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3. Carefully consider the exact meaning and scope of each question before commencing to answer it.

4. Do not let your answer contain more than is asked for.

5. On the other hand, do not let your answers omit anything that is asked for.

6. If you should be in any doubt as to the exact extent of the matter required from you, you had better err on the right side by giving too much than on the wrong side by giving too little.

7. Take care that your writing be neat, and so distinct as to be readable without the slightest difficulty. Do not give the examiners unnecessary trouble..

8. Avoid the use of too many words (diffuseness).

9. On the other hand, use words enough to express your meaning fully and intelligently. Do not let there be the slightest difficulty in understanding every part of your answers.

10. Use short sentences, and avoid the use of long or uncommon words. 11. Pay attention to the form of your answers.

When the subject naturally admits of being arranged neatly under heads, the answers should be drawn up in divisions and subdivisions. These should follow each other in their natural order, each forming a distinct part of the whole subject.

12. Carefully examine your work afterwards, and avoid the admission of errors in matters of fact or of calculation.

(1) Point out and parse all the participles in the following ; and show (from the examples here given) that participles partake of the nature both of verbs and of adjectives :—(2nd year, Nov., 1879.)

“ All shod with steel
We hissed along the polished ice in games
Confederate, imitative of the chase
And woodland pleasures-the resounding horn,
The pack loud chiming, and the hunted hare.”

WORDSWORTH. shod Perfect participle of the verb "to shoe,” referring to the pronoun

we.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb, because it is derived from the verb “to shoe.” It has an adjectival force because it

describes the pronoun “we.”. polished Perfect participle of the verb “to polish,” referring to

“ice.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb because it is derived from the verb “to polish.” It has an adjectival force, because it describes the noun

“ice.” confederate Equivalent to “confederated.” Perfect participle of

the verb “to confederate,” referring to the pronoun


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“we.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb, because it is derived from the verb “to confederate.” It has an adjectival force, because it describes

the pronoun “we." resounding Imperfect participle of the verb "to resound," referring

to the noun " horn.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb, because it is derived from the verb “to resound.” It has an adjectival force,

because it describes the noun “horn." chiming Imperfect participle of the verb "to chime," referring

to the noun pack.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb, because it is derived from the verb "to chime." It has an adjectival force, because it describes the noun

pack.” hunted Perfect participle of the verb “to hunt,” referring to

the noun "hare.” This word partakes of the nature of a verb, because it is derived from the verb “to hunt.” It has an adjectival force, because

it describes the noun “hare.” (2) Simplify

(2nd year, girls-Nov., 1879.) 18

12} 114


of of


= (after cancelling) = 18 x 22= 396

(1) (3) Solve the equations 7.x+10y = 149

I IX – 14y +119=0. (2) Multiply (1) by 7 and (2) by 5 (since L.C.M. of 10 and 14 is Then, 49x + 70y = 1043

70) And

55x – 70y=- - 595 Adding

.. X

- 441 = 413
:, from (1) 7(413) + ioy = 149
303 + Toy = 149

Toy = 149- 30
i.y=11811 = 10=1153

(5th year, January, 1879.) (4) What was Poynings' Law of 1495? Explain its object.

Poynings' Law, or the statute of Drogheda, is a famous Act, passed chiefly through the agency of Sir Edward Poynings, Lord Deputy of Ireland, in the reign of Henry VII. Its object was to

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establish the authority of the English Government in Ireland. The Irish had been in an almost constant state of disaffection for many years. Frequent rebellions had taken place, and the insurrections of Simnel and Warbeck had received great support from Ireland. These cases, in addition to the fact that the Irish had generally favoured the cause of the House of York, made Henry VII. desirous of bringing Ireland under entire subjection to England.

The chief provisions of this statute were : (1) That all laws lately passed in England should be of force in Ireland. (This clause was held to refer to all statutes passed prior to the enactment.) (2) That no parliament should be held in Ireland without the consent of the king and his council, and that any parliament convened without his license should be held null and void.

It contained various other provisions for checking the lawlessness of the Irish, and especially that of the English colonists in Ireland, who were animated by a desire of maintaining a kind of independence of the English Government, in which they were frequently assisted by the ambition of the lord-deputies. The statute was on the whole effectual, and had great influence

ning the authority of the English Government over the native Irish, and still more over the lord-deputies of the AngloIrish.

(4th year, February, 1879.) (5) Write out full notes of a lesson on steam.

(1) Ask the children what happens when we place a vessel of water on the fire. Get out from them that something resembling smoke rises from the surface of the water. What is it? If the water remain long enough on the fire, the former at length boils, steam continues to rise from the vessel, and the water becomes less and less, till at length it has all boiled away. The water in the vessel has disappeared. What has become of it? Nothing has left the vessel but steam ; we may infer then that the water has been converted into steam, and that the steam is only water in another form. Give the term vapour.

