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Et crines flavos, et membra decora juventæ :
Nate Deâ, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos? 560
Nec, quæ circumstent te deinde pericula, cernis ?
Demens ! nec Zephyros audis spirare secundos ?
Illa dolos dirumque nefas in pectore versat,

563. Illa Dido certa Certa mori, varioque irarum fluctuat æstu.

mori versat dolos Non fugis hinc præceps, dum præcipitare potestas ? 565 Jam mare turbari trabibus, sævasque videbis

566. Dum potestas Collucere faces; jam fervere litora flammis ;

est tibi præcipitare Si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. Eia age, rumpe moras : varium et mutabile semper *

aho Fæmina. Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atræ. 570

Tum verò Æneas, subitis exterritus umbris, Corripit è somno corpus, sociosque fatigat: Præcipites vigilate, viri, et considite transtris : Solvite vela citi. Deus æthere missus ab alto, Festinare fugam, tortosque incidere funes,

575 Ecce iterum stimulat. Sequimur te, sancte Deorum, 576. Ecce Deus misQuisquis es, imperioque iterum paremus ovantes.

sus ab alto æthere ite.

rum stimulat me festiAdsis, ô, placidusque juves, et sidera cælo

nare fugam, incidereque Dextra feras ! Dixit: vaginâque eripit ensem

tortos funes.
Fulmineum, strictoque ferit retinacula ferro. 580
Idem omnes simul ardor habet: rapiuntque, ruuntque :
Litora deseruere : latet sub classibus æquor.
Adnixi torquent spumas, et cærula verrunt.

583. Cerula maria. Et jam prima novo spargebat lumine terras Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile :

585

NOTES. 560. Sub hoc casu : in this juncture or gods, whoever thou art, &c. This mode of crisis of affairs.

expression is in imitation of the Greeks. 561. Deinde: this appears to be in this 578. O adsis: O may thou be propitious. place entirely expletive. Videtur otiosum esse, 579. Dextra sidera : favorable, or propisays Heyne.

tious stars in the heavens. Feras: give563. Versat : in the sense of meditatur.

grant. 566. Turbari trabibus : to be in commo- 580. Ferit : in the sense of secat. Fultion with ships. Heyne says, impleri navi- mineum : shining, glittering. Ruæus says, bus Carthaginiensium: and Ruvus, agitari coruscantem. temis.

582. Deseruere litora. This change of the 567. Fervere : to glitter—to shine with tense adds much to the description. They flames. The meaning is, that as soon as hale off, and hurry away; and no sooner the morning shall return, Dido will pursue have they done this, than they have left the you with her ships, with torches and with shore, and are completely out to sea. flames. You must weigh anchor and be 585. Et jam Aurora : and now Aurora, gone.

leaving the saffron bed of Tithonus, first 570. Fæmina : a woman is something al- spreads the earth over with early light. Tiways variable, and subject to change. This thonus was either the son or brother of Lais a singular construction. Mercury here omedon, king of Troy. On account of his insinuates that hatred may succeed to Dido's beauty and gracefulness, Aurora fell in love love for him; which might induce her to with him, and endued him with immortality; seek revenge. Umbris : apparition. but not thinking to bestow on him perpetual

572. Fatigat : arouses his companions. youth and beauty, he grew so weak and ex.

573. Vigilate: wake quick-in haste. hausted by old age, that he wished for morTranstris : the seats or benches on which the tality. But the goddess not being able to rowers sat.

restore it to him, in pity to his case, changed 575. Tortos funes: the ropes, or cables, by him into a grasshopper. See Geor. iii. 48. which the ships were moored. Dr. Bentley This is a most beautiful circumlocution to thinks the anchors are intended; but how denote the early dawn, when the earth be. fortos can be applied to them, I see not. comes first enlightened by the beams of in

576. Sancte Deorum: O holy one of the

sun.

ventes comas,

Regina è speculis, ut primùm albescere lucem
Vidit, et æquatis classem procedere velis ;

Litoraque et vacuos sensit sinè remige portus : 589. Percussa quoad Terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum, decorum pectus manu, Flaventesque abscissa comas : Proh Jupiter ! ibit 590 abscissaque quoad fa- Hic, ait, et nostris illuserit advena regnis ?

ait: Proh

Non arma expedient, totâque ex urbe sequentur ?
593. Non-ne alii diri- Diripientque rates alii navalibus ? ite,
pient

Forte citi flammas, date vela, impellite remos, 594
Quid loquor ? aut ubi sum ? quæ mentem insania mutat?

