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dominion in things spiritual and temporal over all the Sovereigns of the earth, by virtue of being themselves the immediate vicars or vicegerents of God. - It is but justice to the Roman Catholics to add, that these high pretensions, generally known under the name of the dispensing and deposing powers, (or the power of the Pope to dispense with the oath of allegiance from the subject to the Sovereign, and to depose the Sovereign in case of heresy), have been formally disavowed by the six principal Catholic Universities, consulted for that purpose in the year 1788.

The following countries are Roman Catholic: France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria, nearly the whole of the Southern German States, Belgium, and part of Switzerland.

The King is the head of the Church of England. The established Religion of Ireland is that of the Church of England; but the mass of the population is Roman Catholic.

The Greek Church is derived from the Greek Christians, who formed the Eastern division of the Roman Empire, the capital of which was Constantinople. Hence it is also called the Eastern, in contradistinction to the Romish or Western Church, from which it differs in many unimportant points of discipline, but few very material points of doctrine. The Patriarch of Constantinople is head of the Greek Church, which comprehends the Russians and Greeks, whether on the Continent or in the Grecian islands.

Mahometanism is a form of religion engrafted on the Jewish and Christian dispensations by the impostor

Mahomet, who was born A. D. 571, at Mecca, in Arabia, and died A. D. 632. The Mahometans acknowledge the divine mission of Moses and of Christ; but maintain that these were ineffectual to convert mankind, and that none but faithful Mussulmen, or Mahometans, will be entitled to future happiness, which they believe will consist in a paradise of sensual delights. They are also believers in predestination. The doctrines of Mahomet are to be found in the Coran, which may be called the Mahometan bible.

CHAPTER III.

GREAT BRITAIN.

The Island of Great Britain extends from 50% to 58 30% of North latitude. Its length is about 580 British miles, and its greatest breadth, from Land's End to the North Foreland in Kent, is about 370.

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Great Britain is divided into England, Wales, and Scotland. The greatest of these divisions is England, which is bounded on the East by the German Ocean, on the South by the English Channel, on the West by Wales, between the Bristol Channel and Chester, and above that by St. George's Channel, and on the North by the river Tweed, and an imaginary line continued South West down to the Firth of Solway. The remainder of the island, North of this, is Scotland.,

England was divided into Shires by Alfred; these are also denominated counties, from having been governed by an Ealderman, a dignity corresponding with the Latin Comes, or Count, and afterwards with the Danish title of Earl.

England and Wales are divided into 52 counties, containing about 58,335 British square miles *, which may be classed as follows:— the extent and population is taken from the returns to Parliament in 1811. .

Popum lation.

6 Northern.

27,587 12,531

6,763 18,217

4 Bordering

on Wales.

Counties Extent in Popu- Chief

Sq. Miles. lation. Towns.
(Northumberland 1809 172,161 Newcastle

Cumberland 1497 · 133,744 Carlisle
Durham

1040 177,625 Durham
Yorkshire

York
East Riding ) 1268 167,353
North Riding 2112 152,445

West Riding ) 2633 653,315
Westmoreland 722 45,922 Appleby :
(Lancashire 1806 828,309 Lancaster

Cheshire 1017 227,031 Chester
Shropshire 1403 194,398 Shrewsbury
Herefordshire 971 94,073 Hereford
(Monmouthshire 516 62,127 Monmouth
( Nottinghamshire 774 162,900 Nottingham
Derbyshire 1077 185,487 Derby
Staffordshire 1196 295,153 Stafford
Leicestershire 816 150,419 Leicester
Rutlandshire 200 16,380 Okeham
Northamptonshire 965 141,353 Northampton
Warwickshire 984 228,735 Warwick
Worcestershire 674 160,546 Worcester
Gloucestershire1122 285,514 Gloucester
Oxfordshire 742 119,191 Oxford
Buckinghamshire 748 117,650. ' Buckingham
Bedfordshire 430 70,213 Bedford

2,160

924 16,140 15,530 7,306 3,503 34,253 13,043

4,868 23,146 1,111 8,427 6,497 13,814

8,280 12,931 2,987 4,605

12 Midland.

* An English square mile contains 640 'statute acres, and is to a geographical square mile as 300 to 398.6 or as 3:4 nearly.

8 Eastern.

3 South Western. 4 Southern. Eastern. 3 South

2488

Counties Extent in Popu- Chief Popu

Sq. Miles. tation. Towns. lation
( Lincolnshire . 2787 237,891 Lincoln 8,861
Huntingdonshire . 345 42,208 Huntingdon 2,397
Cambridgeshire 686 101,109 Cambridge 11,108
Norfolk

2013 291,999 Norwich 37,256
Suffolk
1566 236,211 Ipswich

13,670 Essex

1525 252,473 Chelmsford 4,649 Hertford

602 111,654 Hertford 3,900 Middlesex 297 953,276 London 1,009,546 Surrey

811 323,851 Guildford 2,974 Kent

1462 373,095 Maidstone 9,433 Sussex 1461 190,083 Lewes

6,221 Berkshire

744 118,277 Reading 10,783 | Wiltshire 1283 193,828 Salisbury

8,243 Hampshire 1533 245,080 Southampton 9,617 Dorsetshire 1129 124,693 Dorchester' 2,546 Somersetshire 1549 303,180 Bridgewater . 4,911 Devonshire

383,308 Exeter 18,896 Cornwall 1407 216,667 Launceston

1,758 Flintshire . 309 46,518 Flint

1,433 Denbighshire 731 33,111 Denbigh 2,714 Carnarvonshire 775 49,336 Carnarvon 4,595 Anglesea

402 37,045 Beaumarais 1,810 Merionethshire 691 30,924 Dolgelle 3,064 Montgomeryshire 982 51,931 Montgomery Radnorshire 455 20,900 Presteign 1,114 Cardiganshire 726 50,260 Cardigan 2,129 Pembrokeshire 575 60,615 Pembroke 2,415 Carmarthenshire

77,217 Carmarthen 7,275 Brecknockshire

37,735 Brecknock 3,196 Glamorganshire 822 85,067 Cardiff 2,457 The total population of London, which is by far the greatest metropolis in the civilized world, is 1,050,000. The following cities and towns in England have a population above 10,000, exclusive of those already enume- ' rated.

6 North Wales,

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6 South

Wales.

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