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Pericles,” by Miss Constance O'Brien ; “The knighted by Charles I. for the gallantry ho dis- c. Burdett (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.); Authorship of Pericles,” by Mr.

John Williams ; played at the battle of Lostwithiel (1644), and Joseph Barclay, Third Anglican Bishop of Jeru“The Romance-Elements of Pericles,by Mr. Dr. Richard Brett, one of the translatora of the salem: a Missionary Biography (Partridge); C. H. Herford, of Manchester; "The Botany Authorised Version of the Bible, and Fellow of Grammar and Logic in the Nineteenth Century, of Pericles,

by Mr. Leo H. Grindon, of Man- Lincoln College, Oxford. The manor of White as seen in a Syntactical Analysis of the English chester; and an outline of a note on "Cerimon Staunton was sold at the beginning of the last Language, by J. W. F. Rogers (Trübner); A as the supposed representative of Dr. John century to Sir Abraham Elton.

Guide to the Legal Profession, by J. Herbert Hall, and on Shakspere's other representations MR. ALFRED N. PALMER, of Wrexham, has for Investors (Simpkin, Marshall, & Co.); An

Slater (Upcott Gill); Mathieson's Vade Mecum of doctors,” by the Rev. H. P. Stokes, of Wolverhampton. Mr. John Taylor had 'also published, as a pamphlet (Manchester : Henry Almanack of the Christian Era : a Record of the

ago before a a paper on “The Imagery of Pericles.local society, on "The Town, Pields, and Folk Solar Physics, by A. H. Surnton (W. H. Allen);

Past and Glimpse into the Future, based on THE Volunteer Service Review will henceforth of Wrexham in the Time of James. I.”. This The New Principia ; or, the Astronomy of the be published by Messrs. Wyman & Sons. contains a valuable contribution to the history Future, by Newton Crossland (Trübner); Work

M. ACHILLE FOUQUIER, the author of Chants of ancient common tenures under the manorial for Women, by Elizabeth Kingsbury (Bickers); populaires espagnols,

is preparing a translation system, and we are glad to see from the Pro- | Good Lives : Some Fruits of the Nineteenth of the best of Gustavo Becquer's Spanish tales, face that Mr. Palmer hopes to publish, from Century, by A. Macleod Symington

(Edinto be illustrated with five etchings by Arcos.

time to time, similar accounts of neighbouring burgh: David Douglas); Life and Teaching of

townships. DR. RICHARD FRICKE, of Hasslinghausen,

John Ruskin, by J. Marshall Mather (Manhas just issued at Brunswick an essay of 104

The new number of the Genealogist, with chester: Tubbs, Brook, & Chrystal); Rambling pages on the “Robin Hood Ballads."

which a fresh series of this periodical beging, is Sketches in the Far North and Orcadian Musings, THE Revue critique of January 1 announces Visitation of Berkshire taken in 1566 is & Co.); The Course of Empire : Outlines of

full of interesting matter. A reprint of the by R. Menzies Fergusson (Simpkin, Marshall, that its prosperity is now assured—“la revue ne lutte plus pour l'existence ; elle est assurée commenced. The paper on the ravishment of the

Chief Political Changes in the History of de vivre, et de bien vivre.” We cannot let the dence that Mr. Forster's statement in the Life of U.S.: Osgood); Sithron, the Star-Stricken,

Sir John Eliot's son proves by historical evi. the World, by Charles Gardner Wheeler (Boston, opportunity pass without congratulating the editors upon the manner in which they have tracts from parish registers, notes on two or by Salem ben Uzair (Redway); Cleanings from

the patriot is incorrect. There are copious ex. translated from an Ancient Arabic Manuscript, not only maintained, but also developed quite three old families, and a review of the metrical Gods Acre : being a Collection of Epitaphs, by recently, the principles upon which the Revue

Obronicle of Edward the Black Prince, recently John Potter Briscoe (Hamilton, Adams, & critique was founded eighteen years ago.

published by Mr. Fotheringham. Altogether Co.); Letters to a Son preparatory to School Life,

the number is a very good one, and the new by Francis Burdett Money Coutts (Simpkin, HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. editor-Mr. Walford Selby-deserves our con. Marshall, & Co.); “Anchor Series ".StrawMRS. HERBERT JONES, of Sculthorpe, Faken Peerage by G. E. O. occupies thirty-two pages sonage, by Mrs. A. E. Porter (Edinburgh:

gratulations. The first instalment of the new berry Hill, by Clara Vance, and Glencoe Parham, Norfolk, will publish, through Mr. Quaritoh, a work relating to the Princess Char: (separately numbered), and is a marvel of patient Gemmell); Original Essays, by S. Tolver Preston

(Williams & Norgate); Evolution as Taught, & lotto, in which there will be reproductions, industry and unbiaseed judgment. coloured by hand, of the ten miniaturo portraits THE Norwich Mercury recently obtained a

Myth Illusive and Degrading (Ballantine, Hanof that Princess which were executed between series of its own issues from 1727 to 1749, son, & Co.); &c., &c. 1799 and 1816 by Charlotte Jones, "preceptress together with some odd copies for 1721. It has in miniature painting and miniature painter to now a complete file from 1727 to the present

ORIGINAL VERSE. the Princess Charlotto." The paintings are fine time. When the paper was first started is not examples of the artist's work, especially the known with any certainty.

The date com.

SCHUBERT'S SYMPHONY IN B MINOR. last one, in which the Princess appears as a full-monly assigned is 1714; but this is based only I SHUDDER at the awful airs that flow grown woman twenty years of age; and the upon a statement in the number for June 2, Across my soul; I hear crushed hopes that wail reproductions will be worthy of the originale. 1744, recording the death of Mr. W. Chase, And flutter their brief wings and sudden fail As for the text, it is intended not only to form which says that he had printed the paper for Wild tender cries that sing and dance and go a commentary on each successive portrait, but “ about thirty years." But it is not affirmed In wonderful sweet troops. I cannot know

What rends within my soul what unseen veil, also to serve as memoirs of the life and times of that he had founded the paper, or even that he

And tells anew what strangely well-known tale Princess Charlotte. Much valuable material was the first printer of it. We make those of infinite gladness and of infinite woe. for that purpose may still exist in MS., and remarks à propos of a facsimile of the number Mrs. Herbert Jones would be grateful for any for January 14, 1727, which the editor has sent Was I long since thrust

forth from Heaven's door,

Where in that music I had borne my part ? communication on the subject from the owners us, with the intimation that he purposes to Or had this symphony its birth before of such documents. continue reprinting all the numbers for that

The pulse of nature turned to laws of art ? THE sixth volume of Bracton's Commentaries year by way of a supplement for his subscribers o what familiar voice, from what far shore, on the Laws and Customs of England, edited by -a most laudable design.

