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The deaths from actual immediate “How much are your wages ?” starvation were few that came to my “Why, sir, you see, we work all by knowledge. It was the effect of long measure. Tenpence a day used to be privation in breaking down the constitu- the pay.” tion that was so fatal.

“And is that what you can make One of the saddest cases of death from

now?" famine was in a family of a small tenant “Oh no, sir. If we work as much as not far from me. He had several chil- the leading squad, whose work sets the dren. They and his wife seemed to sup- price of whatever is doing, we get eighteenport the privation tolerably, but the father pence. But I have a bit of land, and it was failing fast-a hale, middle-aged man, suits me and the rest of us to work by and one who would make every effort, measure, for we can come and go as it is submit to every hardship, rather than go convenient, and need not leave our little upon the rates.

industry at home behind. But I and my He died. The doctor said nothing son work here pretty regular, and generalailed him that he should die, and it was ly have twelve or fourteen shillings a week known that his little store of potatoes was to take home with us." not quite exhausted. He and his family “Did you ever get any of the relief were seen making a scanty meal of them meal ?” daily. The doctor made an examination "Is it the charity meal that they gave to discover his malady, and found that he to them that were starving? No, sir, I was full of indigestible potato-skins, of thank God I never did.” which he had been in the habit of making “Did any of your neighbors get any his meals-giving the inside to his loved of that meal ?" ones.

“Well, I suppose they did.” One of the good effects of the famine “Why did they prefer that to coming was—in this district at least—to draw to- to work !" gether all the educated and wealthier part “ I'm sure I don't know. It's nothing of the people-parson, priest, landlord, to me. They might have come if they'd merchant. And the individual knowledge liked, for the work was open to all." of the priests among the poorer portion “Maybe they got more by the way made their hearty aid doubly valuable. they took. How many of a family have

After the famine was over, though we were still smarting from the wound, the " Nine of us, sir, altogether." Government sent some gentlemen round “Could you think of any neighbor the country (I do not remember under who got the charity meal, who had about what designation) to inquire into the state as many !" of the people.

“ Just as many.

I do know of such a One of these officers came to me, and saying that my name having been men- “Now do you know how much worth tioned in the report of the Board of Works, of meal his allowance was weekly for nine he begged of me to allow him to make use people !" of me in his investigation.

66 To be sure I don't. What's it to me !" Among other things, he asked me if, "Well, I will tell.” (And taking out among the many laborers he saw I still his pencil and pocket-book, he calculated had at work, I could show him one, not the quantity and price.) “ Just one living on my land, who had worked with or two shilings worth more than you got me steadily through the three bad years, by working. So which do you think was 1846-7-8, and begged of me to let him best off-you and yours, or he and his !" speak to the man without my interfering My man looked very indignant, and at all.

was silent for a minute, and then said, We went to my farm, and I pointed “Ay, poor fellow, he might have more out such a man to him.

meat in his belly, but can he have the He accosted him. The man rested on soul of a man left in him?" his spade and returned his salute.

And he turned abruptly away to his “How long have you been working work. here ?"

The inquirer said to me, “I would “Pretty regular these three years, sir.” gladly have come all the way from London

you !"

one."

to hear that fine fellow's words. He has Unfortunately the violent, hot-headed, a sense of what he is saved from by the misled, or the broken-spirited, pauperized, opportunity of earning his support, and by beggarly portion of the population, being the manliness to choose the earned bread naturally in the position to attract most rather than the gratuitous. I daresay attention, have been taken as the samples there are many others who would give of Irish peasantry. This has occasioned nearly the same answers ?”

scant respect to be shown or felt towards I assured him that such was my belief. the mass of the people ; and it must be

Then I followed my man to speak to confessed that the want of respect shown him. He accosted me gruffly.

“ I won

even by benefactors, who exhibit pity and der, sir, what made you bring that English- benevolence enough, has tended to lower man here to insult us; the way he talked the respectability of the people. about us taking the charity meal!”

