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Captus amore leget; te nostræ, Vare, myricæ,
24. Satis est me potuisse videri sic vobis. 25
25. Sunt carmina vobis : huic Ægle erit aliud mercedis.
10. Nostre myricæ : in the sense of nostra on him cords of these very garlands—they Bucolica. The omne nemus in the following bind him with cords made of them. line probably means every elevated com- 20. Ægle. The name of a nymph, deposition, such as epic or heroic. We are rived from a Greek word signifying splendor, led to this interpretation from the declara- or brightness. Naïadum. See Ecl. ii. 46. tion of the poet in the sixth line, that there Videnti : to him just opening his eyes. would be other poets, who would celebrate Timidis : to the trembling swains. the praises of Varus in heroic verse, though 22. Moris. Morus was the fruit of the he himself would prefer to do it in the mulberry-tree. It is here called sanguineus, humbler style of pastoral.
red, or bloody. It is said to have been ori14. Silenum. Silenus was one of the rural ginally white; but assumed the red or deities, the god of mysteries and knowledge, purple color, in memory of the two lovers, and the foster-father of Bacchus. He is Pyramus and Thisbe, who slew themselves said, by some, to have been the son of Pan; under a mulberry-tree. See Ovid. Met. others say, the son of Mercury. Malea, in Lib. 4. the island of Lesbos, is the supposed place 23. Quò: why-for what purpose. of his nativity. He is represented as a fat 25. Cognoscite : in the sense of audite, and merry old man, riding on an ass, 26. Aliud mercedis. The same as alia crowned with flowers, always intoxicated. merces : another reward. 15. Inflatum, &c. Swollen as to his veins, 27. Ludere in numerum :
to dance, or with his yesterday's wine. See Ecl. i. 55. leap about in regular time, or laccho: a name of Bacchus; here put, by Their motions exactly corresponded to the meton. for wine. It is derived from a Greek notes or measure of the verse. Faunos. word signifying a shout or confused noise. The Fauni were demi-gods of the country, It was given to him on account of the riot to whom the first fruits of all things were and vociferation of his inebriated followers. generally offered. See Ecl. v. 73. See Ecl. v. 69.
29. Parnassia rupes. The mountain Par16. Serla : plu. of sertum, a garland, or nassus in Phocis; a country in Grecia Prowrcath of flowers. To be crowned with a pria, much celebrated by the poets, and garland, was an indication of drunkenness. sacred to the Muses. Here Apollo had a Silenus had all the signs of being in such a famous temple. state. He was lying down—he was sleep- 30. Rhodope— Ismarus. Two mountains, ing ; but his garlands were not on his head; or rather ranges of mountains, in Thrace, luntum delapsa : they had only fallen off, the country of Orpheus. they were neither broken nor bruised. 31. Namque canebat, &c. For he sung how
18. Aggressi, &c. The swains, seizing, put the seeds, both of the earth, and of the air,
Semina terrarumque, animæque, marisque fuissent, 33. Ut ex his primis Et liquidi simul ignis : ut his exordia primis omnia susceperunt Omnia, et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbis.
35. Tum canebat quo. Tum durare solum, et discludere Nerea ponto modo solum cæperit Cæperit, et rerum paulatim sumere formas.
37. Jamque canebat Jamque novum ut terræ stupeant lucescere solem, ut terræ stupeant 38. Utque imbres ca
Altiùs utque cadant submotis nubibus imbres : dant è nubibus submo. Incipiant sylvæ cùm primùm surgere, cùmque tis altiùs à terra. Rara per ignotos errent animalia montes.
Hinc lapides Pyrrhæ jactos, Saturnia regna,
and of the sea, &c. Silenus here relates channel. Ruæus says, Dispellere aquas à the origin of the world, according to the se in mare. system of Epicurus, who taught that incor
38. Utque. Some copies have atque, but poreal space, and corporeal atoms, were the utque is the easier. first principles, or elements, of all things.
