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Both are grammatically correct; but the first requires effort to hold the abstract relation till the object is supplied. The greater the number of words intervening, the greater the effort. The omission of any part of speech, when necessary to give distinctness and prominence to the idea expressed, causes undue attention in fixing the relation of the ideas expressed.
The value of this law will appear in pointing out the source of undue effort in the following, and in others that may be selected:
1. “ Lovest thou me more than these ? ” 2. Smith has traveled more, but is not so well educated as his friend. 3. He might have been happy and is now fully convinced of it. 4. Industry has always been the way to succeed, and it will so long as men are what they are. 5. “He professes to be helping the nation, which is in reality suffering from his flattery, and will not permit any one else to give it advice.” 6. There is a great difference between the French and English. 7. Platinum is heavier but is not so useful as iron. 8. The error has and will again be exploded. 9. He has worn to-day a silk and felt hat. 10. “It bears us back eighty-two years, when the eyes of the whole world were turned toward France.” II. “Any country can afford to get rid of its lawless and mischievous subjects by a small fare." 21. “ With this ambition was a will that, uncontrolled, made him stubborn and disagreeable.” 13. “Occasions were quite frequent when the goodness of his heart and tender sympathies were needed.” 14. “When we study the character of a man, we naturally turn to his childhood for the influences that have the most lasting effects upon his life.” 15. “ All the pleasing illusions which made power gentle, and obedience liberal, harmonized the different shades of life, and, by a blind assimilation, incorporated into politics the sentiments that beautify and soften private society, are to be dissolved by this new conquering empire of light and reason."
Unity in the Discourse Structure. — As soon as the mind has interpreted two sentences, it organizes the two thoughts into one. This new thought combines with a third into a new product. Thus the drift of thought is soon discerned, and the series of thoughts begin to crystallize about the central theme. The mind establishes a tentative theme at the outset. As thoughts succeed each other, this theme is modified and filled out till one thought — the true theme — is found in which all the others will organize. Thus the immediate work of the imagination and the judgment is to search out the theme. If the interpretation be made for the sake of the content of the discourse, the process ends when the theme is secured; but if the purpose be to make a critical estimate, another step is required; namely, that of estimating the workmanship, the effectiveness of the discourse, in the light of the purpose, the theme, and all the other determining factors.
It is obvious from the preceding examples that energy of utterance is secured through arrangement. Thought which is compactly and logically organized, which is strong in its cohesion of parts, has power to impress itself on the recipient's mind. This requires such selection, method of arrangement, and completeness of parts as to give the theme obvious unity.
It ought to be observed, also, that as well as obvious unity, the thought should have obvious parts; or, rather, that in having unity it will have such parts. There can be no strength through unity without distinct parts unified. The theme must be brought out in definite features. Nothing is weaker than a dead level in the succession of thoughts. The mind can gain no foothold in monotonous thought, and is offended by it as the ear is by monotonous delivery. Only the highly articulated organism can have vivacity and vigor of movement. Ease of interpretation and Energy both require that the phases of the theme be given distinct outline and striking prominence. The most noticeable and the radical failure of the young composer is in not, while holding his theme with a steady hand, pressing on the attention clearly and fully the phases of the truth which organize into his subject.
Strength through unity includes not only strength of organization in the thought itself, but the organiza
the end sought — unity in the purpose. The thought must have a definite, progressive movement controlled by some central, ordering principle, – a movement which carries the mind afong irresistibly to the issue of the discourse. Only the one end proposed must be consulted; and to this the thought must move in a straight line. No undue enlargement, no attention to unnecessary details, no tarrying by the wayside to gather flowers when the head is to be convinced and the heart won. When the purpose is to instruct, every temptation to indulge in the pleasures of taste must be withstood. When the purpose is to arouse to action, care must be taken not to elaborate truth for its own sake; not to spin out subtile distinctions; not to lose the aim in the rounding out of logical processes. Nothing must stand in the way of the direct motives to action. Everything must submit itself to the purpose of the speaker; must be held in equal balance and just proportion to that purpose.
This quality of strength through the organization of thought requires strict obedience to the laws of thought in the discourse processes; that is, the strength of unity can be secured only under a definite purpose to give the thought directness and precision, aided by the laws of selection, method, and completeness to give such parts and such arrangement of parts as will give the strength of unity to the whole. The student is, therefore, already supplied with the chief means of securing Energy in the thought, and needs most to be referred to the laws of the discourse processes for specific guidance.
1. The first means which the writer employs to aid in realizing the theme is its general statement in the heading. There are reasons for suspending the theme and concealing the purpose; but these reasons are not found in the requirement of Clearness. When the will is to be moved, it may be necessary to conceal the real intent and meaning until the mind is opened to a favorable hearing, and when the feelings are to be stirred, suspense may be necessary to arouse curiosity and to exhilarate by surprise. But when the purpose is to instruct, when the only requirement is that of Clearness, the theme must be stated at the outset. The law which requires the theme to be stated at the outset also forbids any hidden, fanciful, or figurative expression of it, so often indulged in by young writers. The effort should be to state in the heading of the discourse, as nearly as possible, the exact idea which the discourse is to embody.
2. The second means to facilitate the interpretation of the discourse as a whole is the relation which the sentences bear to each other. Unity in their arrangement is the chief requirement. As unity in the sentence is required in order to keep the leading idea prominent before the mind, so unity in the whole of language in the discourse is required to hold it likewise constantly before the mind. As in the sentence, too, this unity is primarily in the thought and secondarily in the language structure. The law of unity in the thought has already been treated under the law of unity in the thought processes of discourse, and needs no further statement here. As to language structure, there is nothing to be added except the means of indicating the relations between sentences.
a. How to get from one sentence to another so that the mind of the reader will naturally flow from one thought to another without waste of effort is always an important question with a writer. Each sentence must seem to arise out of the preceding; each must seem to “grow out of the last and into the next." The life of the composition is in this vital juncture of thoughts; and the labor of composing is scarcely begun when each separate thought has found its own statement. Says De Quincey: “Every man as he walks through the streets may contrive to jot down an independent thought; a short-hand memorandum of a great truth. , , , Ştanding on one leg, you may accomplish