Infelix Dido ! nunc te facta impia tangunt. 597. Decuit le tum Tum decuit, cùm sceptra dabas. En dextra, fidesque ! cogitare de his, cùm da- Quem secum patrios aiunt portare Penates! bas sceptra tua perfido homini. En dextra,

Quem subiisse humeris confectum ætate parentem! fidesque illius,

600 quem

Non potui abreptum divellere corpus, et undis aiunt

Spargere ? non socios, non ipsum absumere ferro 601. Non potui absu- Ascanium, patriisque epulandum apponere mensis ? mere socios, non potui Verùm anceps pugnæ fuerat fortuna : fuisset. absumere Ascanium ipsum ferro, apponereque

Quem metui moritura ? faces in castra tulissem:

Implêssemque foros flammis: natumque patremque 605 606. Ego ipsa dedis- Cum genere extinxêm: memet super ipsa dedissem. sem memet super eos. Sol, qui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras;

Tuque, harum interpres curarum et conscia, Juno,
Nocturnisque, Hecate, triviis ululata per urbes,

eum,

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587. Velis æquatis : the sails were equal- of her sister Philomela, served up his son ly distended on each side of the mast. This Itys for him at a banquet. See Ecl. vi. 78. shows that the wind blew fair, and directly 603. Fortuna : in the sense of eventus. after them : in nautical phrase, wing and 604. Moritura: in the sense of cum dewing.

creverim mori. Castra: in the sense of 593. Diripient alii : will not others tear classem. iny ships from the docks, and go in pursuit 605. Foros : the decks or hatches of his of him?

ships. Extinxêm: by syn. for extinxisscm: 596. Nunc impia facta. Mr. Davidson in the sense of interfecissem. observes that this is the reading of the 607. Sol. Dido invokes the sun, either Cambridge edition, founded on the autho- because he is the supporter of life in generity of Probus and the Codex Mediceus ; ral, or because, surveying all things here and it makes the sense obvious. By impia below, could be a witness of her wrongs; facta, we are to understand the violation of Juno, because she was the goddess of marher faith to Sichæus, and her amours with riage; and Hecate, because she presided Æneas; by which she brought on herself over magic rites; the Furies, because they infamy and disgrace. Now she feels the were the avengers of wrongs.

Flammis : weight of those actions, and the punish- in the sense of luce. ment due to her deeds. Ruæus and others, 608. Interpres : interpreter of these my who read fata, take impia in the sense of cares (sorrows) and conscious of my crudelia. Nunc ultima fata, dura sors, su- wrongs. Servius takes interpres to mean, prema dies instant tibi, says Ruæus. Heyne witness, judge, or arbitress. Ruæus interand Davidson read facta.

prets curarum by nuptialium negotiorum. 599. Subiisse: to have carried, or borne 609. Hecate ululata : Hecate invoked, or upon his shoulders.

called upon, &c. When Pluto ravished 600. Divellere. There is here an allusion Proserpine, or Plecate, her mother Ceres to the manner in which the Bacchanals traversed the earth in search of her with tore the bodies of Orpheus and Pentheus in lighted torches, siopping at those places pieces.