If these reminiscences shall lead some But when I explained the matter to of their readers to believe in the existence him, he said, “Well, then, I'll forgive him. of a high, noble, virtuous spirit in my But he needn't think too hardly of them poorer fellow-countrymen, and to respect that took it. There's many a one, besides them accordingły, I shall be thankful to a poor laboring man, that would be have been able thus to discharge a little tempted if he'd be offered more for idling of the debt of obligation to those among than working. Only I thank God I did, whom I have lived so long, and whose earn all I got, and with His blessing I kindly and neighborly intercourse and will do so."

behavior not merely makes me their This is one of the very many instances friend, but makes me proud to call them in which the poor peasantry show a char- friends. acter which commands respect much more than it excites compassion.

(To be continued.)

my

PROF. MAX MÜLLER.

BY THE EDITOR.

It is singular and at the same time em- his “Chips from a German Workshop.' inently characteristic of his nation's schol- He was educated at the University of arship that the most learned and most Leipsic, where he devoted his time almost popular philologist who writes the English exclusively to the study of Sanscrit and language is not an Englishman or an the oriental languages; and went to American, but a German. No writer has Paris in 1845 to procure material for an entered more deeply into the origin and edition of the Rigveda with the commendevelopment of the English language it- tary of Sayanacarya. While in Paris he self than Prof. Max MÜLLER; none, we met Humboldt and the greater and lesser think, has done so much in tracing out lights of the French Academy; but three and explaining those local idioms which years later we find him in England, where are so prevalent in England, and which in the great work mentioned above was pubone or two cases amount to well-defined lished in 1849-54, at the expense of the dialects; and many intelligent readers, no East India Company. Deciding to redoubt, especially in this country, have de- main in England, he was appointed, in rived all the knowledge they possess of 1850, deputy Taylorian professor of litecomparative philology from the books rary history and comparative grammar in which he has published on the subject. the University of Oxford, and a year later

FRIEDRICH MAX MÜLLER was born in was made honorary member of the uni1823 (Dec. 6th), and, as our readers will versity. In 1854 he was appointed to see by the portrait, is now a hearty and the professorship of modern European sleek-looking man of forty-seven years. languages in the same institution, and is His birth-place was Dessau in the prov- now professor of the recently established ince of Anhalt, Germany; and his father chair of Sanscrit, the study of which he was Wilhelm Müller, an author whose life has done more probably than any living and works he has embalmed in an admira- man to promote not only in Europe but ble essay contained in the last volume of in India.

Professor MÜLLER has been an indus- ces; and by these and his popular series trious writer, and among the works which of “Chips from a German Workshop," he has published since his settlement in comprising his miscellaneous writings for England are a treatise "On the Compar- various periodicals, is he best known in ative Philology of the Indo-European America. Languages in its bearing on the Early Civ- All of Professor Möller's most importilization of Mankind;" "The Languages ant books have been written in English, of the Seat of War," written during the and he uses our language with a fluency, Crimean war; "Buddhism and the Bud- elegance, and precision that could hardly dhist Pilgrims;" and a “History of San- be surpassed. The hypercritical Saturscrit Literature." His most important day Review says, “Prof. Muller is really and best-known works are the “Lectures one of the best English writers of the day ;' on the Science of Language," delivered at and that this praise is well-merited our the Royal Institution, London, the first readers were probably convinced by the series in 1861, and the second in 1863. three articles from his pen in our last These Lectures may be said to have year's volumes, entitled " Lectures on the made good for the first time the claims of Science of Religion.” Philology to be ranked among the scien

LITERARY NOTICES.

Little Men: or Jo's Boys at Plumfield. By the little ones who find their ideals and companLOUISA M. ALCOTT. Boston: Roberts Bros. ions in it instead of in the absurdly dull, priggish, 1871.

and preposterous books usually provided for them. It is related of Miss Alcott, that when her first There is little doubt in our mind that it has been work was written and she had concluded to make as productive of good as it has of amusement. a venture with the public, the publisher to whom

