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years ago by the experimenter himself, about modern experimental philosophy has been two inches square, and half an inch thick. an advance to the conclusion here statedMagnetic bodies are well known by the pro- a conclusion which, apart from proof, com, perties of being attracted by an actual mends itself to our convictions by its grand magnet-of invariably assuming a particu- simplicity of action, so in harmony with all lar position in the line of the magnetic our conceptions of Almighty wisdom and force, when freely suspended, or moving on power. The effects of electricity, tested in a pivot, as the needle of a compass; and a thousand ways, disclose the extensive opof being invested with magnetic power them- eration of the electric forces in chemical selves under certain conditions. Of these actions—the resolution of the magnetic enbodies, five minerals were recognised by M.ergy into electricity in combination with Pouillet-iron, manganese, nickel, chrome, certain forms of matter, of which the often and cobalt ; but Dr. Faraday's experiments observed disturbance of the compass neehave increased the number to ten, of which, dles at sea from storms of thunder and lighthowever, iron is vastly the most important, ning, gave note of warning, and of which on account of its abundant and superior the electro-magnet is the decisive proofmagnetic qualities. In other bodies, com- the influence upon a ray of light of the elecprehending the great mass of the earth's tro-magnetic current Aowing parallel with it crust, and all organized existences, the through the same medium—these are some same properties have not been discovered, of those realities of science which intimate and hence these have been classed as non--for it is best to speak cautiously—the magnetic. But it now appears that instead elementary unity of the mightier agencies of possessing that negative character which of nature, as divergent streams issuing from the term expresses, the non-magnetics have a common fountain, functions of one and properties in opposition to the former, so the same power. as to be repelled by the poles of an actual Another paper, the twentieth of a series magnet, and hence the new characteristic on experimental researches in electricity, term of dia-magnetic.
read before the Royal Society, January 8th With the above implements--a ray of and 15th, 1846, entitled, “On new Magpolarized light-a magnetic line or current netic Actions, and on the Magnetic Condiof force resulting from the combined action tion of all Matter,” will enable us to state of the two poles of a powerful electro-mag- more fully the newly-discovered property to net, and the piece of glass, so arranged that which we have already referred, called diathe polarized ray and the magnetic line of magnetic. The following details of expeforce passed through the transparent sub- riment will suffice, in which a power was stance at the same time, and in the same given to the electro-magnet equal to susdirection. Dr. Faraday found that the ray taining from 56 lbs. to 112 lbs. of light was so affected by the action of the A bar of the heavy glass was suspended electro-magnet, as to become visible or in- at its centre by a long silk thread, so as to visible, according as it was developed or turn freely by the slightest force on a horisuspended. To use his own description- zontal plane, and secured from the action " when the force of the electro-magnet of currents of air by being inclosed in a was developed by sending an electic cur- glass jar. The two poles of the electrorent through its coils, immediately the magnet were then placed one on each side image of the light became visible, and of the glass bar, when it immediately began continued so as long as the arrangement to assume a position at right angles to a continued magnetic. On stopping the elec-line connecting the poles, or the line of tric, current and so causing the magnetic force magnetic force, and rested in it after a few to cease, the light instantly disappeared; and vibrations, returning to the same position, these phenomena could be renewed at plea- if displaced by the hand. It was therefore sure, at any instant of time, showing a per- mutually repelled by the two poles. A bar fect dependence of cause and effect. Thus,” of bismuth obeyed the same law, but in a says hē, “is established a true direct rela- more decided manner. Now a bar of iron tion and dependence between light and placed in the same circumstances, would the magnetic and electric forces, and thus a have assumed a position coincident with the great addition is made to the facts and con- line of the magnetic force, and therefore at siderations which tend to prove that all right angles with that of the bismuth and natural forces are tied together, and have the glass, subjected to the same influence. one common origin.” The whole course of The two positions were called by Dr. Fara
day arial and equatorial ; the axial corres- | Seeds carried in by the birds to their young ponding with the line connecting the poles and dropped, had sprung up, producing being that taken by the iron, and the equa- blanched stalks covered with half-formed torial, crossing the former at right angles, leaves about two feet high ; but it was imthat taken by the bismuth. 'It thus clearly possible to recognise the species, from the appears that different bodies are acted upon change in form, color, and aspect, which by the magnetic forces in a different and the absence of light had occasioned. The precisely opposite manner; and hence may native Indians gazed upon these traces of be grouped into two classes—the magnetics, organization in darkness, with mingled cucomprising, as far as yet known, about ten riosity and fear, as if pale and disfigured metals, of which iron is the type-the dia- phantoms, banished from the face of the magnetics, which obey a contrary law, com- earth. To the traveller, as he remarks, prising the great mass of terrestrial sub- they “recalled one of the happiest periods stances, of which bismuth is the type. A of my early youth—a long abode in the vast variety of substances have been exa- mines of Freiberg, where I made experimined, simple and compound, solid, fluid and ments on the effects of blanching, which gaseous, in