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Patrick, and who, after helping to convert the Irish, went to England, and settled on the banks of the Severn, where he killed a monstrous serpent that was desolating the entire country. He then returned to Ireland, where he died in the year 506. The commune of Lamelas is so called because it is "the church of those who were slaughtered" by the Romans, when that oil-con

Suering people were fighting for possession of lis country. In the commune of Lamelas is a rock called "La Roche-au-geant," on which human sacrifices were offered up to Hy-ar-Bras, or Dianaff, the vanquisher of giants. It is pierced with a deep hole, in which, as tradition tells, was received the blood of those immolated by the Druids. In the commune of Plouame is the Castle of Caradeuc — a bard who was the contemporary of the enchanter Merlin.

The commune of St. Jurat affords a tradition of its own, that bears upon a disputed point in British and German history — the well-known legend of "St. Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins." The various versions of this legend may be thus briefly told:—

St. Jurat, priest and martyr, in whose honour the Dinan commune is designated, was the spiritual director of St. Ursula, daughter of Dionotus, King of Albania (Scotland), and accompanied her, when she embarked with 11,000 virgins, all the daughters of noble families, and these 11,000 ladies, were, it is said, attended by 60,000 virgins, the daughters of low-born individuals. The fleet of virgins left Great Britain for the purpose of repairing to Armorica (Brittany), where they were expected by ConanMeriader, who was betrothed to Ursula; and, at the same time, there were Breton bridegrooms awaiting each fair dame and humble damsel who started upon this matrimonial voyage. A frightful tempest forced, as some of the legendaries maintain, the fleet of maidens to enter the mouth of the Rhine, where the 11,000 virgins, with the Princess Ursula, were martyred by pagan Picts and heathen Huns on October 21, 383. Such is the more common version of the story; but the Breton tradition is, that the 11,000 virgin martyrs were massacred in the isle of Pilier, in the Loire Infcrieure; whilst the other poor maidens met with a similar fate, at the mouth, not of the Rhine, but of the Ranee (Rinetum); and the proof of the correctness of this latter version is the commune called after the pious spiritual director of so many devout young ladies, who preferred death to the dishonour of becoming the spouses of infidel barbarians. *

* A certain Father Sirmoud boldly maintains, in opposition to Geoffry of Monmouth, Sigebert, Natalibus, and Baronius, that there never were any such persons as St. Ursula and 11,000 virgins — that " the 11,000 " was only "one virgin," and her name was " Undecimilla" — that

Not less remarkable than the commune of St. Jurat is that of Plcdeliac, and its Castle of Hunandaye, the ruins of which reek with legends of incredible horrors perpetrated within its walls. These legends are preserved both in prose and rhyme, and should they ever meet with a poet, gifted like Mrs. Norton, then the fame of Hunandaye may equal, if it cannot surpass, the renown recently conferred upon "La Garaye," which is also in this arrondissement. In the commune of Plenee-Jugon, there is to be seen the Abbey of Bosquen, well deserving of honourable mention, because its former possessors had taken such care of the interests of their community, that no matter from what quarter the wind blew, it was sure to pass over lands that had to pay them rent— a fact that is perpetuated in a species of rhythmical proverb: —

"De tous cotes que le vent ventait
~ quen rentait."

A certain Abbe" du Coedic has given celebrity to the commune of Ruca, where he resided for some time. Of this Abbe it is said that he had so wonderful a memory, he could repeat without book the four volumes of his Breviary, with all the offices of the church"; and having, at the time of the Revolution, to emigrate to Germany, and finding it necessary to speak the language, he began his studies with learning the whole of a German dictionary from the first word to the last. This Abbe was, however, nothing but a modern marvel, and scarcely worthy of comparison with the saint — Lormel — who has bestowed his name upon another Dinau commune. This latter phenomenon, it appears, was the son of Hoelthe-Great, and of his wife St. Pompea. He was born in 569, in Wales, where his parents had for a time to take refuge. When he was five years old, he was committed to the care of St. Iltud as his teacher; and the first day the alphabet was put into his hand he learned all the letters; the second day he was able to spell and to read; and before the third day's lessons were quite finished, he knew how to write! These are not the only remarkable statements made in connection with the patron of the commune of St. Lormel; for he was the brother of the wicked Prince of Canao; and upon the misdeeds of Canao is founded the well-known nursery tale of " Blue Beard."