where two or three ways met, to invoke her 602. Apponere : served him up to be feast- name, which she did with a doleful outcry. ed upon at his father's table Reference is Hence it became a custom in her sacred here nad to the story of Progne, who, to be sites, for the matrons, on certain days, to go revenged upon Tereus, for his cruel treatment about the streets and crossways, filling the

est

Et Diræ ultrices, et Di morientis Elisa,

610 Accipite hæc, meritumque malis advertite numen, Et nostras audite preces. Si tangere portus

612. Si necesse Infandum caput, ac terris adnare necesse est ;

infandum caput tangere Et sic fata Jovis poscunt: hic terminus hæret :

portus, ac At bello audacis populi vexatus et armis,

615 615. At vexatus bello Finibus extorris, complexu avulsus Jüli,

et armis audacis populi,

extorris suis finibus, Auxilium imploret, videatque indigna suorum

avulsus complexû lüli
Funera : nec, cùm se sub leges pacis iniquæ
Tradiderit, regno aut optatâ luce fruatur;
Sed cadat ante diem, mediâque inhumatus arenâ. 620
Hæc precor: hanc vocem extremam cum sanguine

fundo.
Tum vos, Ô Tyrii, stirpem et genus omne futurum
Exercete odiis : cinerique hæc mittite nostro
Munera : nullus amor populis, nec fædera sunto.

624. Esto nullus amor Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor;

625 his populis, nec sunto Qui face Dardanios ferroque sequare colonos, Nunc, olim, quocunque dabunt se tempore vires.

628. Imprecor litora

contraria litoribus, unLitora litoribus contraria, fluctibus undas

das contrarias fluctibus, Imprecor, arma armis : pungent ipsique nepotes. arma contraria arinis :

NOTES.

ways met.

air with shrieks and howlings. Nocturnis this treaty, in a war with the Tuscans, he triviis. The epithet nocturnis is used, be- was · himself slain (ut plerique tradunt) by cause the rites of Hecate were celebrated Mezentius their king, on the banks of the in the night, and in a place where three river Numicus, where his body was left unSee 511, supra.

buried, and finally carried off by its waters, 611. Advertite : turn a due regard to my and never more seen. The Romans and misfortunes. Ruæus and others understand Carthaginians were bitter enemies to each by malis, the wicked, to wit, the Trojans. other: no league, no religious obligations, But this seems not to agree with the tenor could bind them in peace; and after Hanof the subject. Ruæus says : applicate nu- nibal arose, he proved himself Dido's avenmen meritum à sceleratis huc. Heyne, on the ger. He entered Italy with fire and sword : other hand, says: advertite vestrum numen the Roman armies fled before him; and (vim et polestatem) contra improbos et impios Rome itself was providentially saved from Trojanos. Davidson renders the words : his conquering arms. turn your divine regard to my wrongs. 617. Indigna: cruel-undeserved.

613. Caput : properly, the head ; by sy- 620. Cadat ante diem: let him fall before nec. the whole body-here, Æneas.

his time-let him die an untimely death. 614. Hæret : in the sense of fixus sit. 621. Vocem : in the sense of verba.

615. Al bello vexatus. It was a prevailing 623. Mittite hæc: present these offerings opinion among the ancients, that the pray; to my ashes. This is said in allusion to the ers of the dying were generally heard, and sacrifices that were offered to the dead. their last words prophetic. Thus Virgil They were usually poured upon the tomb, makes Dido imprecate upon Æneas a series

and consisted of milk, wine, and blood. of misfortunes, which actually had their Exercete : in the sense of persequimini. accomplishment in his own person, or in his posterity. After his arrival in Italy, he

625. Exoriare aliquis ultor : arise some was engaged in a war with Turnus, a bold

avenger from my bones. This is niuch and warlike prince. He was torn from the

more forcible, and shows more fully the embrace of his son, and as it were an exile,

state of her mind, than if she had used the

Allusion is here made to forced to go to Etruria, to implore the assistance of Evander. See Æn. viii. 80. He

Hannibal. Dardanios colonos : simply, the saw his friends slain, and lie dead before his Trojans. Dardanios : an adj. from Dardaeyes. It is said he submitted to the terms

nus, one of the founders of Troy. of a disadvantageous peace with king La

627. Olim. This word signifies the futinus, among which it was stipulated that ture, as well as the past time: now, herethe Trojans should abandon their native after, whenever power shall present itself. language, drop their appellation, and adopt 628. Contraria : in the sense of hostiliche that of the Latins. In the third year after vel infesta.

third person.