Calls to a voice that answers in my heart ! Sir Travers Twiss, has recently appeared in

H. HAVELOCK ELLIS. the Rolls Series, concluding the work. The Introduction throws new light on several in

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. teresting points of early English history, and we have on our table:- The English Flower

MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS. more especially on the Council of Merton in Garden : Style, Position, and Arrangement, AxID the dearth of anything of permanent Henry II.'s reign, in which the barons of followed by a Description of all the Plants best value in our magazines recently, it is refreshing England made their famous declaration, “ quod suited for its Embellishment, by W. Robinson, to come upon an article in this month's Macnolumus leges Angliae mutare."

illustrated with
many engravings (John Murray); millan on The Literature of Introspection,"

“ Two contributions to the genealogical history The Elements of Political Economy, by Emile de by M. A. W. It is a finely conceived and careof West-country houses have recently appeared. Laveleye, translated by Alfred' w. Pollard fully written piece of criticism. Its general Mr. B. W. Groonfield traces with great care (Chapman & Hall); Reminiscences of Travel, object is to illustrate the value of the literature substantiating his statements by extracts from in Australia, America, and Egypt, by Richard of reverie as a means of extending psychological public records and other authentic sources--the Tangye (Sampson Low); Essays on Parlia- knowledge and power of expression. "It deserves descent of the Somersetsbire family of Meriet mentary Reform, by the late Walter Bagehot attentive reading. from the thane Eadnoth, who was slain in 1068, (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.); French Palaces, We have received the first number of the to Sir John de Meriet (of Meriet) and his half- and other Essays, by Robert Cutlar-Fergusson Revue internationale, which is to appear at brother, Thomas Meriet, of Stantwich, both of Hannay (Elliot Stock); Essays on Diet

, by Florence once a fortnight under the direction of whom died before Henry V.'s reign closed. A Francis William Newman (Kegan Paul, Trench, Prof. de Gubernatis. The editor states, in a good deal of antiquarian matter is scattered & Co.); The Golden Decade of a Favored Preface, that he hopes to fulfil a dream of twenty over the pages (119) of Mr. Greenfield's Town : being Biographical Sketches of Char- years ago by presenting a complete review of civilbrochure, and some now light thrown upon the acters connected with Cheltenham, by Contem ised literature and thought. This number gives genealogies of Bonville, Oarow, Seymour, and Ignotus (Elliot Stock); Broken Ideals : a Novel, a fair promise. Among the articles is a plea, by Paypel-namos well known in the West of in three volumes, by J. Bowles Daly (Reming- Prof. von Holtzendorff, for a Chair of Roman England. The history of the Bretts, of white ton); Hospital Management: being the Authorised Law to be held by jurists of all nations; an essay Staunton, Somerset, from 1483 to 1749 is given Report of a Conference on the Administration on Belgian politics by M. Emile de Laveleye; by the Rov. Frederick Brown with less minute of Hospitals, edited by J. $. Clifford Smith the lecture delivered at Bristol last September

Two members of the family gained (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.); Hints in Sick- by Prof. Max Müller on Rajah Rammohun Roy, some distinction--viz., Edward Brett, who was ness: Where to Go and What to Do, by Henry and now first published ; a criticism of Paolo

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Ferrari, being the first of a series of articles on behind him. Two letters from H.I.M. the national name, Lord Dufferin had been sent the modern Italian drama; and an excellent Sultan disclaim all confidence in “Ismail, to Cairo ; his genuine political sagacity and notice (descriptive rather than critical) of Halim, or Tewfik,” and openly offer Egypt to sound common-sense had taken in the situation, recent novels.

At the end are letters from “the Egyptian.' It was easy to establish the and his acuteness had suggested the " arrangeParis, Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, Belgrade, fact that Arábi was declared a rebel because he ment out of court.” The French party, and other cities. Each article is presented in a did not beat the English at Alexandria, as he jealous and hate-full as ever, had been charmed French which would do credit to a child of was ordered to do; and that he was made the with our dilemma : if put to death, Arábi would Paris. The English agents for the Revue inter- scape-goat for Khedivial and national sins. As have become a Shahíd, or martyr; if allowed nationale are Messrs. Trübner.

Mr. Punch says, “Tools are made to be sold." to live, it was because the Káfir feared to The Theologisch Tijdschrift for January con- Despite the Blue-Books, those melancholy kill him. Our “lively neighbours ” revenged tains a noteworthy article by J. H. A. Michelsen memorials of mistakes, whose " aim is to dis- themselves upon Lord Dufferin by declaring Ce against the critical conclusions of Dr. Westcott close as little as possible, to make the rough n'est pas un homme sérieux. The saying was and Dr. Hort as to the text of the New Testa- smooth, the crooked straight, and to create neat and terse—only untrue. ment; a copious collection of facts supports his pleasant impressions of a more or less am- I was in Egypt during the cause célèbre, and argument. Dr. Prins throws much light on biguous and indistinct nature,” it was equally found reason to blush for the general bearing of the seemingly contradictory reasons given in easy to prove the existence of a National Europeans, including the local press, and

With a few the Gospels for the parabolic form of Christ's movement and a National Party consisting of especially the Egyptian Gazette. teaching ; Dr. Blom discusses the pictures of some five millions of souls, and officered by princes notable exceptions the residents had shown future calamities in the middle of the Book of and princesses; ministers and presidents; the excessive poltroonery. The only explanation is Revelation. The reviews and notices of books National Council and Assembly of Notables, that they were surprised, scared, demoralised are of less importance than usual.

