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of Obsequens which comes in question, this is a remarkable agreement.

It remains to compare this evidence of the consuls' names with the previous conclusions of a close agreement between Obsequens, Oxyr., and Per. I a in language and the chronological agreement of Hydatius and Cassiodorus. It is evident that most of our evidence belongs under the head of Ms variation, though cases of interpolation from other Mss or works are not infrequent. Many of the changes have been due to errors in writing, but we are not to think that this fact and the overwhelming majority of agreements in all the descendants preclude the possibility of an intermediate source for any of the later writers. We have seen that the Epitomator Livii followed Livy's consular list with even greater faithfulness. So while I have discussed these questions as Ms variations, and am convinced that we have the right to judge the source relationships of these few later writers as we would Mss and Ms families, this position is entirely compatible with the further conclusion that some of these families represent expansions, abridgments, or even excerpts from the original Epitome.

How many of these there have been we may never know; for the present I feel sure of only two:

(a) An abridgment used by Obsequens, the Oxyrhynchus Epitome, and the Periocha i a of Livy.

(6) The Livian consular list, with addition of some historical statements, excerpted from this abridged Epitome. It was used regularly by Cassiodorus and compared by the unknown author of the Hydatian Fasti, though his main source was the Fasti Consulares, which we can trace back through the source of the Fasti Capitolini (30 B.c.) to the Annales Maximi as final source.

We have a very few instances indicating that the Epitomator Livii was acquainted with these Fasti Consulares, which were in common use and were parallel to the consular names prefixed to each year in the Epitome of Livy. Owing to this common character and the ease of comparison, interpolations were liable to occur from one to the other. Thus a few changes and historical additions had come into the Fasti Consulares before 354 A.D., when the Chronograph made his copy. Later a second small series of interpolations came in which appear in Hydatius, though not drawn from the Livian Fasti, which were later excerpted from the abridged Epitome, and show the influence of the chronology of Eutropius. This work the Pseudo-Hydatius compared, when copying the Fasti Consulares. The following diagram shows the relationship of the various authors discussed.

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The abridged Epitome of Livy must have been in existence before 300 A.D. It doubtless preserved the character and form of the original Epitome as described above. In size, if we may judge from the prodigies of Obsequens, it was much more voluminous than the Periochae of Livy.

The Fasti Liviani were excerpted after 375 and before 470 A.D.

The consuls' names were taken practically in the form of the Epitome, though doubtless often shortened. If the consul had served before, the number of the consulship was noted.

Though Cassiodorus more often omits these numbers, yet he preserves seven not found in Livy. The other descendants of the Epitome also preserve a few of the numbers, Per. Liv. 101 even one not found in Livy. The filling out of the consular list in this manner was, therefore, the work of the Epitomator Livii, though some additional changes can be traced to the direct source of Cassiodorus, i.e. the excerptor of the Livian Fasti.

The names of the consuls were put in the ablative at the beginning of each year by the Epitomator, the lines projecting from the body of the text as in Oxyr. so that the consulships could be easily compared or counted. This form was retained in the abridged Epitome and so passed into Oxyr.

That the names were given in the ablative in the abridged Epitome is proved by the mistakes of Cassiodorus and the agreement in form of Oxyr. and Obsequens. This form is also just as sure for the original Epitome. Orosius gives the consuls' names in the ablative, introducing his statements for the year, more than fifty times, Eutropius nearly as many, and yet in only twenty-four cases do they give the consuls for the same years, in less than half of which Orosius copied Eutropius. All the rest of this long list came, as we have seen above, directly from the Epitome of Livy. The Per. Liv. also preserved this ablative form in six cases, though the work had ceased to be annalistic. Florus has still less reason for retaining this form, yet, to the injury of his style, he often gives the name of one consul in the ablative absolute and allows you to supply populus Romanus as subject of the sentence. A much worse case of awkward retention of the ablative absolute is found in Eutropius, 2, 22, 1: M. Aemilio Paulo Ser. Fulvio Nobiliore consulibus ambo Romani consules ad Africam profecti sunt. Such cases prove the presence of the ablative absolute in the original even more certainly than the frequent occurrence of the ablative in Eutropius and Orosius does.