630

ST

1.

sororem

Annam Dic

635

ret

640

Hæc ait : et partes animum versabat in omnes,

Invisam quærens quàm primùm abrumpere lucem. 632. Affata est Barcen Tum breviter Barcen nutricem affata Sichæi,

Namque suam patriâ antiquâ cinis ater habebat : 634. O chara nutrix, Annam, chara, mihi, nutrix, huc siste sororem: siste

corpus properet fluviali

spargere lymphâ, huc mihi : dic ul prope. Et pecudes secum et monstrata piacula ducat.

Sic veniat: tuque ipsa piâ tege tempora vittà.

Sacra Jovi Stygio quæ ritè incepta paravi, 639. Animus est mihi Perficere est animus, finemque imponere curis; perficere sacra ritè in- Dardaniique roguin capitis permittere flammæ. cepta, quæ paravi Sty- Sic ait. Illa gradum studio celerabat anili. gio Jovi, imponereque

At trepida, et cæptis immanibus effera Dido,

Sanguineam volvens aciem, maculisque trementes
644. Interfusa quoad Interfusa genas, et pallida morte futurâ,
trementes genas macu- Interiora domûs irrumpit limina, et altos
lis, et pallida

Conscendit furibunda rogos, ensemque recludit
Dardanium, non hos quæsitum munus in usus.
Hìc postquam Iliacas vestes notumque cubile
Conspexit, paulùm lachrymis et mente morata,
Incubuitque toro, dixitque novissima verba :
Dulces exuviæ, dum fata Deusque sinebant,
Accipite hanc animam, meque his exsolvite curis.
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum fortuna, peregi :
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit imago.

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NOTES.

case.

some

635. Spargere furiali lymphâ: to sprinkle ing, it was called pyra ; and after it was her body with river water. It was a custom consumed, bustum : all of which are derived of the Greeks and Romans to wash their from the Greek. bodies before they performed sacrifice. See 647. Munus non quæsilum : a present not Æn. ii. 719. But this was only observed in designed, or gotten for such a use—for being regard to the superior gods. They sprinkled the instrument of her death. From this, themselves only, when they were tu offer sa- some infer that Æneas had made Dido this crifice to the infernal gods, as in the present present of a Trojan sword-Dardanium

ensem. But it is more probable that it was a 636. Pecudes : in the sense of victimas. present from Dido to Æneas; and that in Monsirata : in the sense of jussa, vel desig. his hurry to be gone, he had left it with nala.

other things, in her bedchamber. 638. Slygio Jovi : Pluto. He was the Quæsitum. Ruæus says, comparalum.brother of Jupiter, and in the division of the Heyne, paratum, acceptum, datum. world, the infernal regions fell to him by lot. 652. Curis : troubles--sorrows. The epithet Stygius is added, from Slyx, a 654. Et nunc: and now my ghost (imago) well known fabulous river of hell.

shall descend illustrious to the shades be640. Pernillere: to commit the funeral low. Mei : in the sense of mca, agreeing pile of the Trojan (Æneas) to the flames. with imago. Capilis : by synec. for the body, or whole Turnebus thinks the epithet magna is man-here, the Trojan, to wit, Æneas. used, because ghosts make their appearance 641. Studio : zeal-officiousness.

at night, when to the affrighted imagination 642. Irxmunibus : awful-horrid. Eföra : of the spectators, the object appears larger in the sense of efferala.

than life. But this is a very singular opi. 644. Interfusce : spotted-streaked. nion. Dido is speaking in the language of

645. Irrumpit: she rusked into the inner majesty, and setting forth her illustrious apartment of the palace. It is plain that deeds. She had built a flourishing city, limen signifies any part of the house, as and laid the foundation of a powerful kingwell as the threshold. The funeral pile was doin-she had punished her brother for the erected in penetrali side, in the inner apart- death of her husband-she had reigned in ment. See 504, supra.

glory-in a word, she had been happy in 646. Roges. The funeral pile was called every instance, till the Trojan fleet visited ngus, before it was set on fire: while burn- her coast. In this situation of mind, nothing

Urbem præclaram statui : mea monia vidi : 655
Ulta virum, pænas inimico à fratre recepi :
Felix, heu nimiùm felix! si litora tantùm
Nunquam Dardaniæ tetigissent nostra carinæ.
Dixit: et, os impressa toro, moriemur inultæ !
Sed moriamur, ait: sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras. 660

661. Crudelis Darda

nus hauriat hunc ignem Hauriat hunc oculis ignem crudelis ab alto

suis oculis ab alto, et Dardanus, et nostræ secum ferat omina mortis.

