio prae ceteris colen. 15, “Maenalio iacuit pulsus tria tempora dum :" but the statement, whether true ramo Cacus.” Perhaps it is safest to say or no, is not borne out by the passage on that Virg. was glad to avail himself of the which it is grounded, the title being various associations of the word, beating doubtless given to Earth on account of off, putting to flight, and striking. Arruns her antiquity as a goddess (see on 7. 136). might naturally regard himself as repelling Apollo had a temple on the top of Soracte: an enemy, and he would characteristically Dict. G. Soracte.'
express himself as if he were conquering 786.] Quem primi colimus' seems to her in fair fight and even making her fly, mean "whose chief worshippers are we.' at the same time that the poet might be · Pineus ardor' like “stuppea flamma” determined in his choice of the word by 8. 694 (note), the epithet really belonging its further and more primitive meaning. to acervo. Acervo' prob. instrum. So just below, v. 796, Gossrau, after Peerlabl.
kamp, finds a difficulty in 'turbatam,' as 787, 788.] “Haud procul urbe Roma in implying that Camilla did not die with Faliscorum agro familiae sunt paucae quae fortitude. Virg. probably chose the word vocantur Hirpiae, quae sacrificio annuo partly from the association of proturbo’and quod fit ad montem Soractem Apollini exturbo,' partly as suggesting the notion super ambustam ligni struem ambulantes of routing an army, partly again as ex. non aduruntur” Pliny 7. 2. Comp. Sil. pressing the suddenness and surprise of 5. 175 foll., from which it appears that the event. There is a somewhat similar the worshippers walked through the fire fluctuation in the meaning of the words three times carrying entrails to the god, 'victus' and .fusus ' in such passages as so that 'cultores' here is not to be ex. 10. 842, vv. 102, 366 above.
Virginis, aut spolia ulla peto; mihi cetera laudem
792.] Ferant,' the reading before Ribbeck's MSS. have it. Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's 794.] One of Ribbeck's cursives gives MSS. Pestis' 7. 505., 12. 845. So partem succedere Phoebus. “ dedecus” v. 789.
795.] •Mente dedit’10.629, where it is 793.) Heyne supposes the sense to be, explained by what precedes. Apollo si. that Arruns knew that no fame was to be lently grants part of the request, without obtained by killing a woman, like Aeneas making any sign of assent, as in such cases 2. 583 foll., Peerlkamp, that though he as 9. 630. The partial granting of the thought the deed a glorious one, he did prayer is from II. 16. 250 foll. With not ask to be known as having done it. .volucris dispersit in auras' comp. 9. 313 The two views may be reconciled if we note. attend to the character of Arruns. He is 796.] Turbatam :' see on v. 790. Stat. represented as afraid of the deed he is Theb. 9. 745, has “ Prima Tanagraeum nevertheless longing to do: he resolves turbavit arundo Coroebum," probably an to do it by stealth, at the least risk to him- imitation of this passage. * Adnuit ut sterself: and characteristically, in praying to neret, dedit ut videret, comp. v. 152 above. Apollo, he veils his cowardice under an 797.] “Patria alta ” 10. 374. appearance of magnanimity. He professes 799–835.) . The spear pierces Camilla, to wish to kill Camilla in the interest of who sinks and dies. The Trojans are his countrymen, who are being destroyed inspirited, and redouble their efforts.' by a female fury, disgrace being added to 7 99.] Per auras' seems to go both with injury: he extenuates the glory of the 'missa' and with dedit.' Med. has 'ergo deed; after all, it is merely killing a ubi. woman, and he can afford to rest on his 800.] “Acres' was the reading of some other exploits, so he will not claim this: of the earliest editions, but no MS. seems and what is really an important part of to support it. “Acris' seems best taken his prayer, his safe return home, he affects with animos,' though 'acres' might go to treat not as a matter of prayer at all, with · Volsci.' In either case it appears but as a sort of concession which he is to be i. q. “acriter.” “Convertere, like willing to make. Apollo understands him, 'tulere,' with ad reginam,' so that it is and treats the request as involving two not like “conversi animi” 2. 73. prayers, of which he grants one and re- 801.] ‘Neque,' which Heins. restored for fuses the other. When the deed is done, nec,' is found only in one of Ribbeck's his first impulse is to hide himself from the cursives. One or two of Ribbeck's cursives possible consequences : afterwards, finding give 'auras,' which Serv. positively asserts himself unmolested, he is proud of it to be the 'antiqua lectio. The termina. (v. 854): and his punishment is, that he tion however is so entirely unknown to is killed in the moment of his triumph, literary Latin, except in the instance of while his comrades treat his fall as a thing “familias,” that it is not easy to conceive of no consequence. With ‘inglorius' we that Virg. can have used it, especially with may comp. 12. 322, “pressa est insignis 'auras' concluding vv. 795, 799. 'Aurae,' gloria facti, Nec sese Aeneae iactavit the wind of the weapon, like “turbine" volnere quisquam.” “Patriam urbem' was 1. 45. the reading before Heins., but none of