* Little Men' has been rather more criticized she offered the manuscript advised her to “stick than “Little Women, and the objections are to school-teaching,” for she was certain to make usually well taken, for Miss Alcott undoubtedly a failure in literature. It would seem like er understands girls better than she does boys, and post facto wisdom to ridicule this publisher now, her conception of the latter is about as true to and it would hardly be fair to make his blunder life as those mysterious abstractions which female the text for disparaging comments upon the judg. novelists are fond of substituting in their books ment and discrimination of publishers in general, for men. It is not one whit less interesting, how. for Miss Alcott is precisely the kind of writer ever, and it will probably satisfy the majority of whom the average publisher suspects in the premis readers to know that it introduces us once more to ses. If she had written an ordinary and orthodox our old friends of Little Women." Part second book, in the ordinary and orthodox way, said pub- of that work left us at the end with Meg settled lisher would probably have been quite ready to add calmly down to her duties as mother of a family, her name to his list of bookmakers; but Miss Amy married to Laurie, and Jo married to ProAlcott has displayed marked and decided individu- fessor Bhaer, but still revolving in her mind origi. ality from the start, and the publisher, if he under- nal schemes of usefulness. Little Menbrings stands the matter at all, knows very well that ge- us again into familiar relations with all these, and nius itself is not more capricious than the kind of takes us besides into the school at Plumfield, reception which the public is likely to extend to an where “ Jo's boys” number about a dozen. What author who departs from the established type. jolly experiences we go through with those boys

This mitigates the error of the publisher, but we it would be impossible even to hint, but the memoshould hardly say that it excuses him, for it would ry of them is pleasant and most vivid. We never seem impossible for the dullest to read a specimen meet exactly such boys, it is true, in real life, but of Miss Alcott's work without seeing that not only one is better for having met them if only in a book; did she have something to say, and that her way of and doubtless many a reader is already looking saying it was fresh and vivid, but that she had in forward eagerly to that other volume which must her all the elements of popularity. Such, at least, take the "little men” away from Plumfield, and was the prompt and emphatic verdict of the pub- into the larger relations which lie before even the lic, for no sooner did “Little Women "—the first smallest and most thoughtless of men. of her books fairly brought before readers-make Miss Alcott is, to our mind, the most wholesome its appearance, than it took the whole reading and healthy-natured story-teller that New England world, old and young, by storm; and from that has produced. She is not one of the time to the present, though its circle of readers has

“Folks with a mission, steadily widened, we have never seen or heard a

Whose gaunt eyes, see criticism on it that was respectable and at the

Golden ages rising," same time disparaging. “Little Women" is in- but who see nothing in the present but “a tangled deed almost perfect in its way, and the great suc- skein of will and fate” which each one's pen is to cess which it has achieved is not only a triumph of unravel. We do not know what her philosophy good literature over bad, but signally fortunate for of life is, or even if she has any; but we are quite certain of one thing, and that is that we should even when most interested, cannot divest himself not envy the one who should take upon himself of the consciousness that the man who is deliberthe task of convincing her of the total depravity ately encountering these perils is Professor Tynof human nature, or that the world is utterly “out dall, and that a slip, a misplaced step, the slightof joint.” In addition to this, Miss Alcott pos- est error or accident, would deprive the world of sesses the prime faculty of a story-teller : that, his services while yet in the prime of his life and namely, of inspiring interest. There is not a dull usefulness, or commonplace chapter in her books; and one While “Hours of Exercise” is more especially can pick them up anywhere and open at any page,

a "record of bodily action," the scientific aspects and it will not take three minutes to inspire him of the subject are not excluded, and in the Appenwith the desire to “read on.”

dix are notes on the structure, characteristics, and If there is any household, or Sunday-school li- properties of ice and glaciers; an explanation of brary, or collection of books intended for children, the phenomena of clouds; Snowdon in winter ; which is yet without these volumes, the duty of and a narrative of the expedition to Algeria to the head of such household or keeper of such li- observe the recent solar eclipse. The volume as brary seems to us quite clear.

a whole is a most attractive one, and we trust it

will introduce Professor Tyndall to the large circle Hours of Exercise in the Alps. By John of readers who have been repelled by the strictly TYNDALL, LL.D., F.R.S. New York: D.

scientific character of his previous books. After Appleton & Co. 1871.

once making his acquaintance they are not likely PROFESSOR TYNDALL has been very liberal to part company with him hereafter. with his readers of late. This is the third volume he has published during the present season, any

Reindeer, Dogs, and Snow Shoes ; A Journal of one of which would suffice to put the public under

Siberian Travel and Exploration. By RICHARD obligations, and it

New York: Harper & Bros. 1871.

