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3. Elongation east, azimuth..

North end of the needle on the west, angle..

Variation...

4. Elongation east, azimuth

North end of the needle on the east, angle

Variation

2° 04'
4° 06'

6° 10' west.

1° 59'

4° 50'

20 51' east.

2° 05'

'8° 30'

6° 25' west.

1° 57'

8° 40'

10° 37' east.

REMARK I. The variation at West Point, in September, 1835, was 60 32' west.

REMARK II.—The variation of the needle should always be noted on every survey made with the compass, and then if the land be surveyed at a future time, the old lines can always be re-run.

12. It has been found by observation, that heat and cold sensibly affect the magnetic needle, and that the same needle will at the same place indicate different lines at different hours of the day.

If the magnetic meridian be observed early in the morning, and again at different hours of the day, it will be found that the needle will continue to recede from the meridian as the day advances, until about the time of the highest temperature, when it will begin to return, and at evening will make the same line as in the morning. This change is called the diurnal variation, and varies, during the summer season, from one-fourth to one-fifth of a degree.

13. A very near approximation to a true meridian, and consequently to the variation, may be had, by remembering that the pole star very nearly reaches the true meridian, when it is in the same vertical plane with the star Alioth in the tail of the Great Bear, which lies nearest the four stars forming the quadrilateral.

The vertical position can be ascertained by means of a plumb-line. To see the spider's lines in the field of the telescope at the same time with the star, a faint light should be placed near the object-glass. When the plumb-line, the star Alioth, and the north star, fall on the vertical spider's line, the horizontal limb is firmly clamped, and the telescope brought down to the hori zon; a light, seen through a small aperture in a board, and held at some distance by an assistant, is then moved adcording to signals, until it is covered by the intersection of the spider's lines. A picket driven into the ground, under the light, serves to mark the meridian line for reference by day, when the angle formed by it and the magnetic meridian may be measured.

A.

FIELD-NOTES OF THE SURVEY OF THE EXTERIOR BOUNDARIES OF TOWNSHIP 25 NORTH, OF RANGE 2 WEST, OF THE WILLAMETTE MERIDIAN, IN THE TERRITORY OF OREGON, BY ROBERT ACRES, DEPUTY SURVEYOR, UNDER HIS CONTRACT No. 1, BEARING DATE THE 2D DAY OF JANUARY, 1854.

South boundary, T. 25 N., R. 2 W., Willamette meridian.

Chains. Begin at the post, the established corner to townships 24 and 25 north, in ranges 2 and 3 west. The witness trees all standing, and agree with the description furnished me by the office, viz:

40.00

62.59 80.00

40.00

65.00

80.00

40.00

A black oak, 20 in. aia., N. 37 E. 27 links;
A bur oak, 24 in. dia., N. 43 W. 35 links;
A maple, 18 in. dia., S. 27 W. 39 links;
A white oak, 15 in. dia., S. 47 E. 41 links.

East, on a random line on the south boundaries of sections 31, 32, 33, 34, 35,
and 36,

Variation by Burt's improved solar compass, 180 41' E.,

I set temporary half-mile and mile posts at every 40 and 80 chains; and at 5 miles 74 chains 53 links, to a point 2 chains and 20 links north of the corner to townships 24 and 25 north, ranges 1 and 2 W.,

(Therefore the correction will be 5 chains 47 links west and 37 links south per mile,)

I find the corner post standing, and the witness trees to agree with the description furnished me by the surveyor general's office, viz:

A bur oak, 17 in. dia., bears N. 44 E. 31 links;

A white oak, 16 in. dia., N. 26 W. 21 links;

A lynn, 20 in. dia., S. 42 W. 15 links;

A black oak, 24 in. dia., S. 27 E. 14 links.

From the corner to townships 24 and 25 N., ranges 1 and 2 west, I run (at a variation of 18° 25′ east)

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 36,

Set a post for quarter-section corner, from which

A beech, 24 in. dia., bears N. 11 E., 38 links dist.;
A beech, 9 in. dia., bears S. 9 E., 17 links dist.

A brook, 6 links wide, runs north.

Set a post for corner to sections 35 and 36, 1 and 2, from which
A beech, 9 in. dia., bears N. 22 E., 16 links dist.;

A beech, 8 in. dia., bears N. 19 W., 14 links dist.;
A white oak, 10 in. dia., bears S. 52 W., 7 links dist.;
A black oak, 14 in. dia., bears S. 46 E., 8 links dist.

