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quæ tenait

whom

Jam medium æthereo cursu trajecerat axem, 537. Per talia cullo- Et fors omne datum traherent per talia tempus ; quia

Sed comes admonuit, breviterque affata Sibylla est :
Nox ruit, Ænea : nos flendo ducimus horas.

Hìc locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas. 540 541. Dextera est via, Dextera, quæ Ditis magni sub mænia tendit :

Hâc iter Elysium nobis : at læva malorum
542. Hac via est iter Exercet pænas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.
nobis au Elysium : àt
læva pars exercet

Deïphobus contrà :: Ne sævi, magna sacerdos :-
Discedam ; explebo numerum, reddarque tenebris. 545
I decus, i, nostrum: melioribus utere falis.
Tantum effatus, et in verbo vestigia torsit.

Respicit Æneas subitò ; et sub rupe sinistra
Mænia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro :
Quæ rapidus flammis ambit torrentibus amnis 550

Tartareus Phlegethon, torquetque sonantia saxa. 552. Esl porta adversa Porta adversa y ingens, solidoque adamante columnæ : 553. Ut nulla vis vi- Vis ut nulla virûm, non ipsi exscindere ferro rûm vaiet, non

Cælicolæ valeant. Stat ferrea turris ad auras : 557. Gemitus, cæpe- Tisiphoneque sedens, pallâ succincta cruentâ,

555 558. Tum stridor fer. Vestibulum insomnis servat noctesque diesque. ri, tractæque catene Hinc exaudiri gemitus, et sæva sonare cæperunt exudiri

Verbera : tum stridor ferri, tractæque catenæ. 560. O virgo, inquit, Constitit Æreas, strepitumque exterritus hausit : effare, quæ facies scele

Quæ scelerum facies, ô virgo, effare, quibusve 560 rum sunt illic

Urgentur pænis ? quis tantus plangor ad auras ?

NOTES.

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night, as Servius, and most interpreters sup- te alloquerer : I will depart, and fill up the pose. The time appointed for performing number of the multitude which I left, that the preliminary rites, and visiting the infer- I might converse with you. This is the nal regions, here called tempus datum, was opinion of Heync and Davidson. Accorda day and two nights, as we learn from Plu. ing to Plato's notion of transmigration, the tarch's treatise concerning the genius of So- souls of the deceased passed a certain numcrates. Now Æneas had passed the whole ber of years in purification, before they asof the first night in offering the prescribed sumed other bodies ; therefore, 2d. Discesacrifices, verse 255. He commenced his dam, impleturus numerum annorum purgadescent the next morning about sunrise. tionis, quæ fit in his tenebris : I will depart Medium axem must therefore mean the ine- to fill up the number of the years of puri. ridian, which the sun had passed, and was fication, which is done in this darkness. 3. hastening to the western horizon. The in- Discedam ; modo, sine ut expleam numerum, tervening time Æneas may be supposed to et periodum orationis meæ, quam incepi: I have passed in going through so many will depart; only let me fill up the number apartments. The remaining part of the and period of the discourse which I have day and following night, he visits his father, begun. Only let me finish what I have beand the Elysian fields; and returns the fol- gun to say. This last Ruæus prefers. lowing norning to his companions.

546. I decus, i, nostrum : pass on, pass on, 537. Fors: in the sense of fortasse. thou glory of our nation : experience fates

542. Læva exercet, &c. The meaning of more propitious. The repetition of the I is this passage is, that they had now arrived enphatical. at the place where the way separated into 549. Monia: in the sense of urbem. two: the right led to the city of Pluto, and 551. Phlegethon : the name of one of the the left ed to the place where the impious five rivers of hell: from a Greek word sigare punished. Tendit : in the sense of du- nifying, 10 burn, or to be on fire. cit. Millil, also, in the sense of ducit. 558. Verbera : scourges-lashes. Stridor

545. Discedum; erplebo numerum, &c. ferri : a grating, or din of iron. The meaning of this line has not been set- 559. Hausil strepilum: he heard the tutled by commentators. There are three opi- . mult-confused noise. nions which seem to prevail. 1. Discedam 560. Facies : forms--kinds. et implebo numerum turbæ, ex qua discessi ut 561. Urgentur : in the sense of crucian