Patriarchs and Rabbis, Ulema and Kázis, the by the fanatic soldiery, and by the murderous highest officials and, briefly, “all Pachadom.” police taking part with a mob dastardly, super

To resume the long story. Political imbecility, stition-smit, and bloodthirsty as it was in the THE EGYPTIAN QUESTION. financial mismanagement, the employment of days of Hypatia. Whenever and wherever a

bouches inutiles with monstrous salaries, and the gallant little knot of Europeans combined to

greed of bourgeois-shareholders raised up defend itself against the canaille, they fled like Hno ve Defended Arábi and his Friends : a

universal Egypt against England and France; a flock of sheep. It is well to note, and to Story of Egypt and the Egyptians, By A. M. and she found a fitting leader in Arábi, the remember the fact, especially throughout the Broadley. «Illustrated by Frederick Villiers.* Fellah-pasha. The Porte, hoping once more to country parts of Egypt, where bad days may (Chapman & Hall.)

conduct into shrunken and starveling Con- still be in store. But men who have been Mr. A. M. BROADLEY is well known in India, stantinople a Nile flowing lire and piastres, scared are rarely merciful; after they get the better in Tunis, and best in Cairo, where his resolved that the Khedivial family should, in upper hand they would be as cruel as they were defence of “[Ahmed] Arábi the Egyptian " Napoleonic phrase, “cease to reign.” Grand cowardly. It was a sight to see their hangdog )

. ( = El Mizri, r.l., of Egypt) made an epoch. old Mohammed Ali was to be succeeded by a looks, and to hear them whining “ he showed He has done well to wait for a year till the mere Pasha, or general, removable at will, and

us no pity,” when they learnt that Arábi and collapse of the new Joint Control, Egyptian and retainable only while douceurs, avanies, and Co. were not to be sus. per coll. or shot, or even English; and his portly volume appears at a tributes came in regularly. Hence the scan- flogged at a cart-tail. most timely hour when the Nile Valley threatens dalous gift of the Medjidiah and the flattering In Mr. Broadley's little picture gallery only to be the burning question of 1884. He speaks letter to the future Rebel. But the Fellah is one figure is made to stand out from the mass of of events quorum pars magna fuit; his able special né malin. He countered the Turkish project by human matter around it. Yet his hero, Arábi pleading utters no uncertain note; and his motto a hint about transferring his allegiance from a the “Saviour of Egypt,” is essentially unheroic. (“ Allah make thee conqueror, O Arábi !") Caliph (“Successor”), whose claims rest upon a The big, burly, brawny Fellah-pasha had appears in Arabic on the binding and the title- dubious base, to the Sherif of Mecca, the direct certain measure of command; but those he page (vilely written), and in English on pp. 56, descendant of the Apostle of Allah, whose commanded were dwarfs, cripples, and deformi173, and 502. Nor does he spare, for the right of succession, if he chose to assert it, is ties utterly unfit to make a nation. He has benefit of the very few who can read between indefeasible. So England was left to hack at never shown even the vulgar quality of personal the lines, some choice innuendos.

and, lastly, to cut the Gordian knot, and to courage. He did not "feather his nest,” like The tragi-comedy begins from the beginning destroy a nationality of whose birth and being the normal Pasha ; but neither did he disdain to retainer in London, and culminates in the she was profoundly ignorant.

acquire the proprietary village of Hurriyah catastrophe (chap. xxv.), the tale being told in And here the question is-Had Arábi and his (“Liberty'), near Zagázig. His coadjutors were a chatty, readable style which conceals a variety two fellow-poseurs, Ali Fehmi and Abd el-Al, poor creatures; and their visages patibulaires, of sharpish stings. The curtain draws up on the head, the heart, and the hand to control aided by the photo-mechanical printer, speak the clever tactics of Mr. Secretary Borelli Bey this same National movement? The least sign for themselves. Ali Fehmi,“ the chief engineer, and the treacherous obstruction of his chief, of weakness would have made the programme boasts (p. 319), “If I had completed the works Riyaz Pasha. By pluck, persistence, and something of this kind. Forced requisitions to at Tel-el-Kebir, your countrymen would not working the home press, Messrs. Broadley and be called gifts and contributions. Turks and have taken them so easily!” Perhaps. The Japier secured, in the preliminary skirmish, Circassians, Bulgarians and Albanians, to be final battle was fought at a simple outpost, a ** three considerable advantages-viz., admission abolished by deportation to Fayzoghlu. A first line of trenches dug in the desert. The to the instruction, or enquiry; a right to address general cutting of Coptic and Armenian throats; main defence was to be near Zagázig, where the the court, and, what was more important, to and a wiping off of the “vipers," as Arábi calls hoed and flooded fields, cut by a network of argue from a political point of view.” The the village usurers. A wholesale dismissal of small canals, would have been ugly to cross as fnemy was then short-sighted enough to formu- European employés. The absolute repudiation that about Kafr Dawár. But, with an inconselate the following charges against (Ahmed) of debt; and, lastly, severance from the civilised quence which denoted all their actions, Arábi Arabi and others, who were accused

world, and the final triumph of El-Islam. I do and his Arabists neglected to lay out the second 1. Of having hoisted the white flag at Alexan- not doubt that under such circumstances and line; and thus the decisive action took place on dria on the morning of the 12th July and at the with such expectations “Egyptian nationalism ground where half-disciplined and unofficered same time of having caused the burning and pillage was a genuine, spontaneous, and universal men had no chance against regulars and the ci the said town.

expression of the aspirations of five millions of admirable arrangements of their general. 2. Of having excited the Egyptians to arm Egyptian people” (p. 434).

It is amusing to inspect the dwarf figures against the Khedive.

To return to our review of the melodrame. ) around the Colossus. Sir E. B, Malet “erred 3.0f having continued the war notwithstand - When all Cairo was looking forward, in pleased from a complete want of trustworthy informaing the news of peace; and 4. Of having excited civil war, and carried political linen,” and when even the longest excitement, to a “public washing of dirty tion” (p. 332); but how could it be otherwise ?