Land level, good soil, fit for cultivation.

Timber, beech; various kinds of oak, ash, and hickory.

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 35,
Variation 18° 25' east,

Set a post for quarter-section corner, from which

A beech, 8 in. dia., bears N. 20 E., 8 links dist.
No other tree convenient; made trench around post.
Begin to ascend a moderate hill; bears N. and S.

Set a post with trench for corner of sections 34 and 35, 2 and 3, from which
A beech, 10 in. dia., bears N. 56 W., 9 links dist.;

A beech, 10 in. dia., bears S. 51 E., 13 links dist.

No other trees convenient to mark.

Land level, or gently rolling, and good for farming.

Timber, beech, oak, ash, and hickory; some walnut and poplar.

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 34,

Variation 18° 25' east,

Set a quarter-section post with trench, from which

8

11

INDEX.

Referring the lines to the pages of the field-notes.

Town. 25 N.Range 2 W. Willamette Meridian.

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South boundary, T. 25 N., R. 2 W., Willamette meridian-Continued.

Chains.

A black oak, 10 in. dia., bears N. 2 E., 635 links dist.

No other tree convenient to mark.

80.00 To point for corner of sections 33, 34, 3 and 4,

37.51 40.00

62.00 80.00

37.50 40.00

Drove charred stakes, raised mounds with trenches, as per instructions, from which

A bur oak, 16 in. dia., bears N. 31 E. 344 links; and

A hickory, 12 in. dia., bears S. 43 W. 231 links.

No other trees convenient to mark.

Land level, rich, and good for farming.

Timber, some scattering oak and walnut.

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 33,
Variation 18° 25′ east,

A black oak, 24 in. dia.

Set a post for quarter-section corner, from which

A black oak, 18 in. dia., bears N. 25 E., 32 links dist.;
A white oak, 15 in. dia., bears N. 43 W., 22 links dist.
To foot of steep hill, bears N. E. and S. W.
Set a post for corner to sections 32, 33, 4 and 5, from which

A white oak, 15 in. dia., bears N. 23 E., 27 links dist.;
A black oak, 20 in. dia., bears N. 82 W., 75 links dist.;
A bur oak, 20 in. dia., bears S. 37 W., 92 links dist.;
A white oak, 24 in. dia., bears S. 26 E., 42 links dist.

Land gently rolling; good rich land for farming.
Timber, black and white oak, hickory, and ash.

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 32,

Variation 18° 25' east,

A creek, 20 links wide, runs north.

Set a granite stone, 14 in. long, 10 in. wide, and 4 in. thick, for quarter-section corner, from which

A maple, 20 in. dia., bears N. 41 E., 25 links dist.;

A birch, 24 in. día., bears N. 35 W., 22 links dist.

76.00 To S. E. edge of swamp.

80.00

11.00

40.00

54.00

57.50

61.00

70.00

74.73

As it is impossible to establish permanently the corner to sections 31, 32, 5, and 6 in the swamp, I therefore at this point, 400 chains east of the true point for said section cor., raise a witness mound with trench, as per instructions, from which

A black oak, 20 in. dia., bears N. 51 E. 115 links.

A point in deep swamp for corner to sections 31, 32, 5, and 6.
Land, rich bottom; west of creek part wet; east of creek good for farming.
Timber, good; oak, hickory, and walnut.

West, on a true line along the south boundary of section 31,

Variation 18° 25' east,

Leave swamp and rise bluff 30 feet high; bears N. and S.
Set post for quarter-section corner, from which

A sugar tree, 27 in. dia., bears S. 81 W., 42 links dist.;
A beech, 24 in. dia., bears S. 71 E. 24.

Foot of rocky bluff, 30 feet high; bears N. E. and S. W.

A spring branch comes out at the foot of the bluff 5 links wide; runs N. W. into swamp.

Enter swamp; bears N. and S.

Leave swamp; bears N. S. The swamp contains about 15 acres, the greater
part in section 31.

The corner to townships 24 and 25 N., ranges 2 and 3 W.
Land, except the swamp, rolling, good, rich soil.

Timber, sugar tree, beech, and maple.

3

January 25, 1854.

Between ranges 1 and 2 west, S. 25 N., Willamette meridian.

From the corner to townships 24 and 25 N., ranges 1 and 2 W., I run
North, along the east boundary of section 36,

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