Tum vates sic orsa loqui : Dux inclyte Teucrûm, mind Nulli fas casto sceleratum insistere limen :

563. Fas est nulli casto

insistere
Sed, me cùm lucis Hecate præfecit Avernis,
Ipsa Deûm pænas docuit, perque omnia duxit. 565
Gnossius hæc Rhadamanthus habet durissima regna,
Castigatque, auditque dolos : subigitque fateri,

567. Subigitque eos

fateri quæ piacula comQuæ quis apud superos, furto lætatus inani,

missa apud superos, Distulit in seram commissa piacula mortem.

quis distulit Continuò sontes ultrix accirta flagello

570 Tisiphone quatit insultans ; torvosque sinistra

571. Tisiphone ultrix, Intentans angues, vocat agmina sæva sororum.

accinta flagello, quatit Tum demum horrisono stridentes cardine sacræ

sontes insultans; sinis

traque manů Panduntur portæ. Cernis, custodia qualis

574. Sibylla inquit : Vestibulo sedeat ? facies quæ limina servet ? 575 cernis-ne qualis Quinquaginta atris immanis biatibus hydra

577. Sævior Hydra, Sævior intus habet sedem. Tum Tartarus ipse

immanis quinquaginta

atris hiatibus Bis patet in præceps tantùın, tenditque sub umbras, Quantus ad æthereum cæli suspectus Olympum.

579. Quantus est Flic genus antiquum Terræ, Titania pubes,

580
Fulmine dejecti, fundo volvuntur in imo.
Hìc et Aluïdas geminos, immania vidi
Corpora ; qui manibus inagnum rescindere cælum
Aggressi, superisque Jovem detrudere regnis.
Vidi et crudeles dantem Salmonea pænas,

585
Dum flamrnas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi.
Quatuor hic invectus equis, et lampada quassans,
chaum

NOTES.

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tur. Plangor : shrieking—outcry. The verb crushed them with his thunder. Their obsurgit, is understood.

ject, in the attempt, was to restore their fa568. Apud superos: with the living—in ther to his throne, from which he had been the upper world. Furto: privacy-conceal- driven by Jupiter. Volvuntur : in the sense ment. Inani: vain or unprofitable, because of premuntur. however great the privacy might have been, 582. Aloïdas. These were the giants Otus in vvhich crimes were cominiited; they and Ephialtes, the sons of Neptune by Iphiwere, nevertheless, all known to the gods. media, the wife of Aloëus. Homer makes Ruæus says, vana simulatione.

them nine cnbits broad, and nine ells high, 569. Piacula : in the sense of crimina, vel in the ninth year of their age. Odyss. xi. scelera.

304. 571. Quaiit : strikes. Verberat, says Ru- 585. Salmonea : a Greek acc. of Salmo

ncus. He was the son of Æolus, a king of 572. Sæva agmina sororum. The furies Elis. He made a bridge of brass, over which were reckoned three in number. Their he drove his chariot, boasting that by the names are Tisiphone, Alecto, and Mcgara. rattling of his wheels, and the prancing of They may be called agmina, bands or troops, his horses, he imitated the thunder ot' Jove; on account of their complicated rage; or who was highly honored at Elis. At the these may be only the principal ones, and saine time, to counterfeit his lightning, he might havn others under their command. hurled flaming torches at his subjects, and Intentans: shaking or brandishing.

ordered every one to be put to death, at 573. Sacræ : in the sense of sceleratæ. whom he threw his torch. He was struck 576. Hiatibus : mouths.

by the thunderbolt of Jove, for his impi579. Suspectus : height-distance. Æthe- ety and cruelty. Pænas. Pæna properreum Olympum : the cthereal vault of hea- ly signifies a recompense or satisfaction. ven–the highest pinnacle—the seat of the Hence the phrase dare pænam vel pænas, gods.

to be punished—that is, to make retribution 580. Titania pubes: the giants, the sons or satisfaction. of Titan and Terra. They attempted to 586. Flammas : lightning. Sonitus : thunscale heaven, and dethrone Jupiter; but he der.