“Mahdi or Saviour" (p. 353) gives a measure devastation, massacre, and pillage into Egyptian heads could not see a way out of the impasse, of what he was allowed to learn. Very small territory. The cause was now virtually won.

the Commission of Enquiry was suddenly indeed looms the “young and amiable Prince" Arábi resolved into

a fancy court-martial, before of official rose-water. His father describes him Pasha's correspondence proved that, so far which the seven accused were brought upon the as having ni tête, ni cæur, ni courage ; others, as from being a "reb,” he became commander of simple charge of rebellion; they were con; the troops appointed to defend the country, in demned to death en bloc, and the legal farce'

“weak and capricious, inexperienced and un

worthy; and his "almost indescribable unlegal manner, by order of the Sultan, the ended, after a few minutes' display, with a popularity” will go down to posterity in the Khedive, and the Chamber of Notables, with reprieve and a sentence of banishment. Such Fellah’s rhyming doggerel (p. 503) :the sanction of the nation, all Egypt being was the denoúment of the drama on a certain

• Ant-faced Tewlik! who bade thee place Thirteen illustrations of photo-mechanical Sunday, December 3, 1882. printing; the first I ever saw, and the very last I This seasonable compromise ” was evidently

Thy country in such parlous case?" ter wish to see.

the work of a master-hand. Happily for our Imbocility of purpose, combined with “honest

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love of intrigue for its own sake,” is the one sin At length “Araby the Blest” is shipped off be in a fair way to create an “intelligent, never forgiven in an Eastern ruler; and Mr. for the Paradise of Adam ; ” and the author, active, and ubiquitous provincial constabulary. Broadley is justified in quoting (p. 377): "As concerning whom the vilest reports were spread, But neither of these able and experienced long as Tewfik reigns there will be no peace for leaves Egypt in the form of a Cookite."

He officers could prevail against Fellah superEgypt."

bequeaths an especial sting in his last chapter, stition. Arábi can, and only Arábi can. The The portrait of Riyaz Pasha is etched in with Egypt Present and To Come.” In capitals he frightful defeat of Hicks Pasha and the nitric acid. He is the typical donkey-boy on

destruction of the two relieving parties from horseback, the best disliked man in Egypt; and “WE MUST FALL BACK ON THE NATIONAL Suakin suggest, moreover, that, while "The this eminence he owes only to his own merits. PARTY: Arábi and his friends must be allowed to Egyptian” raises the Bedawin tribes, Kabbábish The son of a Jew renegade, he was taken from return from Ceylon and assist us in giving 'a fair and others, our only remedy for the evil will the streets to become a gaudily dressed long- start' to Egypt-an undertaking, which differs be tive thousand British bayonets-costly, but haired boy in the household of Said Pasha"

essentially from a mere personal fair start' for the not so costly as doing nothing. a den of unspeakable abominations. His bad Khedive.”

For the Sudan, once thoroughly aroused, DSSTEN French, learnt late in life, his mean appearance, He assures us, and with truth, "a twelve would light a fire sufficient to enflame the Moshis croaking accents, and his ill-fame for months' dearly purchased experience has taught lem world. It is sad to read such craven countreachery and over-astuteness were neutralised us that our last restoration was a great political sels as retreating to Khartúm, and even fixing by the strong will and tenacity of the Hebrew, blunder ; ” and he gives his candidate a prime the frontier at Assoan, and to think at the and by the rabid fanaticism of the “ 'vert; good character for aiming at justice, adminis- same time how such measures would but inand, risen to power by the ruin of his patron, trative honesty, personal security, and political crease the evil. Setting aside the sentimental he became a persona grata in the eyes of Lord equality.”

view, the wilful waste of blood and gold poured Beaconsfield. His ignoble treatment of Chinese It is not impossible that Arábi's services may during the last fifty years into the Equatorial Gordon should not be forgotten by Englishmen. be positively required. The coming question is Provinces," our mal-advisers would create a Pecuniarily honest,” he has girdled himself the Sudan, which has already assumed formid- focus of fanaticism and of agressive Islamism with relations highly placed and well paid by able dimensions, and which will, if further mis- that would begin by extending its influence the public service; and they must be “squared managed, attain gigantic proportions. In Cairo throughout Northern Africa from Suez to Sús. on all occasions. He is vindictive as a Mac- I saw a train-full of half-uniformed peasants It would so weaken Egypt that the “King of cabee: “Riyaz Pacha and I said M. Jablin after bearing bag and baggage, including Reming- Kings,” Johannes of Ethiopia, would find writing L’Egypte nouvelle] cannot live in the tons. Some ten thousand of these wretches ample opportunity to carry out the plans of same country now!” He seems to have treated were to be mustered at Suez, and sent, under the last three centuries. It would give new Mr. Broadley with the courtesy becoming his Gen. Hicks, to the Upper Nile provinces life to the slave trade, the serpent scotched and origin. Turks and Egyptians are gentlemen in with the view of putting down an insurrection not slain by Baker and Mr. Hake's “uncrowned official communications ; this man borrows the which we should have nipped in the bud. They king.” I need not trouble you with a host of worst French style (and what can be worse ?) looked already beaten, and I pitied the officers minor matters, such as closing the heart of from the sycophant clerks who conduct his who were to command them. Then, as now, Africa to travellers, and allowing these wealthy correspondence. He should be compelled to the arch-enemy was El-Mahdi, the "false regions, where European interests are rapidly follow his feeble, unstable chief; and, until he Prophet” of the European Press, a title which developing, to relapse into utter barbarism. does so, “he will ever be a thorn in our side.” very exactly describes what he is not. But it is time to take leave of Mr. Broadley,

On the other hand, Mr. Broadley is thoroughly D'Herbelot has told the world that the Twelfth and, in so doing, I must compliment him upon unfair and unjust to Sherif and Nubár Pashas Imám or Antistes, the lineal descendant of the his exceptional freedom from mistakes. He -ad majorem Arabi gloriam. Sherif is no Apostle of Allah, and the legal religious head must not, however, describe El-Azhar as a genius, nor was Lord Melbourne, but he is of Pan-Islamism, born in A.H. 255 (= A.D. 868), “Moslem university almost as old as Islam something better for his position: he is a was Abu 'l-Kásim Mohammed, surnamed El- | itself(p. 175). In p. 193 he is unjust to my gentleman by birth and education, in manners Mahdi, or the Director (in the path of the noble and heroic friend the late Abd el-Kadir. and ideas. Nubár, of the International Tri- True Faith). He mysteriously disappeared “Molasem ” (p. 232) is evidently a misprint; bunals, has all the talents of the Armenian-(probably murdered) under Caliph El-Mohtadi; but “Ulema and journalist” (p. 237) sounds perhaps the cleverest race that now exists; and, a name from the same root (El-hady = salva- very badly: 'Ulema, like 'Umdeh, is 'a plural as his long career proves, he is a statesman with tion), No. 14 of the Abbaside or Baghdad form. Is it pedantic to remark that the sentence progressive ideas who has no terror of innova- House. One of the many Redivivi noticed in “Osman Pasha Fouzy was neither deprived of tion. He has ever proved himself a firm friend history, he declared that he would remain his honours or rank” (p. 371) is school-girl to England, and he will continue to do so. hidden, hence his title “El-Mutabattan,” and English, or, rather, not English at all? The