(2) Show that though steam and smoke resemble each other in appearance, they are quite different things. If we hold a cold plate over smoke rising from a fire, what happens ? The plate soon gets covered with black stuff, called soot. So if the chimney smokes, the smoke soon covers the room with soot. If we hold a cold plate over steam, what happens ? The steam is changed into water, collects on the surface of the plate in small globules, and begins to fall in drops if the plate be held long enough.

Smoke and steam are therefore two distinct substances.

(3) Why does steam ascend? Why does cork rise if placed at the bottom of a pail of water ? Show that steam rises because it is lighter than air.

(4) From the two experiments, placing water on the fire, and then holding a cold plate over the steam, we discover that water can be



converted into steam, and also that steam can be converted into water. We also gather the following principles

(a) That heat changes water into steam (give term evaporate). (6) That cold changes steam into water (give term condense). (c) That steam ascends, being lighter than air. (5) Explain the process which is going on in nature, similar to that which we performed with the vessel of water and the cold plate. What is the great source of heat? The sun. The heat of the sun converts the water in the ocean and the moisture on the surface of the land into vapour, which rises. What does this vapour form? What have you seen in the air resembling the steam you saw rising from the vessel ? Clouds. When the atmosphere surrounding the clouds becomes cold, like the plate, what happens to the vapour of which they are formed ? They are condensed, become water, and fall in drops. Did you ever observe drops of water falling from the clouds ? What do you call them? Rain.

(Another lesson would be required to deal with the phenomena of hail, frost, and snow.).

(6) If there be time, give the children some idea of the force of steam. The steam rising from the water is many times larger in volume than the water of which it is composed. The little vessel of water produces a great quantity of steam. So the steam is condensed back into a small quantity of water. Give the terms expand, expansion. Now if the vessel were closed and the steam could not escape it would, by its expansion, exert an immense force in its endeavour to occupy a much larger space. It would be like a great giant trying to escape from a very small prison. Illustrate by the steam lifting the lid of a kettle. What use is made of the great force of steam? Refer to the locomotive drawing a heavy train along the railway. What is the force which drives the train ? The steam in the engine trying to escape from confinement, and so turning the machinery which moves the wheels.

(The above will be quite sufficient matter for a first lesson.)



CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, 1880. (Males.) THE following is a list of special subjects for the year 1880:English...... Ist year-- Milton's L'Allegro, I1Penseroso, and Lycidas. 2nd year—Shakespeare's Richard II., Bacon's Essays

(1-26). Latin......... 1st year-Cæsar de Bello Gallico, Book IV.

2nd year–Virgil's Æneid, Book II. French...... Ist yearMadame de Witt's Derrière les Haies. 2nd year–Molière's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, or

Racine's Athalie.

Under this head we propose to notice books adapted to the work and studies
of teachers and students generally.

25. 6d. London: Moffatt and Paige.
This book is the first of a series written for Pupil Teachers. Each book
is to contain the whole course of instruction for Pupil Teachers for a year.

The one before us is a complete text-book for a candidate in Geography, English Grammar, Composition, Music, and Arithmetic.

The Geography is correct to date, it is set out in such a way as readily to aid the memory of the student, and special points upon which examiners have laid stress have been taken up carefully. The English Grammar and Composition are thoughtfully done, the definitions are specially good, and a large number of “worked out” examples will prove of great assistance. The Music is graphically and clearly set out. The Arithmetic is abundant, and having selected many examples here and there, and worked them out, we are satisfied that the answers are quite reliable.

To each subject is appended a careful selection of questions which will materially aid both pupil and instructor.

The work is by no means a cram book, and candidates for pupil teachers using it, may depend upon it as being quite sufficient for passing the examination well. If the series be completed as it has been begun, it will render great assistance to pupil teachers, candidates for Queen's Scholarships, and acting teachers studying for certificates. HUGHES' STANDARD STORY-Books. Infants, Standards I. and II.

London : Joseph Hughes. These are illustrated story-books for the Standards, they are charmingly written, very attractive to “our little folks,” and will make a pleasing supplementary series in our schools. NOTES ON GENESIS. By S. Fleming. NOTES ON EXODUS. By

S. Fleming. London: Thomas Laurie. These books are written primarily for the Local University Examinations, but they will also be found useful for the Scripture Examinations of pupil teachers, and of the training colleges. The analysis and index appended to each book will prove useful.

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Thomas Laurie. Laurie's Etymological Exercises, English Spelling, and
Dictation, Parts I. to IV. An Easy English Grammar. Laurie's Graduated
Arithmetic, Parts I. to III.

W.and R. Chambers. The Problem of Teaching to Read. The Stand. ard Physical Geography, Parts I. to III: Chambers' English Reader, V.

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CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS.—Back of cover £2. Inside pages of cover, each £ 1 155. Ordinary pages, £ 1 ios. Parts of ordinary pages at the rate of £2 per page.

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