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Chap. VI. book; though in several fealed books which I have col
lated myself, I have always found it One, as it is generally in the common books. However, the words, as they are, are not a tautology, (as some object, but very copious and elegant, and alluding to that portion of Scripture in Hebrews x. where the One Oblation of Christ is opposed to the many kinds of sacrifices under the Law, and the once offered to the repetition of those
facrifices. The Mini- §. 5. Dr. Nichols, in his note upon this prayer, has defter to stand livered his opinion, that it ought to be said by the Miniat this Prayer, and ster upon his knees; and the reason he gives for it is, bein the Poft-cause it is a prayer. But that reason would hold for Commu- kneeling at several other prayers both in this and in other nion of n-office. offices, which yet the rubric directs shall be used standing.
As to this prayer indeed, the rubric does not mention any posture that the Minister shall be in at the faying it: for as to those words, Standing before the Table, I ain of opinion, that they only relate to the posture of the Minister, whilst he is ordering the Elements : though in the Old Common Prayer-Book it is very plain that they referred to the posture in which the Minister was to say the prayer; the rubric then being no more than this, Then the Minister standing up, shall Jay as followeth. The rubric in the Scotch Liturgy is something larger, but, as I shall shew in the next paragraph, directly orders the Priest to stand. But as the rubric is now enlarged, the construction fhews that the word standing must refer to another thing. However, since the rubric, before the additions to it, was fo very express for the Minister's standing at the Confecration ; I think it is very probable, that if they who made those additions had intended any alteration of the posture, they would certainly have expressed it. For Ministers that had been always used to stand when they confecrated, could never imagine that the new rubric directed them to kneel, when there was not one word of kneeling, but an express direction for standing, at the ordering of the Elements, without any following prescription for kneeling at this prayer, even in this new rubric. And I take it for granted, that whenever the church does not direct the Minister to kneel, it supposes him to stand, Though Dr. Nichols will not allow of this; “ becaufe,” he says, “ there is not one rubric which obliges the Mi“ nister to kneel in all the Post-Communion service; and “ yet he does not know any one that has contended for " the posture of standing in the performance of that part of the service.” What the Doctor has known I cannot Sect.; tell : but I can affirm the direct contrary, that I never XXII. knew one that contended for the posture of kneeling in the performance of that part of the service. But if any have done fo, I am apt to think, that they act contrary to the intention of the church. For that she supposes the Minister to stand during that part of the service, I think is plain from her not ordering him to stand up whilft he gives the blessing, which she certainly would have done, if she had supposed him to have been kneeling before. And indeed in most part of the whole Communion office the Priest is directed to stand. In the beginning of the office he is ordered to fay the Lord's Prayer, with the Collect following, standing; and so he is to continue whilst he repeats the Commandments : then follows one of the two Collects for the King, the Priest standing as before. Whilft he says the prayer for the whole state of Christ's Church, there is no posture mentioned: but since both the Sentènces before it, and the exhortation (at the time of Communion) after it, are without doubt to be said standing, and yet no mention made that there shall be any change of posture during all that time; it seems very evident that the church designed that prayer to be said standing. At the general Confession indeed it is very fit that the Minifter should kneel, and therefore he is there directed to do fo. And though any one knows in reason that he should stand at the Abfolution, yet that too is particularly mentioned in the rubric. From thence again to the Address, before the prayer of Confecration, that being all an act of praise, he is to stand: but there again he is directed to kneel: but then at the end of it he is ordered to stand up, and, after the ordering of the Bread and Wine, to say the Prayer of Confecration, without any direction to kneel. Nor indeed would that be a proper posture for him whilst he is performing an act of authority, as the confecrating : . the Elements must be allowed to be.' Nor is he from hence to the end of the office to kneel any more, except just during the time of his own receiving. So that through the whole office he is ordered to kneel but three times, viz. at the general Confeson, the Prayer of Address, and at his receiving the Elements : which being three places where there least wants a rubric to direct him to kneel, (since, if there was no such rubric, a Minister would of his own accord kneel down at those times,) and yet there being an express direction at each of those places for him to kneel; it is very evident, that where the-ruX 2
Brene fays theeadiness a me
his Other places ide; the and concom feine the Tablet be
Chap. VI. bric gives no such direction, the Minister is always to
stand. Whether $.6. If it be asked whether the Priest is to say this the Prieft
prayer standing before the Table, or at the North-end of be to say P this prayer it; I answer, at the North-end of it : for, according to ftanding the rules of grammar, the participle standing must refer before the to the verb ordered, and not to the verb fay. So that Altar.
whilst the Priest is ordering the Bread and Wine, he is to stand before the Table : but when he says the Prayer, he is to stand so as that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the People, which must be on the North-fide. For if he stood before the Table, his body would hinder the people from feeing : so that he must not stand there ; and consequently he must stand on the North-fide; there being, in our present rubric, no other place mentioned for performing any part of this office. In the Romish church indeed they always stand before the Altar during the time of Consecration; in order to prevent the people from being eye-witnesses of their operation in working their pretended miracle: and in the Greek church they shut the chancel door, or at least draw a veil or curtain before it, I suppose, upon the same account 8s. But our church, that pretends no such niiracle, enjoins, we see, the direct contrary to this, by ordering the Priest so to order the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread, and take the Cup into his hands, before the People.' And with this view, it is probable, the Scotch Liturgy ordered, that during the time of Consecration the Presbyter Mould sand at Such a part of the holy Table, where he may with the more ease and decency use both his hands.