40. Rara : few in number, or thinly disThe former he denomenated Inane, the latter Plenum. The Inane or Vacuum, he
persed. considered space, every way indefinitely
41. Hinc refert lapides, &c. After that he extended. By the Plenum, he understood relates the thrown stones of Pyrrha, &c. the atoms or minute particles of matter Pyrrha was the daughter of Epimetheus, moving in every direction through the Inane, and wife of Deucalion, the son of Promewhich Virgil here calls the semina, because theus, and king of Thessaly. The poets it was thought by their fortuitous concur- say, that some time during his reign the inrence arose what we call the four elements, habitants of the earth were destroyed by a earth, air, water, and fire. Epicurus held universal deluge, except himself and his many other erroneous notions, particularly wife Pyrrha. They were preserved in a concerning the nature of God. He was an
small ship, and carried by the waters to Athenian, and born about 340 years before mount Parnassus, which was the only place the Christian era. He had many followers. not overwhelmed. Here they consulted the
32. Animæ : in the sense of aëris. With- oracle of Themis concerning the restoration nut air, there could be no animal existence. of the human race; when they were in
33. Liquidi ignis: of pure fire. His pri- formed, to cast behind them the bones of mis: of these first principles or elements their great mother ; by which they under(earth, air, water, and fire) all things sprang command of the oracle, and those thrown
stood stones. They immediately obeyed the or had a beginning. The Epicureans maintained that, though their atoms and by Deucalion became men, and those by incorporeal space were the first principles Pyrrha, women. See Ovid. Met. Lib. i. or elements of earth, air, water, and fire, Saturnia regna : the reign of Saturn, or the yet these last were the principles or elements Golden age. See Ecl. iv. 6. of all other things, or out of which all other 42. Furtum Promethei : the theft of Prothings sprang. Omnia exordia : all things metheus. The poets say that he stole fire received or took a beginning. The verb from heaven, with which he animated a susceperunt, or some other of the like im- man of clay, made by himself. At this, port, is plainly understood, and to be sup- Jupiter was so much enraged, that he orplied. Ut: how.
dered Mercury to chain him to a rock on 35. Nerea : acc. sing of Nereus, a god of mount Caucasus. He did so, and placed the sea, the son of Oceanus and Terra. He a vulture to prey upon his liver; which, married Doris, by whom he had fifty daugh- however, grew as fast as it was consumed. ters who were called Nereïdes. He possess- Hence Caucaseas volucres : the vultures of ed the gift of prophecy, and is said to have Caucasus. This is a very celebrated mouninformed Paris of the fatal consequences of tain, or rather_range of mountains, lying his carrying off Helen, the wife of Menelaus. between the Euxine and Caspian seas. It was by the direction and assistance of Promethei : the word Prometheus is of Nereus, that Hercules obtained the golden Greek origin, and properly signifies foreapples of the Hesperides. The word Nereus sight, or an anxious care or solicitude. is often put, by meton. for the sea, as in this This is a key to the story. It conveys a place. Solum, &c. Then he sang how the strong idea of the troubles men create to land began to grow hard and to separate the themselves, by taking too much care and waters from itself, and confine them to their thought for the morrow.
His adjungit, Hylan nautæ quo fonte relictum
46. Et solatur Pasi Ah, virgo infelix, quæ te dementia cepit?
phaën amore nivei ju Prætides implêrunt falsis mugitibus agros :
venci, fortunatam, si
49. At tamen non ulla At non tam turpes pecudum tamen ulla secuta est
earum secuta est tam Concubitus ; quamvis collo timuisset aratrum, Et sæpe in levi quæsisset cornua fronte. Ah, virgo infelix, tu nunc in montibus erras! Ille, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintho,
53. Ille taurus fultus Ilice sub nigrâ pallentes ruminat herbas,
quoad niveum latus mola' Aut aliquarn in magno sequitur grege. Claudite, Nymphæ, li hyacintho, ruminat
55. Aut aliquam vacDictææ Nymphæ, nemorum jam claudite saltus : 56 Si quà fortè ferant oculis sese obvia nostris
58. Forsitan aliqua Errabunda bovis vestigia. Forsitan illum,
vaccæ perducant illum, Aut herbâ captum viridi, aut armenta secutum,
aut captum viridi herba, Perducant aliquæ stabula ad Gortynia vaccæ.
60 aut secutum armenta ad Tum canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam : Tum Phaëthontiadas musco circumdat amaræ
43. Hylan. Hylas was the companion of of my bull may present themselves to my Hercules in the Argonautic expedition, and eyes. Obvia : an adj. from obvius, agreeing much beloved by him. Having gone on with vestigia. The sense is complete withshore to obtain water, by some means or out it. Šaltus, is properly a lawn, or openother, he was lost. The poets say he was ing in a grove or park, where cattle have carried off by the nymphs. Hercules and room to sport and play; from the verb salio. his companions were much grieved at the 59. Captum : delighted with, desirous of, loss of the boy, and went along the shores, the green pastures. Ruæus says, cupidum. when they found he was missing, calling 60. Gortynia : an adj. from Gortyna, a him by name, Hyla, Hyla. Clamâssent : in city of Crete, famed for its excellent pasthe sense of vocavissent. See Ecl. iv. 35. tures.
46. Pasiphaën: a Greek acc. the daugh- 61. Tum canit puellam, &c. Then he ter of the sun, and wife of Minos, king of sings the damsel admiring the apples of the Cretc. See Æn. vi. 24.