order to ascertain their places are very different, according as the air is in these classes, but excepting the magne- pure, or overcharged with hydrogen or tic metals and gaseous bodies which are not azote.” Blanched plants resume their naaffected either way, and may be said to be tural green color, even in darkness, if exneutral, all bodies hitherto tested among posed to the action of hydrogen gas. The which phosphorus, sulphur, quartz, calcare- vast forests of the Amazon and Orinoco exous spar, water, alcohol, sugar, caoutchouc, hibit the influence of light upon the green wood, ivory, flesh of various kinds, and of the leaves, sometimes upon a grand scale bread, may be mentioned—betray the dia- when the leaf buds are developing. “ It magnetic character. The human frame, frequently happens, that clouds and rain could it be suspended in the circumstances obscure the atmosphere for several days toof the bar of glass or bismuth, would take gether, and that, during this time, the buds the same position, at right angles with the of entire forests expand themselves into line connecting the magnetic poles. It is leaves. These leaves assume a pallid hue well known from the phenomena of the till the sun appears, when, within the short magnetic needle, its polarity and dip, that period of six hours of clear sky and bright the earth in mass acts like a great magnet, sunshine, their color is changed to a beauthe poles of which are beneath the surface; tiful green.” It has been related, that and the remark of Dr. Faraday may point during twenty days of dark dull weather the to some revelation to which future research- sun not once making his appearance, the es may lead. “If Saturn were a magnet, leaves were expanded to their full size, but as the earth is, and his ring composed of dia- were almost white. One forenoon, the magnetic substances, the tendency of the for- sun began to shine in full brightness, the ces would be to place it where it actually is.” color of the forest absolutely changed so
fast that its progress might be perceived. IV. We had intended to notice the impor- By the middle of the afternoon, the whole tant action of light upon the animal and ve- for many miles presented its usual summer getable economy; but our space allows of only dress. The secretions of plants are intia few references to its influence in the latter mately connected with the influence of light. relation, which has recently received some it is only from the roses of the south, that new illustrations. Every one is acquainted it is worth while attempting to obtain the with what the French call the etiolation or powerful essential oil, known as Otto of blanching of plants by covering them up Roses, those of the north receiving the difrom the light, an effect purposely produced rect solar light more obliquely. This must by the market-gardener to render certain be the cause, and not difference of temperavegetables more palatable, those peculiar ture, since artificial heat rivalling the trosecretions being checked which cause their pical, fails to produce the effect. rankness and stringiness in natural condi- The instinct of living plants is very retions. Humboldt beheld with astonishment markable, or the sensible indications afthe progress of subterraneous vegetation in forded of their dependence upon the luthe Cuera del Guacharo,'an immense longi- minous element: the stately head of the tudinal cavern in the district of Caraccas, annual sun-flower moving with the sun from inhabited by nocturnal fruciferous birds. east to west, returning by natural elasticity
after sunset to the east, to meet his beams the blessings of the light," to use the lanin the morning; the innumerable leaves of guage of a fine old English hymn, we are a clover field following the same course ; bound reverently to offer thanksgiving to all plants turning towards the light, those the Father of lights. But, alas! the comof the hot-house directing their branches to monness of the gift is apt to diminish our the side where it is most copious, and not sense of obligation, and cause us to overlook to the quarter of the heated flue, or where its value. Milton, excluded by blindness most air is admitted ; leaves presenting from observation of the “ first-created their upper surface to it, upon which light beam,” by which the scenes of natural acts beneficially, and hurtfully upon the beauty and magnificence around us under side, in whatever situation the plant made visible, and exposed may be placed ; those of the mistletoe dispensing with this rule, the two sides of the "To daily fraud, contempt, abuse, and wrong,
Within doors and without, still as a fool leaves being alike in appearance, and there
In powers of others, never in my own,”. fore, as may be presumed, performing the same functions in the relation to light as describes the calamity that had befallen well as air. Even of some vegetable pow- him, in terms which may rebuke our indifders, long known to be affected in color and ference to the gift which we inherit, and medicinal powers by exposure to light, and which will live coeval with the language to therefore kept by the pharmacopolist from which they belong :it, it has been lately ascertained, that several adhere with considerable firmness to the “Seasons return, yet not to me returns sides of glass jars next the light, while the
Day, or the sweet approach of eve or morn,
Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, sides in shadow are left clear. Mr. Hunt,
Or docks, or herds, or human face divine; who makes this observation, has detailed But cloud instead, and ever-during dark some new facts in communications to the Surrounds me, from the cheerful ways of men British Association. He states, that while
Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair
Presented with an universal blank under all circumstances plants bend in a