Per Graiûm populos, mediæque per Elidis urbem
Ibat ovans, Divûmque sibi poscebat honorem :
Demens ! qui nimbos, et non imitabile fulinen 590

Ære et cornipedum cursu simularet equorum.
592. Ille Jupiler non At pater omnipotens densa inter nubila telum
contorsit faces, nec lumi- Contorsit (non iile faces, nec fumea tædis
na fumea è tædis, ut Lumina) præcipitemque immani turbine adegit.
Salmoncus fecit

Nec non et Tityon, Terræ omniparentis alumnum, 595 596. Licitun crat cer- Cernere erat : per tota novem cui jugera corpus nere Tityon

Porrigitur ; rostroque immanis vultur obunco
Iminortale jecur tundens, fu:cunda que pænis
Viscera, rimaturque epulis, habitatque sub alto
Pectore: nec fibris requies datur ulla renatis. 600
Quid memorem Lapithas, Ixiona, Pirithoümqué?
Quos super atra silex jamjam lapsura, cadentique

Imminet assiinilis. Lucent genialibus altis 604. Epulz paratæ Aurea fulcra toris, epulæque ante ora paratæ sunt ante eorum ora, cum Regifico luxu : Furiarurn maxima juxtà

605 Accubat, et manibus prohibet contingere mensas ;

Exsurgitque facem attollens, atque intonat ore. 608. Hic sunt illi, qui- Hic, quibus invisi fratres, dum vita manebat, bus fratres erant invisi Pulsatusve parens, et fraus innexa clienti ;

Aut qui diviliis soli incubuêre reperis, i queat 610
Nec partem posuere suis ; quæ maxima turba est :
Quique ob adulterium cæsi ; quique arma secuti

NOTES.

nus.

588. Urbem mediæ Elidis. For mediam His punishment would therefore be perpeurbem Elidis : through the middle of the tual. city of Elis. Heyne observes that some co- 601. Lapithas : the Lapitha were a peopies read median, which is the easier. ple of Thessaly of dissolute manners. Iri590. Nimbos : storms-teinpests.

ona. Ixion, the son of Phlegyas, was their 591. Simularet. This is the reading of king. He was admitted to an intimacy with Heyne. Most copies have simulârat, the plu. Jupiter, which he forfeited by designing an perf. of the ind.

intimacy with Juno. Jupiter knowing his 592 Telum : thunderbolt.

purpose, substituted a cloud for the god. 595. Tityon. Tityus was the son of Ju- dess; and was content at first only to re

move him from heaven ; but finding that piter and Elara, the daughter of Orchome- he boasted of having been honored with

When Jupiter found her with child, Juno's bed, he nurled him down to Tartahe shut her up in the earth for fear of Juno; where Tityus issuing forth in a gigantic

rus, and ordered Mercury to bind him to

a wheel, hung round with serpents, which form, was thought to be the son of the he was doomed to turn without any interearth. Virgil, therefore, calls him alumnus, inission. Pirithoür. He was the son of &c.: lhe foster-child of all-bearing earth. He Ixion. See 122, supra. was slain by Apollo for offering violence to Latona. He was punished by a huge vul. ricide is so horrid and unnatural, that he

609. Pulsus-ve parens: the crime of par ture, that continually preyed upon his liver and vitals; which, as they were devoured passes it by, not supposing any of the hu

man race conld be guilty of it. He puts always grew afresh. Hence immortale jecur: the case only of one who had beaten a pa. his immortal livr; because it never was

rent. Fraus inneza clienti : fraud practised consumed. Rimatur epulis : rummages them

upon a client. The claim of the client to for his meal. Renatis : springing up anew. the faith and protection of his patron was 596. Cui: in the sense of cujus.

considered sacred among the Romans; like 598. Tundens : beating—tearing. This is that of a child to the protection of the pathe cominon reading. But Heyne reads rent. Among the laws of the twelve tables ondens._Focunda penis: fertile in punish- it is said: "if any patron shall defraud his

This is said, because as soon as any client, let him be accurscd.” part was torn away, and consumed by the 611. „Vec partem : nor have distributed a vulture, its place was immediately supplied. part to their own. Arma: in the sense of bella

ment.

fear Impia ; nec veriti dominorum fallere dextras; Inclusi pænam expectant. Ne quære doceri 614 614. Hi omnes inclusi

hic expectant Quam pænam, aut quæ forma viros fortunave mersit.