After the tragic-comic catastrophe the colours he would re-appear in the last days; he would note (p. 475) “Generally written Mahdi; I of the book fade for a while; yet there are lead a reformed El-Islam to universal dominion, think Mehdi 'the more correct reading of the tid-bits eminently worth digesting: Home- and he would thus prepare the way for certain Arabic," should be erased ; and to explain readers will do well to take to heart the follow- other second comings. Consequently, every Mahdi by Messiah introduces a misleading idea. ing sentence, whose contents I have vainly re- great political heave of Mohammedanism, in Finally, I must join issue with the learned peated to them a dozen times :

Africa as in Asia, has thrown up one or more barrister-at-law upon the subject of English “In no part of the world do women contrive to Mahdis, mostly impostors, but sometimes, 1 Freemasonry, at least out of England. I have exercise so much real political power as in the doubt not, honest and self-believing enthu- always found it acutely political wherever poliEast; and there is probably no Oriental country siasts. They generally die at the hands of tics raged, and mostly used by the Protestant as in which their influence is so potent a factor in their bigoted and infuriated mobs; but, mean- a weapon against the Catholic.

In Syria it has State affairs as in Egypt” (p. 373).

while, they may do abundant damage. I found admitted not a few Moslems, and some of them It is by no means difficult to guess how the little was known in Cairo of this latest are, perhaps, the completest rogues I ever had barrister-at-law would ree the "riddle of June 11 “Director” except that he is an inspired car- an opportunity to study. and June 12,” when the main square of Alexan- penter and dervish. Even his name, “Mo

RICHARD F. BURTON. dria was burnt. A most interesting document (pp. hammed Ahmed." of Dongola, means nothing. 440-30) is Arábi's memorandum of Egyptian Great men, religious or laical, always prefix, on reform (November 25, 1882), printed in parallel promotion, either

“Mohammed ”

SELECTED FOREIGN BOOKS. columns with Lord Dufferin's celebrated Re- variant; thus Tewfik is Mohammed Tewfik, organisation Scheme (February 6, 1883). The and Arábi is Ahmed Arábi.

GENERAL LITERATURE. former commands our attention when he

pro-
The Mahdi of the Sudan,” said Arábi, 'is

Geschichte der Litteratur Italiens im poses a constitutional government with

of the Arabs because we know him KOERTING, G,

Zeitalter der Renaissance. 3. Bd. Die Anfänge der * council of ministers, each responsible for his to be an impostor [?]. We are Sunnis, and Renaissancelitteratur in Italien. 1. Thl. Leipzig: acts towards the whole cabinet, and the believe the Saviour of Islam [:-] will come of Fues. 10 M. ministry, as a body, responsible to the country”: the Arab tribe of Koreish (Kuraysh], to which I Tisses Peints incurfinos. Les contrées mystérieuses et

Peuples . Paris: Firmin-Didot. 15 . the clog is absolutely necessary if “the ruler of myself belong." Setting aside this peculiar WARSBERG, A. Frhr. v. Homerische Landschaften.

1. Bd. Wien: Graeser. 8 M. Egypt must be an Egyptian," though this has claim, we note that Arábi holds to the Fatwa never happened since the days of the Pharaohs. or religious decree issued by the chief Ulema of

THEOLOGY. Not equally good is the idea of an Elective El-Azhar. But I vehemently doubt that Chamber and a Chamber of Notables, chosen Fellah troops or even the Turkish Nizam, CASPARI, C. P. Kirchenhistorische Anecdota, nebet

neuen Ausgaben patrist. u. kirchlich-mittelalterl. by free vote, to remain in office for five years,

officered by Europeans, will fight against any Schriften. 1. Lateinische Schriften. Die Texte u. with legislative powers and a consultative voice Mahdi; and I believe that if they do fight it die Anmerkgn.. Christiania: Aschehoug. 53.

LIPSIUS, R. A. Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten for government use. Surely one chamber of will be in a half-hearted way that secures

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u. Apostellegenden. Ein Beitrag zur altchristl, 'Umdah (notables) is enough, and over-enough,

defeat. Sir Evelyn Wood's “curious experi- Literaturgeschichte, 2. Bd. 2, Hälfte. Braunto begin with. But readers must study the ment” may have done much to raise the status SEYDEL, R. Die Buddha-Legende u. das Leben Jesu

schweig : Schwetsche. 11 M. document for themselves,

of the Egyptian soldier ; and Baker Pasha may nach den Evangelien. Leipzig : Schulze, 2 M,

>

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HISTORY

merely supplementary to what appeared in the songster," the h being an insertion ; secondly, CODEX diplomaticus Anhaltinus. Hrsg. v. 0. v. Heine- ACADEMY some two or three years ago, and the hammer is hardly the instrument with

mann. 6. Thi. Orts- u. Personenregister. Dessau: should have been read in that connexion. The which one works in wood. Besides the neekâUTES,

Baumann. 12 M.
FONTES rerum austriacarum. 2. Abth. 43. Bd. Die phrase "to bear one hard” was compared with as above, Aristophanes also mentions the redekâs,
Geschichts-Bücher der Wiedertäufer in Oesterreich- Chaucer's

together with the relekîvos, in l. 884; so that Ungarn von 1526 bis 1785. Gesammelt y. J. Beck. Wien: Gerold's Sohn. 9 M. 40 Pf.

“Only that point his people bare so sore;”

under two very similar forms of the word two LOESCHEKE, G. Die Enneakrunosepisode bei Pausanias.

different birds are denoted. The πελεκίνος 13 Ein Beitrag zur Topographie u. Geschichte Athens. and this Chaucerian expression was shown to most probably the pelican, or water-bird of Dorpat: Schnakenburg. 1M.

This interWUELLENHOFP, K. Deutsche Altertumskunde. 5. Bd. be a rendering of aegre ferre.

that name.