We see thus that even the annalistic form and the designation of the years by the consuls' names appeared in the Epitome of Livy, so there was little or nothing left for later writers to do, except to abridge or excerpt, and this was quite in accord with the times in which they lived, when the sum total of historical, if not of all literary activity, lay in abridgments and excerpts.

1 The number rests on an emendation, though a sure one.

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II. — Types of Sentence Structure in Latin Prose Writers.



The traditional method of studying Latin sentence structure from the point of view of style - the method elaborated with considerable detail in Nägelsbach's Stilistik in the chapter entitled “ Architektonik der Rede” — is, at least in some respects, inadequate. This will be apparent to any one who follows carefully the attempt of Schmalz in his Lateinische Stilistik, pp. 465 ff. (3d ed.) to give even a sketchy outline of the history of Latin sentence structure.

It is the purpose of this paper to direct attention to a different method of dealing with the subject, one which may perhaps not so much supersede as supplement the somewhat mechanical system of counting clauses and participles and examining the order in which they follow each other, or the manner in which they are interwoven or interlocked. “Le stil c'est de l'homme même.” We can more fully understand an author's style after we have determined what mental processes were involved in the organization of his sentences. We must transfer our attention from the outer product to the inner process which it represents. The traditional method is admirable as applied to a rhetorical writer like Cicero, but fails when applied to a spontaneous writer like Tacitus. Cicero may be studied from the point of view of rhetoric; Tacitus should be approached from that of psychology.

This paper has taken as its basis the system of psychology elaborated by Professor Wilhelm Wundt of Leipzig. It is therefore necessary to describe briefly the two processes (or rather groups of processes) which he terms association and apperception. Both consist in the uniting (Verbindung) of

1 Gliederung in the terminology of Wilhelm Wundt. As this word implies, the present paper accepts the definition of a sentence given in his Völkerpsychologie, I, vol. ii, ch. 7, § 1, 5, c. (All references to this work apply to both editions.) See also Wundt, Sprachgeschichte und Sprachphilosophie, pp. 68-71, and Jl. of Germ. Phil. IV (1902), p. 390.

? For a detailed discussion of these processes see his Physiologische Psychologie, passim, and his brief but lucid Grundriss der Psychologie, 5th ed. pp. 243–334.

psychical elements or concepts (Begriffe) into ideas (Vorstellungen). The main difference between them lies in the greater or less part which the feelings play in them, as also in the form which the feeling assumes. Speaking relatively the associations are passive processes; we give ourselves over to the flow of ideas, and they form and run as if of their own accord. A revery is a series of such associative acts; dreams afford a still more striking example. Into the apperceptive processes the feelings enter more largely, and in particular, they assume that most complex form, the will. Accordingly, in the apperceptive processes we exercise a more or less strong control over our ideas. There is a feeling of activity (Tätigkeitsgefühl). The will enters in, and we relate, compare, analyse, and synthesize the elements of our ideas, whereas in association the logical relations between the concepts are less regarded. The distinction between the two is at bottom merely relative. Some forms of association are more active than others; some forms of apperception are more passive than others; and there are various links (Uebergangsstufen) between them. Into most of our mental activity both processes enter, but one or the other may greatly predominate. It is characteristic of apperceptive analysis that it always proceeds by a series of bisections (dichotomy), the unit of thought (Gesammtvorstellung) that forms the basis of the sentence being first divided into halves, each of which is again subdivided, and so on.

How are these processes reflected in language? The written or spoken sentence is, of course, simply the outer form corresponding to a series of associative and apperceptive processes. The basis of the sentence is a relatively complete unit of thought of varying magnitude and complexity, which is present in consciousness at the moment the organization of the sentence begins. By successive acts of analysis and synthesis the various elements of this unit are set into their logical relations to each other. Each single act of apperceptive analysis yields only two sub-units (dichotomy), e.g. subject and predicate, substantive and attribute. The connection is therefore a closed one (in the sense that no third

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