Of nature's works to me expunged and raz'd, very decided manner towards the light, yet And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out. in all experiments with red fluid media, they bend as decidedly from it as something Yet, while thus keenly sensible of his prito be avoided. In examining the influence vation, and an old man fallen upon evil exerted by colored light upon the germina- times, his was not an uncomforted spirit, as tion of seeds and the growth of plants, the the expression of his patience testifies-one same inquirer found that the more luminous of the most sublime that ever came from an rays exercised a surprising influence in pre- uninspired source-showing the advantage venting germination; that the effect of the of connecting the contemplation of nature chemical rays was such, that under their with obedience to nature's God :"Neither concentrated influence, acting on the sur- am I disheartened that I am now become face of the soil, seeds germinated at a depth the companion of the blind, of the afflicted, below that at which they would have ger- of those that sorrow, and of the weak; minated in the natural conditions; that the since I comfort myself with the hope, that leaves being developed, the action of the these things do, as it were, make me belong luminous rays then became necessary to still more to the protection and mercy of effect the decomposition of carbonic acid, the Supreme Father. There is, according and the deposition of woody fibre within the to the apostle, a way through weakness to plant; and that under the joint influence the greatest strength; let me be the most of the chemical and luminous rays, the weak, provided that in my weakness that plant arrived at maturity, when the full immortal and better strength exert itself action of the calorific or heat producing with more efficacy ; provided that in my rays, was required to ripen fruit and deve- darkness, the light of the face of God shine lope seed.
the clearer. So shall I prove, at the same But here we must close ; yet not without time, the most weak and the most strongreferring to the connexion that ought to be dark, blind, and at the same time clearmaintained between the pleasures of sci- sighted. Oh, let me be consummate in this ence, of taste, and of devotion-the last weakness ! in this perfected! Let me be giving zest to the former, and furnishing an thus enlightened in this darkness! And ample compensation in circumstances un- sure we, that are blind are not the least propitious to their enjoyment. “For all | care of God, who hath been in this element above all, merciful to us, that he will have ternal fail-can felicitate themselves with us see nothing but himself. The high dis- thoughts of the spiritual amid the sadness pensation of God, his favor, hath given us of the sensible, and indulge a Christian à protection from the injuries of men, and expectation of that state to which the figurendered us almost sacred. Nor doth he, rative description applies :-" And the indeed, seem to have brought this darkness city had no need of the sun, neither of the upon us so much by the dimness of our eyes, moon, to shine in it; for the glory of God as by the shadow of his protecting wings !” | did enlighten it, and the Lamb is the light Happy, indeed, they who can thus draw thereof." upon internal sources of comfort, as the ex
From Fraser', Magazine.
ANECDOTICAL SKETCHES ON THE LIFE, MANNERS, AND ECCEN
TRICITIES OF THE FRENCH AUTHORS OF THE PRESENT DAY.
There is a greater dissimilarity between poetical, or imaginative. Everything is a the character and genius of French litera-sensation or impression ; it must bear this ture and the English, than between the character, or it cannot come in contact with literature of the latter and that of other the national mind. Condillac, the EnEuropean nations. German writings retain cyclopedia, and Destut-Tracy, have still many points of resemblance to us, and so left visible memorials of their powerful pens, do likewise Italian and Spanish ; but the and have rendered the French intellects French literature is, in all its leading fea- almost impervious to the subtile genius of tures, a thing quite sui generis. A French- Germany, or the forcible and ingenious man's ideas must be always palpable-never spirit of philosophizing which pervades the far from the surface. He invariably avoids great mass of British literature. diving deep into the well of knowledge; all Now we have often imagined that this his representations and illustrations must sensible and material character of French be of the visible and rational sort, im- literature is strikingly portrayed in the pressed with a lively and vivid conception, writers of the country; the instrument is and must bear the stamp of actual existence. fashioned to the work. Let a French and It very rarely happens that a French author English writer, of similar studies, sit down ever loses himself or his readers in the together, and you will soon detect the chaos of unintelligible speculation. There amazing differences in their mental constiare thousands of absurd books in French, tutions. The Frenchman will be all life on recondite or abstract subjects, but their and vitality-he will hop from twig, to absurdity is palpable and undisguised. A twig with rapidity and cleverness, and skim French fallacy is a tangible thing-you over the surface of an argument or system have no difficulty in detecting it, for it is with a dexterity which cannot be surpassed. never invested with the specious drapery of To keep his mind fixed for any length of refined and abstruse sophistry. The na- time upon a concatenated series of argutional mind of France is quite averse to ments, or causes and effects, is impossible. this mode“ of showing the weaker to be the His ardor is too great to dwell upon parstronger reason." It is essentially mate- ticular parts of a subject. He sums up the rial in all its phases. The limpid clearness evidence, and delivers his judgment with of the pebbled brook runs through the all the confidence and quickness of intuition whole of French literature. The leading itself. The Englishman is a different perprinciples of the sensual philosophy, which sonage. He is deeply impressed with the has taken such deep root in the genius of vital importance of his subject. He goes our Gallic neighbors, and which was so slowly and leisurely to work, and on all the forcibly and enthusiastically promulgated various parts of a system or argument befor fifty years prior to their first revolution, stows on each just that degree of attention has incorporated itself with every topic of which is fu commensurate with its value. speculation, whether philosophic, dramatic, He works out a moral problem with singuVol. XI. No. III.