664. Comites aspiDixerat: atque illam media inter talia ferro

ciunt illam collapsam Collapsam aspiciunt comites, ensemque cruore

ferro inter media talia Spumantem, sparsasque manus. It clamor ad alta 665 verba, ensemque spu

mantem, manusque ejus Atria: concussam bacchatur fama per urbem :

sparsas cruore Lamentis, gemituque, et fæmineo ululatu

671. Perque culmina Tecta fremunt; resonat magnis plangoribus æther. Deorum Non aliter quàm si immissis ruat hostibus omnis

672. Soror exanimis Carthago, aut antiqua Tyros ; flammæque furentes 670 audiit hæc, exterritaque Culmina perque hominum volvantur perque

trepido cursu, fædans Deorum.

ora unguibus, et pectora Audiit exanimis, trepidoque exterrita cursu,

pugnis, ruit per medios, Unguibus ora soror fædans et pectora pugnis,

et clamat morientem soPer medios ruit, ac morientem nomine clamat:

rorem nomine

675 Hoc illud, germana, fuit? me fraude petebas ?

676. Iste rogus pard

bat hoc mihi; isti ignes, Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignes aræque parabant ?

aræque parabant hoc Quid primùm deserta querar ? comiterne sororem mihi ? Sprevisti moriens ? eadem me ad fata vocâsses,

680. Idem ambas ferro dolor, atque eadem hora tulisset.

etiam his manibus, voHis etiam struxi manibus, patriosque vocavi 680

cavique patrios Deos

você, ut crudelis abesVoce Deos; sic te ut positâ crudelis abessem ?

sem te sic positâ ? 0 Extinxstî me teque, soror, populumque, patresque soror, extinxstî me teque

Struxi rogum

NOTES.

can be more natural than for her to conceive 670. Furentes : the furious flames were her ghost to be of great and illustrious rank, rolling through the houses of men, and the and distinguished even in the other world (temples) of the gods. Culmen is properly above others, as she had been herself dis- the ridge of the house; by synec. put for tinguished in this.

the whole house. 656. Recepi pænas. She had recovered 675. Hoc illud fuit: O sister, was this from her brother her own wealth, and the your desigu—was this the object you had in treasure for which he murdered her hus- view, in erecting this funeral pile? band. It is with great propriety, therefore, 677. Deserta : being thus abandoned, of she uses the word recepi, when speaking of what shall I first complain? the revenge she had taken of Pygmalion. 678. Fata : in the sense of mortem.

659. Moriemur inulle: shall I die unre- 679. Dolor: pain—ache-anguish. Heyne venged? but let me die. Thus, thus, it de- says, vulnus. lights me to descend to the shades below. 681. Sic positâ: thus lying dead. Inultæ : unrevenged of Æneas and the Tro- 682. Exlinxstî: thou hast destroyed me jans. The fatal moment having arrived, and 1hyself, &c. Some copies have exstinzi, the poet represents her to us in the very act in the first person. By this Anna turns the of stabbing herself, by the turn of his verse. reproach from Dido to herself. But most The repetition of the sic sets her before us, commentators prefer the second person. Sin plunging the instrument in her breast, and donios patres. By these we are to underthrusting it home with a kind of desperate stand probably the Carthaginian senators, complacency. Impressa os toro : having or the legislative branch of the government. kissed the bed, she said, &c.

It is plain that they are distinguished from 666. Bacchatur: in the sense of discurrit. the body of the people. Extinxsti: by Concussam: in the sense of commolam, vel syn. for extinzisti. Date : in the sense of allonitam.

ferte. Lymphis: in the sense of aqua. 668. Fremunt: in the sense of resonant. This was a rite performed towards the bo

669. Ruat: falls. Ruæus says, subver- dies of the dead by their nearest relations. fatur,

Hence the mother of Euryalus regrets that

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