Hesperides. This was Atalanta, the daugh47. Virgo. The poet here calls Pasiphaë ter of Schoeneus, king of the island of Scya virgin, though she was the mother of rus, in the Ægean sea. She consented to Phædra, Ariadne, and Androgeus. The an- marry the man who should outrun her, but cients sometimes called any woman in early if he were beaten, he should lose his life. life a virgin.
Several had lost their lives. At length she 48. Prætides : the daughters of Pretus, was beaten by Hippomenes, the grandson king of the Argives, who vied with Juno in of Neptune or Mars. At the suggestion of beauty. The goddess, by way of punish- Venus, Hippomenes cast three apples, taken ment, caused them to imagine they were from the garden of the Hesperides, on the changed into heifers. Their lowings, mu- ground, one at a time, when she was gaingilus, are here called false, because they ing upon him; which so captivated the were not in reality heifers. Secuta est: in virgin, that she stopped to pick them up; the sense of quæsivit.
and by this means he obtained the beauteous 50. Quamvis timuisset : although each one prize. Hesperidum. The Hesperides were bad feared the plough upon her neck—the three in number, Ægle, Arethusa, and Hespeyoke from which the plough was hung or rethusa, the daughters of Hesperus, the brosuspended.
ther of Atlas. They resided in Mauritania, 53. Fultus: supported—resting or recli- in Africa, where it is said they had gardens, ning.
in which were trees that bore golden apples. 56. Dictææ : an adj. from Dicte, a moun- These gardens were watched by a dragon cain of Crete. Silenus turns again to the that never slept. Hercules slew him, and story of Pasiphaë, whom he here introduces stole the apples. See Æn. iv. 484. as speaking, and calling upon the nymphs 62. Tum circumdat, &c. Then he encloses to shat up the openings of the groves. Per- the sisters of Phaëthon in the moss of bitter haps some where or other the wandering steps bark-he sings them transformed into pop
64. Tum canit
ut una Corticis, atque solo proceras erigit alnos. sororum duxerit Gallum Tum canit errantem Permessi ad flumina Gallum errantem ad flumina Aonas in montes ut duxerit una sororum :
67. Ut Linus pastor Utque viro Phæbi chorus assurrexerit omnis ;
70 dant hos calamos tibi ;
Ascræo quos antè seni : quibus ille solebat en accipe eos, quos illæ Cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos. dederant
His tibi Grynæi nemoris dicatur origo: 74. A.ut ut narraverit Ne quis sit lucus, quo se plùs jactet Apollo. Scylla, a filiam Nisi, aul Quid loquar aut Scyllam Nisi, aut quam fama secuta est, eam quam fama secuta Candida succinctam latrantibus inguina monstris,
75 est sr.ccinctam quoad
lar or alder trees. Phaëthontiadas. These Hesiod. It is the highest compliment that were the sisters of Phaëthon, or Phaëton, possibly could be paid him. and daughters of the sun. They were 72. Grynæi : an adj. from Grynium, a sometimes called Heliades. Their names city of Æolis, where Apollo had a temple, were Phaëthusa, Lampetie, and Lampethusa. built of white marble, and a grove. Here Phaëlon imprudently desired of his father was a famous oracle. the inanagement of his chariot for one day. 74. Scyllam. There were two by the Phæbus refused for a long time. But, at name of Scylla : one the daughter of Nisus, last, overcome by his importunity, he con- king of the Megarenses, who, falling in love sented. He was, however, soon convinced with Minos, king of Crete, as he lay siege of his rashness; for the horses, perceiving to Megara, betrayed her father to his enemy, an unusual driver, became impatient of the For which deed, it is said, she was changed reins; and when they had passed the meri- into a lark; while he was changed into a dian in their course, and began to descend, hawk. See nom. prop. under Nisus. he was no longer able to restrain them, and The other was the daughter of Phorcus. the youth was thrown headlong from the car Some there are, who think Virgil here coninto the Eridanus, or Po. His sisters grieved founds the two, attributing to the former immoderately at this misfortune of their what properly belongs to the latter. But brother; and were changed, some say, into there will be no need of this, if we only suppoplar trees, others say, into alder trees. ply the word eam, or illam. See Ovid. Met. Lib. 2.