J. Bush probable that another one still, comprising his summer lectures, will be ready The successful laying of the sub-Atlantic cable before the close of the year.

suspended for a time at least the stupendous unThe character of “Hours of Exercise in the dertaking of the Russo-American Telegraph Com. Alps' is exactly portrayed in its title. It de- pany; but while their great labor and expense scribes the recreations which Professor Tyndall were rendered nugatory as far as practical results has enjoyed during the summers of the ten years are concerned, it may be doubted if any purely extending from 1859 to 1869, and is complemen- commercial enterprise ever contributed so much tary to the “Fragments of Science” which we toward the instruction and amusement of mankind. noticed in these pages a couple of months ago. The greater part of what we know of Northwest“The two volumes,” as the author says, “sup- ern British America, of Alaska, of. Eastern Sibeplement each other, and, taken together, illustrate ria, and of Kamtschatka, has been derived from the the mode in which a lover of natural knowledge engineers and explorers sent out by the Company; and of natural scenery chooses to spend his life.”'

and the books in which they are described are That such a life is as useful and noble an one as it among the most lively and entertaining in the long is given to man to spend, we presume few would list of recent travels. deny; for even the recreations are not of the kind Mr. Bush's volume is the latest of these, and in which one would suppose that so laborious a “pretends to no scientific value," but is simply a student and worker as Professor Tyndall would record of personal observation and adventure in indulge himself, but are scarcely less bracing, Kamtschatka and that portion of Siberia bordering stimulative, and instructive than the more techni. on the Sea of Okhotsk and including the country of cally scientific work itself. To a man like Prof. the Tungusians, the Yakouts, the Koraks, and the Tyndall a mountain, or a glacier, or a bit of Tchuctchus. The region is pretty much the scenery, means a good deal more of course than to same as that described by Mr. Kennan in his the ordinary tourist, and it is hardly an exagger- “ Tent Life in Siberia," but the narratives by no ation to say that the reader who follows him in- means traverse each other, and the two volumes telligently through these “hours of exercise" will should be read in conjunction. Mr. Kennan's is learn more of the Alps and of the majestic phe- briefer and much the better of the two-is in fact nomena which they present than from all the almost a model of what a record of travel ought to guide books and souvenirs of travel" ever issued be, -—and Mr. Bush would have greatly improved from the press. It must not be inferred from his book by a little rigid editing;

but we can readthis, however, that the volume is oppressively in- ily appreciate the difficulty of abridging a journal structive. The dullest of subjects are inspired the whole of which is strictly relevant and no por. with new meaning and significance under the hand tion of which is positively uninteresting, and if the of Prof. Tyndall, and in addition to this he sees author was as young a man at the time as we take scenery with the eye of a genuine artist and de. him to have been from hints here and there, his scribes it with the fervor of imagination and of journal is scarcely less creditable to him than the diction which belong to a poet.

courage with which he encountered the perils of The present volume, in fact, shows that the Arctic exploration, and the unaffected modesty author is as much at home in narrative and de. with which he has related them. scription as in the more customary field of scienti- As suggestions about “ summer reading " are fic exposition. One follows him through his always in order with the critic at this season, per record of “hair-breadth scapes," and of adven- haps we had as well adopt this plea as any other for tures amongst “rough quarries, rocks, and hills recommending a speedy perusal of Reindeer, whose heads touch heaven," with almost unalloyed Dogs, and Snow Shoes." Campbell said that his pleasure. We say “almost,” for the reader, idea of happiness was to “ lounge upon the rainbow and read eternal romances of Crébillon.” If any- The editor has taken upon herself the hardest thing can inspire pleasure with the thermometer at task which her Series presents,-that of writing 90, we should say it would be lying at ease in the for the very young, --and she can hardly be said shade and following an explorer through a region to have performed it successfully. The Series, where the temperature falls to 56° below zero, and however, will doubtless be a good one, and the where the taking off of mittens long enough to second volume, “The Cousin from India,” by light a pipe involves the freezing of one's fingers. Georgiana M. Craik, is said by the English critics

The volume is published with the usual excel- to be an interesting, vivacious, and very amusing lent taste of the Harpers in this field, and the story. illustrations are both numerous and good.

Till the Doctor Comes, and How to Help Him. Books for Girls. Little Sunshine's Holiday. By George H. HOPE, M.D. New York : By the author of "John Halifax, Gentleman.” G. P. Putnam & Sons. New York: Harper & Brothers.