lar neatness and case, and all his logical there one evening, and found the crowd of arrangements bear the impress of a vigorous savants so great that we were puzzled to and well-regulated mind. Both intellects recognise those authors who occupied a conhave points of contact, but the points of spicuous place in public estimation from the repulsion are vastly more numerous. The mass of mediocrity by which they were surtrains of thought in each have run too long rounded. in their accustomed channels to enable “ Look here,” said my friend; them to amalgamate and harmonize freely. see that little red-faced Falstaff, with his And hence it is that England and France, dark black eyes ? It is De Balzac, so welleven at the present moment, great and known to all the French ladies by his friendly as is the intercourse between them, satirical novels." know really so very little of each other's I subsequently learned that the first work literature. For all visible or practical pur- which gained him celebrity was La Peau poses they might just as well be twenty de Chagrin, written when he was about thousand miles asunder.
forty years of age. His earlier works were In perusing works of literature we almost published under the assumed name of Horace instinctively form to ourselves imaginary de St. Aubin, and when his book Eugénie portraits of their authors. We find, from Grandet appeared with his real name prethe earliest records of time, that everything fixed, most people were ignorant that the auappertaining to men of genius was invested thor had already published twenty volumes. with peculiar interest. Every movement His reputation increased so rapidly, that an and action excites curiosity. We want to editor, Monsieur Delloge, bought the excluknow the manner of living, speaking, dress- sive right of publishing his works for fifteen ing, general behavior, and address, of every years at the rate of 15,000 francs per one who has gained the enviable celebrity annum, during his life, in addition to 6000 of an author. This is the homage which francs in ready money. matter pays to mind. Some men have I shall here relate an anecdote of Monspoken of this homage as a weakness, but sieur de Balzac, illustrative of a remarkable it is a wholesome and necessary law of the trait in his character. He entertains a creation, and is no or inefficient very slender reverence for truth. He is stimulant to literary enterprise and fame. very garrulous, and his tales are of such an
Having been for some months in Paris, improbable and Baron Munchausen characand domiciled with most intelligent ter, that they almost carry with them their friend, I enjoyed the opportunity of meeting own refutation. One Sunday he entered with many of the most distinguished the drawing-room of Madame Sophie Gay, authors in that renowned city of letters. I and declared that, having been confined to had also the advantage of seeing them in his room for a fortnight, he had gained, by what the French call their déshabillé. The writing, during this brief period, 18,000 constitutional vanity of the French writers francs. This was merely a piece of foolish induces them to make themselves rather boasting. At an evening party last Januscarce to foreigners, in order, I presume, to ary, he told the whole company that he had excite curiosity more ardently. As many made a present of a white horse to his friend English travellers may not, perhaps, have Sandeau, for his new year's gift. A few had the pleasure of seeing these Parisian days afterwards, Monsieur Sandeau, on lions, I have noted down a few of my re- being complimented on his handsome preminiscences, acquired from nearly a daily in- sent, answered that he knew nothing at all tercourse with them. I believe the picture about it. Notwithstanding this flat denial, will prove a faithful likeness; for though I De Balzac still continued to speak of the candidly confess I am no great admirer of white horse he had bestowed on his friend. French modern authors, I would not wish One evening he walked up to Sandeau, and deliberately to bedaub my canvas with too very gravely asked him if he were pleased deep or sombre a coloring.
with the horse he had sent him. Sandeau, After having been a few days in the taking the thing as a joke, answered that it French metropolis, I expressed a wish to was a most beautiful and interesting animy friend to introduce me to the society of mal. This declaration gave Balzac new a few of the most distinguished men of let- courage, and he remained, to all appearters. I was told that the foyer of the ance, a real convert to the truth of his own Opera was the general rendezvous for all fabrication. the literary men of France. We repaired He lives in a small house just out of