Aristotle (H. An. viii. 14, § 2; pretation yields an excellent sense in the three ix. 11) uses Teder ÁV (plural melerâves) absolutely 1. Abtlg. Berlin: Weidmann. 10 M. UEFUNDEN-BUCH der Landschaft Basel. Hrsg. v. H. passages in Shakspere where the phrase occursBoos. 2. Thl. 1371-1512. Basel: Detloff, 15 M. a better sense in two of them than that Mr. Tois motauois, implies the existence of land-birds

for the pelican alone; but his expression, oi ev PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY. Bullen suggests, and as good in the third. In of that name, as Schneider has clearly shown. BUENAT, E., et A. GREMLI. Catalogue raisonné des the line “Caesar doth bear me hard; but he Hesychius long ago explained henerar as opveoy Hieracieum des Alpes maritimes. Basel: Georg. loves Brutus,” the sense dislikes is better | το κολάπτον και τρυπούν τα δένδρα ; 4

' quo sensu,' Dexis, J. La Philosophie d'Origène. Paris : Imp. Nat. than" watches closely,” “ eyes with suspicion,” says Jacobs (Annot. ad Aelian N. A. iii. 20), UCENSTEDT, F. A. Die Ammoniten d. schwäbischen So in the lines Jun 2. Lig. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart. 10 M.

Aristoph. Av. 1155, nenekavas jocose adhibét ROSSMAESSLER'S Iconographie der europäischen Land- “ Caius Ligurius doth bear Caesar hard

ad trabes dolandas.” It seems curious that 2. Süsswasser-Mollusken. Fortgesetzt v. W.Kobelt. Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey," birds so very dissimilar in form and habit as Neue Folge. 1. Bd. 3. u. 4. Lig. Wiesbaden : Kreidel. 4 M. 60 Pf.

" watches closely," eyes with suspicion,” is the woodpecker and the pelican should be PHILOLOGY. not satisfactory. In the third passage—all the called by one and the same name.

The root of BISKUPSKI, L. Beiträge zur slavischen Dialektologie. passages, oddly enough, occur in one play- the word is clearly meneKÓW, “to hew with an I. Die Sprache der Brodnitzer Kaschuben

im Kreise
“I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard,

axe; " the use which the woodpecker makes Karthaus (West-Preussen). 1. Hft. Die Lautlehre.

Abth. A. Leipzig : Breitkopf & Härtel. 1 M. 50 Pf. Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and of its beak probably suggested the name, while EUTING, J. Sammlung der carthagischen Inschriften. smoke,

the form of the long, strong, pointedly curved 1. Bå. Strassburg: Trübner. 60 M. Fulfil your pleasure,"

upper mandible of the pelican may have been SITLINY, altitalische. Hrsg. v. C. Pauli. 2. Hft. Hannover: Hahn. 8M. either “if you suspect me” or “if

the reason of its name. I do not know whether dislike

you Zinn, A. Ueb. Quelle u. Sprache d. mittelenglischen Gedichtes Seece od. Batayle of Proye. Göttingen : And in passages in Ben Jopson and in Masor object to me may pass for a rendering. any other Greek author than Aristophanes

definitely uses nelerâs for a woodpecker. A Akadem. Buchhandlg. 1M. 50 Pf. singer where the phrase occurs the meaning

more common name of this bird is δρυοκολάπτης, “ dislikes” is, I think, preferable. However,

as used by Aristotle, or Opukondains in Aves, 480. CORRESPONDENCE. this meaning will not suit the passage quoted med eräs to denote a woodpecker gradually fell

However, it seems certain that the name of TIL EPITAPH ON THE COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE. / by Mr. Bullen from “The Scornful Lady.” Is into disuse, and that the word was at length

it possible that there may be two phrases to Athenaeum Club: Jan. 4, 1884. bear hard”-one Latinistic, one equestrian ? writers do not appear to have adopted this

restricted to mean the pelican. Latin classical Permit me to tell your correspondent the The point deserves investigation. story of the Countess of Pembroke's epitaph, Meanwhile, I will someone derive and illus- is used by Jerome in Ps. ci.; Pliny (x. 47)

Greek word; pelecanus, or pellicanus, however, with a preface that may be generally useful. trate the equestrian phrase, the phrase to bear has preserved for us the Greek word óvorpóranos

In the Jacobean age the herse was a stage of a horse hard in the sense of “to keep a tight wood

, with sable drapery, set up in the centre rein over"? Such a use of bear is surely to be (evidently from his description " a pelican”), of the church to support the coffin during the noticed. It may come, I suppose, from the which does not appear to exist in any of the funeral, and afterwards removed to stand over idea of " holding up." Was it ever common to writings of the Greek classical authors; onocrothe grave in the chancel or chapel until the speak of bearing a horse either hard or softly?

talus also occurs in the Vulgate (Lev. xi. 18). narble tomb was ready to replace it. While the

JOHN W. HALES.

Cicero (De Nat. Deor. i. 49) evidently refers herse was so standing, a poetic mourner might

to what Aristotle has said respecting the alleged lay upon it a scroll containing appropriate

habit of the pelican to swallow shell-fish and, Perse. Such a written scroll was an epitaph.

after a partial digestion, to throw them up

THREE GREEK BIRD-NAMES. In October 1621 William Browne laid upon

again and pick out the flesh from the opened the berse of the Countess Dowager of Pem

Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop: valves, but he calls the bird platalea, which troke, then standing in Salisbury Cathedral, an

modern naturalists apply to the spoonbill. -pitaph-a scroll in which he had written these Greek bird-names, two of which occur in the the bird platea. But perhaps the most curious

I ask permission to notice certain similar Pliny merely repeats Cicero's account, and calls Fery lines, without stops or signature:

Aves of Aristophanes, as a rather curious his thing in connexion with the pelican is the old “Underneath this sable Herse

tory attaches to them. Dr. Kennedy, in his story about its feeding its young ones with its Lyes the subject of all verse

admirable verse-translation of this play-a Sydneyes sister Pembrokes mother

own blood; and, as this story seems to imply the translation which, while it rivals those of Frere Death ere thou hast slaine another

probability of our English word “pelican" Faire & learn'd & good as she

and Cary (themselves excellent) in spirit, versi- having been once used for some other than the

fication, and wit,* surpasses both in its literal water-bird of that name, I will return to it on Tyme shall throw a Dart at thee

rendering of the Greek-gives "pelicans” as another occasion. * Marble Pyles let no man raise

W. HOUGHTON. To her name for after dayes

the meaning of the πελεκάντες (τέκτονες σοφώτατοι) Some kind woman borne as she

in his note on this passage (1. 1155). The pasReading this like Niobe

sage itself is thus rendered Shall turn Marble & become

“ Skill'd carpenters, Both her Mourner and her Tombe" The yellow-hammers : with their hammering beaks

Settrington, York: Jan. 7, 1884, Cectors of such pieces wrote this, often from They finish'd off the gates."