This is an excellent little hand-book, and will AFTER writing more books for adults than any no doubt become quite as popular here as it is in one person is likely to undertake to read—though England, where it has run through five editions. they are well worth reading—Miss Muloch has It consists of brief suggestions on all the diseases, turned her attention to children, and promises to affections, and accidents to which man is ordinasupply the great want which exists everywhere, so rily liable, and what it tells on any one point can she is told, of Girls' Books. The "address" with be got at in a moment. Those who get it exwhich she introduces her series is full of the pecting a detailed statement of the diagnoses, proauthor's usual good sense, and shows that she is cesses, and treatment of disease, will be disapvery well aware of the nature of the task which pointed; for it is only intended to serve till the she has undertaken to perform. She has written doctor comes, and by no means encourages the books for twenty-four years; books which, she substitution of a book for a physician. It is a says with pardonable pride, have been read over very useful and a very necessary book nevertheless, half the world, and translated into most European and has been improved in some respects by its languages. Yet, she continues, it is less as an au- American editor, thor than as a woman and a mother that she rests Messrs. Putnam & Sons have also published reher claim to edit this Series; to choose the sort of cently several other excellent books, among which books that ought to be written for girls, and are The Young Mechanic, Containing Directions sometimes to write them. "I leave myself the for the Use of all kinds of Tools, &c. ; Ghardaia, widest range of selection, both as to subjects and or Ninety Days in the Desert, a book of travel authors; merely saying that the books will set which we fear is more entertaining than true; and forth the opinions of no clique-I belong to none; Tent Life in Siberia, of which our readers will nor will they advocate any special theological creed hear more in our next number. -I believe only in Christianity. Indeed there will be as little "preaching" in them as possible; for

SCIENCE, the wisest sermon is usually a silent one-example. But they will be, morally and artistically, the best Constitution of the Blood.--An Experimental books I can find, and will contain the experience Inquiry into the Constitution of Blood, and the of the best women of all countries, used for the Nutrition of Muscular Tissue, is the title of a benefit of the generation to come.

Such is the paper by Dr. Marcet recently read at a meeting of substance of the "address," and there is no doubt the Royal Society. The late Professor Graham, that such a Series as it promises will supply a by his process of dialysis, showed that substances clearly defined want in juvenile literature.

were separable into crystalloids and colloids, that In Little Sunshine's Holidaywe have the is, those which are crystalline in their nature, and first volume of the Series, and what we may sup- those which resemble starch or gum. By taking pose is a fair specimen of the books of which it is advantage of this process, Dr. Marcet finds that to consist. It is written by Miss Muloch herself, blood is strictly a colloid fuid. The small quanand certainly “begins at the beginning,” for its tity of crystalloids which it contains is intended to heroine is scarcely three years old, and it is de- preserve the fluidity of the blood, and it is of imsigned apparently for girls of that tender age. portance that they should be retained during the The story is a simple one, dealing only with the circulation, owing to the part they play in the ordinary incidents of a trip to the Highlands, and vital phenomena of oxidation ; in other words, in the marvellous and the exciting are alike rigidly keeping the blood free from impurities. Among excluded. It is written in Miss Muloch's usual these substances are those known to chemists as bland and agreeable style, it shows much knowl. phosphoric anhydride and potash, and these are edge of and familiarity with children and their found also in flesh, or muscular tissue, in its comways, and it indicates a heart lovingly disposed plete state. Besides these constituents, there are towards them; but at the same time we fear that found in flesh the materials contributed by the the little folks to whom the story is addressed blood on their way to impart completeness, and would unanimously pronounce it dull. The men- those which, having done their work, have become tal sympathy which enters far more largely than effete, and are passing out. In the healthy state, mere literary art into the composition of good flesh contains in store a supply of nourishment children's books is not possessed by Miss Muloch, equal to about one-third more than its requireher standpoint is essentially an objective one, and ment for immediate use; this, as Dr. Marcet reshe describes Little Sunshine and her doings pre- marks,“ being apparently a provision of nature to cisely as Darwin, for instance, would describe the allow of muscular exercise during prolonged fastways of his pet monkeys.

ing.” And he concludes that “the blood corpus.

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