615. Quam penam Saxum ingens volvunt alii, radiisque rotarum

pendent, aut que forma Districti pendent. Sedet, æternùmque sedebit Infelix Theseus: Phlegyasque miserrimus omnes Admonet, et magnâ testatur voce per umbras: Discite justitiam moniti, et non temnere Divos. 620 Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque potentem Imposuit: fixit leges pretio atque refixit. Hic thalamum invasit natæ, vetitosque hymenæos. Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti.

624. Hi omnes ausi Non, mihi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum, 625 sunt immane nefas, et Ferrea vox,'omnes scelerum comprendere formas,

potiti sunt auso

626. Non possim comOmnia pænarum percurrere nomina possim.

prendere omnes formas Hæc ubi dicta dedit Phæbi longæva sacerdos : Sed jam age, carpe viam, et susceptum perfice munus : Acceleremus, ait. Cyclopum educta caminis 630 Menia conspicio, atque adverso fornice portas, Hæc ubi nos præcepta jubent deponere dona.

632. Ubi Di jubent nos

NOTES.

613. Fallere deciras dominorum: to vio- This is the great moral of all those infernal late the faith of their masters-pledged to punishments, that the example of them might their masters. Dextra: in the sense of fides. deter from vice, and stimulate to virtue.

615. Forma-fortuna. By forma, Servius Moniti meo exemplo, says Heyne. understands the form or rule of justice: and

622. Fixit leges : he made and unmado by fortuna, Dr. Trapp understands the sen

laws for a price. This is said in reference dence of the judge. What punishment they to the Roman custom of engraving their undergo, or in what form or state of misery

laws upon tables of brass, and fixing them they are overwhelmed or involved. This up in public places, to the view of the peois plainly the meaning of the passage.- ple; and when those laws were abrogated Heyne says, Quæ forma pæna, quod-ve mise

or repealed, they were said to be refigi, to riæ genus mersit, vel manet viros.

be unfixed, or taken down. Hymenæos : in 616. Ingens saxum.

This refers to the the sense of nuptias. caso of Sisyphus, the son of Æolus, a notorious robber. He was sentenced to hell, and undertaking. Dr. Trapp thinks auso inay

624. Potiti auso: accomplished their bold compelled to roll a great stone to the top be used for præmio usi, they now have their of a hill; which, before he reached the top: reward, by way of sarcasnı.

But the sense returned to the bottom again. Thus his labor became perpetual. Districti radiis : commonly given is easier, and contains this bound to the spokes of wheels, they hang. wickedness, they are not the less odious

moral, that however successful men are in This alludes to the case of Ixion. See 601, to God, and will hereafter receive their due supra.

reward. 617. Æternùm sedebit. This may be explained by referring it to the shade or ghost undertaken offering. This refers to the

629. Perfice susceptum munus: finish the of Theseus after death: for he was set at liberty by Hercules, after he had been bound golden bough, which Æneas promised to by Pluto, and returned to the intercourse of deposit in the palace of Proserpine. See 122, supra.

630. Cyclopum. The Cyclops were the 618. Phlegyas. He was the father of Ix- first inhabitants of Sicily. To them is ation, and king of the Lapitha. His daugh- tributed the invention of forging iron, and ter Coronis, being ravished by Apollo, in re

of fortifying cities. The expression here venge for the injury, he burnt his temple; denotes that these walls were made of iron, for which he was thrust down to Tartarus. and strongly fortified. Educta : drawn out, He is represented as calling aloud to the or wrought in the forges of the Cyclops. shades, and admonishing all to take warning See Geor. i. 471. by him, not to despise the gods, nor commit 631. Portus fornice adverso : the gates, acts of impiety.

with their arch directly opposite to us, or in 620. Moniti discite justitiam: ye being front of us. admonished by my example, learn justice. 632. Hæc præcepta dona: these command

men.