To take counsel of Hottentots or Maoris in apertect memory, in their books.

In his note Dr. Kennedy explains that "the order to interpret the Hesiodic poems is a .1650 William Browne wrote in a book birds are altered in translation to retain the dangerous and needless process, if they can be top of his shorter poems, among them this comic jest.” It is, however, quite certain that casily and reasonably explained as transparent raph, and signed his name thereto, eight the bird denoted here is not a pelican, but a nature-myths. A study of the Vedic hymns Tes before any version of the epitaph ap- woodpecker; consequently, is quite possible enabled Bréal and Kuhn to found that school wered in print, and 106 years before Peter to retain the jest by the exact rendering of this of scientific mythology which, during the last Whiley, editing Ben Jonson's works, claimed bird-name,

forty years, has interpreted, with marvellous William Browne's book is in the British

“Skill'd carpenters, the woodpeckers, they pecked sagacity and success, the greater number of the out the gates."

Greek myths; and it seems reasonable to assume Leseun, Lansd. MS. 777. In 1815 it was

that the few obstinate legends which have Kirately printed by Sir Egerton Brydges, who, Yellow-hammers are objectionable for two hitherto resisted analysis will ultimately yield L.wever, fancif ully re-arranged the poems,

and

In the first place, this bird's proper to the powerful philological solvent which, in 400 understand this epitaph.

name is "yellow ammer -i.e., the “

yellow other cases, has been so successful, without our HENRY SALUSBURY MILYAN. * Many of Dr. Kennedy's renderings are very tested by results, has hitherto proved to be “

being obliged to resort to a nostrum which, if clever and witty-0.9., The father of the lark ' "CAESAR DOTH BEAR ME HARD,”

(rópudos), which was buried in the son's head," lies method at all.”

dead at Buryhead” (476). Dieitrephes vuvi govods Fully admitting, as Mr. Lang asserts, that no London: Jan. 7, 1884.

inaalektpuár is “ Colonel Horsecock of the Buffs " satisfactory interpretation of the myth of Cronus He note Mr. A. H. Bullen answers in the (793). "The two old men who come to treat with has, as yet, been advanced, I am, nevertheless, Á SEXY of December 29 was, of course, the birds an avopórwy are from the Isle of Man." loth to give it up as hopeless, and would venture

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THE MYTH OF CRONUS.

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A BUDDHIST BIRTH-STORY IN CHAUCER.

Pauer.

to submit, for his consideration, a solution on that these myths are merely poetical presenta- an English copyright of an American book can the old orthodox lines.

tions of natural phenomena ; whether, also, with thus be secured, will, on this side of the water To begin with, it may be affirmed that the such explanations ready to hand, it is a scientific at any rate, put an end to piracy.

FIELD & TUER. explanation of the name Cronus, which Mr. and necessary procedure to go to Australian Lang attributes to Max Müller, but which is savages for the interpretation of the poetic ["Piracy "is a question-begging appellative. really, I believe, due to the acuteness of Welcker, literature of the Periclean Greeks-these are For the present purpose, let us call it“ reprinthas been generally accepted

by mythologists as questions which, adopting Mr. Lang's appeal, ing without consent of the owner of copyright.” sufficient. Hence we may regard Zeus or I leave “ to the world and the ages.” to decide. How simultaneous publication will prevent this Dyaus, “the bright sky,” as, originally, the

Isaac TAYLOR.

we fail to see. It is simply equivalent to the son of Uranus or Varuna, “the overarching

old plan of advance sheets. It is true that

Jan.7, 1881. heaven." Therefore, we may assume that Cronus, who is not a Vedic conception, has been inter

Mr. Lang, in his interesting letter in the secured by means of prior publication in the

English copyright in an American book may be polated in the genealogy of the celestial per- ACADEMY of January 5, refers to the universal United Kingdom, if, in addition, the American sonages owing to a comparatively late Hellenic diffusion of a certain class of fables, in which author be resident (for however short a moment Volks- Etymologie, which arose out of a misap- one divinity figures as the devourer of another. of contemporary time) on British soil. But no prehension as to the meaning of the epithets This form of myth is probably nothing more method has yet been devised by which an Kpovíww and Kpovlons applied to Zeus. Hence

than the manner in which the striking phe- American copyright can be obtained by an the myths originally told of Uranus and Zeus nomena of eclipses of the heavenly bodies pre- English author. We would not be misunder

The were transferred either to Uranus and Cronus, sent themselves to the savage mind.

stood.

arrangements” between English or to Cronus and Zeus. Anyhow, we are justi- Australian story of a creative god swallowed and American authors are to be commended ; fied in interpreting the legend of Cronus as a by the moon, and disgorged on the latter being but they are a poor substitute for international legend relating to some aspect of the heavens. threatened with a tomahawk, is a transparent We may now attempt an explanation, as a allegory of a solar eclipse, a phenomenon

allegory of a solar eclipse, a phenomenon | copyright. -ED. ACADEMY.] nature-myth, of the story of Heaven swallow ascribed in China to the devouring of the lumiing and disgorging his own children, as well as nary by a dragon frightened into abandoning

APPOINTMENTS FOR NEXT WEEK. the stone which had been given him by the its prey by a general charivari. Earth. The key seems to lie in the physical The fable of the divinity who swallows and MONDAY: Jan. 14, 5 p;m. London Institution : "Th

Art Season of 1883." by Mr. Henry Blackburn. fact that the actual stone believed to have been disgorges his offspring is probably an apologue

8 p.m. Royal Academy: disgorged by the Heaven was religiously pre- these occurrences are visible to the keen sight

That

Art as influenced of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites.

the Men,” III., Artists of the Fifteenth Century, served in the temple at Delphi. This stone,

by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. which fell down from heaven, must have been of savages is proved by a Yakut (native of Toesday, Jan. 15. 3 p.m. Royal Institution: “The

Interest and Usefulness of the Study of Coins and an aërolite. Other such aërolites were, we Siberia) having told a traveller that he had

Medals," I., by Mr. R. S. Poole.