The story of Scylla, the daughter of 63. Circumdat. Ruæus says, cingit. Pro- Phorcus, is briefly this: Glaucus, the sea ceras: stately.
god, fell in love with her, but she refused 64. Permessi. Permessus, a river of Beo- his addresses. In order to render her more tia, rising at the foot of mount Helicon. favorable to him, he applied to the sorceGallum. See Ecl. 10.
ress Circe; who, as soon as she saw him, 65. In Aonas montes : to the Beotian became enamoured with him herself; and mountains, Helicon and Citheron, fam for instead of affording him any assistance, being the seat of the Muses. Beotia was endeavored to divert his affections from originally called Aonia, from Aon, the son Scylla, and fix them on herself, but without of Neptune, who reigned in that country. any effect. For the sake of revenge, Circe
66. Omnis chorus. Here Virgil pays Gallus poured the juice of some noxious herbs into a very high compliment as a poet; and he à fountain, where Scylla used to bathe herdoes it in the most delicate manner. They self. And as soon as she entered it, to her rose up in his presence, to do him honor: great surprise, she found the parts below assurrexerit viro.
her waist changed into frightful monsters, 67. Linus. See Ecl. iv. 56. Carmine: in like dogs, that were continually barking or the sense of versibus.
making a growling noise. The rest of her 70. Ascræo seni: to the Ascrean sage body assumed an equally hideous form. Plesiod; who was a native of Ascra, a town This sudden and unexpected metamorphosis, of Beotia not far from Helicon. He was a filled her with such horror, that she threw celebrated poet.
herself into that part of the sea, which di71. Quibus ille, &c. It is said of Orpheus, vides Sicily from Italy, where she became a that the lofty oaks bowed their heads, and rock, or rather a ledge of rocks. See Æn. listened to the charms of his music. The iii. 420. Secuta est : reported. Loquar: in same effects are ascribed here to the music of the sense of dicam
Dulichias vexâsse rates, et gurgite in alto
candida inguina latrantibus monstris, vexâsse 78. Mutatos in upupam.
80. Et quibus alis in- i felix Tereus supervoli80 taverit tecta sua antè.
82. Ille Silenus canit omnia, quæ beatus Eu. rotas audiit, Phæbo quondam meditante
84. Valles pulsæ cantu 85 referunt eum ad sidera ;
donec Vesper jussit pastores cogere oves
76. Dulachias: an adj. from Dulichium, 80. Cursu: in the sense of celeritate. an island in the Ionian sea, forming a part Deserta : the deserts : loca, is to be underof the kingdom of Ulysses. Dulichias rates : stood : desert places. the ships of Ulysses.
81. Tecta sua antè : his palace his own 78. Terei: gen. of Tereus, a king of before his transformation-but his own no Thrace, who married Procne, or Progne, longer. Tectum, is any covered place that daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. She is inhabited; from the verb tego. had a sister by the name of Philomela, whom she tenderly loved. Finding herself
82. Phæbo quondam meditante: Apollo, unhappy in being separated from her, she formerly singing. The poet here alludes to desired her husband to go and bring her the fable of Apollo's being in love with the to Thrace. Accordingly he went to Athens;
beautiful youth Hyacinthus, the son of Labut as soon as he saw her, he was enamoured banks of the Eurotas, singing upon his
con; and in that state wandering along the with her, and resolved to gratify his passion. This he did, and afterwards cut out
83. Eurotas. her tongue, to prevent her from disclosing the Peloponnesus: its banks abounded in the
A very celebrated river of the barbarous deed. He left her in confinement; and having taken every precau- micircle, passing by the ancient city Lace
laurel. In its course, it forms nearly a setion to prevent its coming to light, he returned to his wife, and informed her that dæmon, and falls into the Sinus Laconicus. Philomela had died on the way. Not long
84. Valles pulsæ, &c. The vallies struck after, however, she found otherwise. Phi- with the song, waft it back to the stars lomela, during her captivity, described on a
bear it to the stars. piece of tapestry her misfortunes and suf- 85. Referre : to count over their number ferings, and privately conveyed it to her to see that none be missing. sister, who hastened to her release. Here 86. Vesper. The same as the planet Ve. they concerted measures how to be revenged nus. When it precedes or goes before the on Tereus. It was agreed that Progne sun, it is called Lucifer, and sometimes Phosshould kill her son Itys, and serve him up phorus, from the Greek ; but when it goes for his father. In the midst of his meal, behind him, Vesper, or Hesperus, the evenhe called for his son, when his wife told ing star. It is also taken for the evening, him that he was then feasting on his flesh. particularly that part denorninated the twiAt this moment, Philomela appeared, and light. Processit invito Olympo: marches threw the head of Itys on the table before along the unwilling heaven. The word inhim. At this moment he drew his sword, vitus, beautifully represents the struggle and was going to punish them both, when between the light and darkness in the time he was changed into a upupa, a bird called of twilight. The day is loth, or unwilling by some the hoopoë, by others, the lapwing; to yield; or, it may refer to its regret at Philomela, into the nightingale; Progne, being deprived of so charming a song as into the owallow; and Itys, into the pheasant. that of Silenus. See Ovid. Met. Lib. 6.
QUESTIONS. What probably was the design of this Where is the scene laid ? pastoral?
What is said of Silenus ?
Epicurean philosophy ?
Who was Epicurus?