Dixerat : et pariter gressi per opaca viarum,
Corripiunt spatium medium, foribusque propinquant
Occupat Æneas aditum, corpusque recenti

635 Spargit aquâ, ramumque adverso in limine figit.

His deinum exactis, perfectu munere Divæ,
Devenêre locos lætos, et amena vireta
Fortunatorum nemorum, sedesque beatas.
Largior hìc campos æther, et lumine vestit

640 041. Incolæ nôrunt

Purpureo : solemque suum, sua sidera nôrunt.
Pars in gramineis exercent membra palæstris,
Contendunt ludo, et fulvâ luctantur arenâ :
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas, et carmina dicunt.
Necnon Threïcius longâ cum veste sacerdos

645 Obloquitur numeris septem discrimina vocum:

Jaunque eadem digitis, jam pectine pulsat eburno. 648. Hic est antiquuin Hic genus antiquum Teucri, pulcherrima proles, genus

Magnanimi heroës, nati melioribus annis :
Ilusque, Assaracusque, et Trojæ Dardanus auctor. 650
Arma procul, currusque virûm miratur inanes.
Stant terrâ defixæ hastæ, passimque soluti
Per campos pascuntur equi. Quæ gratia currům

Armoruinque fuit vivis ; quæ cura nitentes
655. Eadem cura se- Pascere equos; eadem sequitur tellure repôstos.

655 quitur eos repôstos tel- Conspicit ecce alios dextrâ lævâque per herbam lure.

Vescentes, lætumque choro pæana canentes,

NOTES. ed gifts. This refers to the golden bough, (the seven different notes) in inusic. Or. which was sacred to Proserpine, and which pheus is here represented clothed in a long Æneas was directed to deliver to her. Ru- robe, that being anciently the garb both of a æus says, munera decerpla ex arbore. priest and musician; in which character le

633. Opaca viarun : tlie dark places of is here represented. the way, or simply, the dark way. Spatia 646. Septem, &c. Allusion is here had to vel loca may be understood.

the harp or lyre, which at first had only 634. Spatium : ground—way.

seven chords or strings. Two were after636. Spargit corpus: he sprinkles his body wards added to make the number nine, in with fresh water; either because he was honor of the muses. Pectine. The pecten, polluted by the sight of Tartarus, or because or plcclrun, was a kind of instrument which he presented an offering to Proserpine. Spar- the musician struck the strings of the larp git aqua, &c. In the entrance of the heathen or lyre with, called a quill. ternples, aqua lustralis, or holy water, was 647. Eadem. Markland conjectures this placed, to sprinkle the devout on their en- should be changed to fidem, the strings or trance. This custoin of sprinkling with holy chords of the lyre. The present reading rewater in the Roman church, La Cerda ad- fers to discrimina. The same (discrimina) mits was borrowed from this practice of thy he at one time strikes with his fingers, at heathen.

another, &c. 637. Dive: Proserpine. Perfeito: finish- 650. liusque. For the genealogy of these, ed-presented to her.

see Geor. iii. 35. 638. Devenêre : they came to.

653. Gratia: in the sense of amor. Hi639. Forlunatorun:: in the sense of feli- vis : iis is understood : in the sense of dum cium. Amana viridilate herbarum arborum. illi vixcrunt. que, says Ruæus.

657. Pæann. Pæan was a sacred hymn, 640. Vestit: in the sense of circumdat. or song of praise. It was sometimes sung 641. Purpureo: clear-resplendent. in honor of Mars, especially before battle.

642. Palæstris: in the sense of locis. Pa- It was sung in honor of Apollo, after a viclæstra, both the place of exercise, and the tory; and it was sometimes sung in honor excrcise itself.

of all the gods. It is derived from a Greek 644. Dicunt: in the sense of canunt. word, signifying to wound or pierce. It was

645. Threïcius saccrdos : the Thracian first sung in honor of Apollo after he killed poet warbles thc seven distinctions of sound the Python. Inter : simply, for in.

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