Sect. XXIII. Of the Form of Administration. The holy THE holy Symbols being thus consecrated, the ComElements 'municants must not rudely take every one his own to be de
part; because God, who is the master of the feast, hath prothe Mi- vided Stewards to divide to every one their portion. Some nister to persons indeed have disliked the Minister's delivering the each Com- holy Elements to each Communicant'; pretending that it municant.
" is contrary to the practice of our Saviour, who bid the
Apostles take the Cup and divide it among themselves $6.
85 Smith's Account of the Greek 86 Luke xxii. 17.
evidently from the nineteenth and twentieth verses of the Sect. , fame chapter, that the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper XXIII. was not instituted till after that Cup was drank. But as to the manner of his delivering the Sacrament, the Scriptures are wholly filent; and consequently we have no other means to judge what it was, but by the practice of the first Christians, who doubtless, as far as was convenient and requisite, imitated our Saviour in this as well as they did in other things : and therefore since it was the general practice among them for the Minister to deliver the Elements to each Communicant, we have as much authority and reason as can be desired to continue that practice ftill.
§. 2. The Minister thereforethat celebrateth is first to Firft to the receive the Communion in both kinds himself ; then to proceed Clergy, to deliver the same to the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (i.e. in both kinds,) if any be present, (that they may help the chief Minister, as the old Common Prayer has it, or him that celebrateth, as it is in the Scotch Liturgy,) and after that to the People also in order. And this is con- And then sonant to the practice of the primitive Church, in which to the Peoit was always the custom for the Clergy to communicate ple, within the rails of the Altar, and before the Sacrament was delivered to the People 87.
$. 3. The rubric farther directs, that the Communion Into their must be delivered both to the Clergy and Laity into their hands. hands; which was the most primitive and ancient way of receiving 88. In St. Cyril's time they received it into the hollow of their right hand, holding their left hand under their right in the form of a cross 8). And in some few ages afterwards, some indiscreet persons pretending greater reverence to the Elements, as if they were defiled with their hands, put themselves to the charges of providing little faucers or plates of gold to receive the Bread, until they were forbidden by the sixth general council . Another abuse the church of Rome brought in, where the Priest puts it into the people's mouths, left a crumb should fall aside; which custom was also retained in the first book of King Edward VI. though a different reason was there alledged; the rubric ordering that although it be read in ancient writers that the People many years past re
87 Conft. Apoft. 1. 8. c. 13. Concil. Laod, Can. 19. Concil. Tolet. 4. Can. 17.
88 Eufeb. Hift. Eccl. 1. 6. c. 43. p. 245. B. Chryf. in Ephef. i. Hom. 3.
toni. iii. p. 778. lin. 16.
89 Cyril. Catech. Myftag. 5. §. 18.
go Can. 101. tom. 6. col. 1186. A.
ne to the favouring food
Chap. VI. ceived, at the Priest's hands, the Sacrament of the Body of
Christ in their own hands, and no commandment of Christ to the contrary ; yet forafmuch as they many times conveyed the fame secretly away, kept it with them, and diversely abused it to fuperftition and wickedness : lest any such thing hereafter should be attempted, and that an uniformity might be used throughout the whole realm, it was thought convenient the people should commonly receive the Sacrament of Christ's Body in their mouths, at the Priest's hando. But however Bucer censuring it, as favouring too much of an unlawful honour done to the Elements 92, it was discontinued at the next review, when the old primitive way of delivering
it into the people's hands was ordered in the room of it. The Apo- §. 4. The Communicants are enjoined, whilst they reAles proba, ceive this blessed Sacrament, to be all meekly kneeling, bly received in'a pofture What posture the Apostles received it in, is uncertain; but of adora. " we may probably conjecture that they received it in a tion.
posture of adoration. For it is plain that our Saviour blessed and gave thanks both for the Bread and Wine; and prayers and thanksgivings, we all know, were always offered up to God in a posture of adoration : and therefore we may very safely conclude that our blessed Saviour, who was always remarkable for outward reverence in devotion, gave thanks for the Bread and Wine in an adoring posture.
Now it is very well known that it was a rule with the Jews to eat of the Passover to satiety: and therefore, since they had already satisfied hunger, they cannot be fup. posed to have eaten or drank so much of the holy Eucharist as that they needed repose while they did it: and fince, as we have already hinted, they rose from their feats to bless the Bread, it cannot be imagined, that, without any reason, they would resolve to fit down again during the moment of eating it; and then, though they rose immediately a second time at the blessing, which was performed before the delivery of the Cup, that they immediately sat down again to taste the Wine, as if they could neither eat nor drink the smallest quantity without fitting.
This indeed does not amount to a demonstration, but is yet a very probable conjecture; and shews how groundlessly they argue, who, from the Apostles eating the Paffover fitting or leaning upon the left fide, (which was the
91 See the laft rubric at the end of the Communion-office in King
Edward's firft book.
92 Script. Anglican. p. 462. .