8.30 p.m. Zoological: "The Placenta of Tetraknow, treasured and revered in other temples. seen a great blue star eat up four little stars,

Here we have

ceros qucuricornis,” by Mr. W. F. R. Weldon; "Some At Ephesus “the image which fell down from and then cast them up again.

Crustaceans from the Mauritius," by Mr. E. J. Jupiter" (SLOTETÉS) was regarded as an image of the myth of Cronus in its rudimentary stage. Miery: "Varieties and Hybrids among the SalmonArtemis, a daughter of Heaven. At Tauris,

E. M. CLERKE. idae," by Mr. F. Day.

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 16,8 p.m. Society of Arts : "Electric according to Euripides, there was another

Launches," by Mr. A. Reckenzaum. meteoric image of Artemis, διοπετές άγαλμα, ουρανού

8p.m. British Archaeological: “The Remains

found in the Anglo-Saxon Tumulus at Taplow," by Tréonua. At Athens, as Pausanias and Pliny

Dr. Joseph Stevens. relate, there was another, which was considered

Highgate: Jan. 7, 1884.

THURSDAY, Jan. 17, 3 p.m. Royal Institution: “The

History and Development of the Music for the to be an image of Athena, a daughter of the

Referring to Mr. Francis's communication Pianoforte and its predecessors,” I., by Prof. Ernst Sky. The Palladium of Troy was also doubt- in the ACADEMY of December 22, Prof. Paul less a meteoric stone; and we may probably Meyer asks me to point out that ten years ago,

5 p.m. London Institution : “Explosives," by

Mr. H. Dixon. regard the mis-shapen copper idol figured in in the pages of Romania, Prof. d'Ancona, in

8 p.m. Royal Academy: “Art as influenced by Schliemann's Troja (p. 168), which exhibits the examining into the sources and versions of

the Men," IV., The Renaissance or Poetical Period,

by Mr. J. E. Hodgson. familiar form and appearance of an aërolite, as the eighty-third story in Cento Novelle antiche 8 p.m. Linnean : Revision of the Tuber-beara reproduction, on a smaller scale, of the Palla- (analogous to the incident of the robbers in

ing Species of Solanum," by Mr. J. G. Baker; "The dium itself, which fell from heaven.

Hypopus Question, or Lire-history of Certain Chaucer's “Pardoner's Tale”), had already Acarina.". by Mr. A. D. Michael ; Burmese Des. With this clue the rest of the myth presents given an analysis of a Buddhist story from the

midicae," by Mr. W. Joshua. no insuperable difficulties. The innumerable Avada nas (Julien's translation) as

8 p.m. Civil Engineers: “The Steam Engine," children of the overarching heaven are the form of the legend.

an early by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

He also referred his FRIDAY, Jan. 18, 8 p.m. Philological: “A Dictionary stars-babes born in the evening and constantly readers to Liebrecht's assertion of an Oriental

Evening,” by Dr. J. A. H. Murray. swallowed up by their parent a few hours after origin, comparing similar relations in the Apo

9 p.m. Royal Institution : “ Rainbows,” by Prof.

Tyndall. November meteors-would be the disgorgement Nights. Versions of the tale by Hans Sachs, birth. A flight of falling stars possibly the cryphal Gospels and the Thousand and One SATURDAY; Jan 19, 20, Rovads Institution; "Life

and under Charles I.," I., by Prof. of the children who have been swallowed. The Morlinus, and Chaucer, besides others, are

Henry Morley. meteoric stone preserved at Delphi may have noticed (see Romania, tom. ii., 1874, p. 182). come down among such a flight of falling stars. It is not always easy to know everything

SCIENCE. This stone, which-though it came down from written abroad and at home on one's subject. The Massorah, compiled from Manuscripts, Alheaven—was to all outward appearance a terrestrial rather than a celestial body, was hear of these studies in the same direction, matter; your correspondent may be glad to

phabetically and Lecically Arranged. Vol. II. therefore said to have been presented by Mother which seem to have escaped the Chaucer Society

Caph—Tav. By Christian D. Ginsburg. Earth to Father Heaven, and disgorged by him in 1875 also.

L. TOULMIN SMITH. together with his true children, the falling

DR. GINSBURG may be heartily congratulated stars.

on the substantial completion of his great The probable connexion of the words sidus and

enterprise, for the two volumes now printed olonpos indicates that the earliest knowledge of

contain the whole of the Massoretic Corpus. metallic iron was derived from aërolites, many

Yo Leadenhalle Presse : Jan. 5, 1884. It is not difficult to understand the intense of which are solid masses of “meteoric iron." In to-day's ACADEMY you ask how much the feeling of relief with which, as he states in One of these of crescent form may have given author of that amusing American manual of the Preface, after twenty-five years of labour, rise to the legend of the “iron” or sideric manners, Don't, will receive from us as his share he now publishes his second volume. The sickle. The story of the mutilation is more of the profit on our reprint. The answer is, difficult to explain ; but it may be suggested nothing. The book is the property of Messrs. third volume, of which the printing has that possibly the crescent moon was regarded Appleton, of New York, who took our English already commenced, will form in some sort an as mutilating the centre of the sky to prevent as she is Spoke

, and we have received from Appendix, containing an English translation him from procreating the infant stars whom, at them Don't as a set-off. Let us do Messrs. of the Rubrics, a description of the MSS. their setting, he carried down and hid away in Griffith & Farran the justice to say that they employed, emendations of manifest errors in dark places of the earth.

voluntarily stated to us their intention of send- the Massorah, and a table of Errata, which in Thus the main elements of this curious myth ing a share of the profits (which cannot amount can be explained on the same principles by to much) on their reprint of this little book to attention must of course

so very large a work the most painstaking which so many of the Greek nature-myths have the American publishers. In future the shilling

fail entirely to

banish. already been interpreted. Whether, with Mr. vellum-parchment series of books, owned reLang, we should consider that “the irrational spectively by Messrs. Appleton and ourselves,

The nature of the Massorah is a subject element in Greek myths is a survival from will be issued by special arrangement simul concerning which not me rely ordinary readers, savagery,” or, with other mythologists, believe taneously in London and New York, which, as but probably also a good many students, have

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