In the commune of Crchen is the Castle of Guildo, the scene of a very remarkable event in Breton history — the arrest of the unfortunate Gilles, by order of his brother, Francis II.; but it is still more interesting to the readers of ancient British history, as recording an event which gave rise to the tradition respecting the death of our

the mistake arose from some martyrology-manuscripts, containing the words " SS. Ursula et Undecimilla V.M.," and these were supposed to signify "Undecim millia Virginum Martyrum."

"Vortigern." Near to this castle is a tumulus, which was found to be filled with calcined bones; and these bones are believed to be the remains of Chramnus (the rebel son of Clotaire), who, with his family, was burned in a cabin, where they had taken refuge, after being defeated in battle. The simple-minded inhabitants of Crchen have for ages believed, and still believe, that on certain evenings, a female figure, all clothed in white, is to be seen creeping out of the tumulus, and bearing in its hands a bundle of linen saturated with blood, which it is seen to wash in the clear waters of the river Arguenon.

The commune of St. Maden is called after a saint who was, in his life-time, a servant — the name Ma den in Breton signifying literally " my man." This pious domestic enjoyed the singular advantage of being valet to another saint— St. Goulven — and of the two saints is told an anecdote worth preserving. One day St. Goulven despatched Maden to a rich individual living at Plouneur-Triez, with a request that he would send whatever he might have in his hand at the moment Maden met him. Unfortunately, the rich man was holding nothing of more value than a bucket filled with earth at the time that Maden delivered his saintly master's message. The bucket of earth was transferred to Maden, who was astonished at the great weight of the burden he was carrying home. Upon presenting it to St. Goulven, Maden was amazed at seeing that the earth had been changed into a yellow metal; but he was not at all surprised to find his master, who was, like many a monk, a very skilful mechanic, make out of the bucket of earth a chalice, three crosses, and three square bells, all of the purest virgin gold!

I pass over other legends connected with the arrondissement of Dinan to mention Corsent, within two hours' walk of this place. At Corsent is undoubtedly to be found the capital of the Ancient Gauls — the "Curiosolitas" of Csesar (Bell. Gall. ii. 34) — and a chief place of abode for the Romans during their occupation of Brittany. Numberless antiquities have been discovered, and are daily discovered in this locality. More than 2,000 coins—dating from the time of Caesar to Constantine — have been found, with statues, vases, and medals of various kinds. So abundant are [its antiquities that it has been designated "a second Herculaneum." Fortunately many of the antique remains are now preserved at Dinan, where they are arranged by an accomplished scholar, Signor Luigi Odorici, the Conservator of the Museum. And these venerable mementos of men and times passed away for ever it is now proposed to have illuminated with flaring gas, or the still more modern camphine!

If " N. & Q." cannot aid, it may at least sympathise with a quiescent population, who hate all

modern improvements, and love to ponder over the days of old, and who prefer the ages when men armed themselves, and not their walls nor their ship's sides with iron; who seek for no other favour but that they may be let alone, and that to the town in which they dwell, as to a " Sleepy Hollow " or the palace of Somnus, these lines may be completely applicable: —

"Non fera, non pecudcs, non moti flamine rami,
Humanarve sonum reddunt convitia linguse:
Tuta quies habitat."

W. B. Mac Cabe.

Dinan, Cotes du Nord, France.

CORNISH PROVERBS.

II. PROVERBS RELATING TO PLACES.

1. You must go to Marazion to learn manners.

This proverb is probably a relic of the time when Marazion was relatively a more considerable town than it is at present.

2. In your own light, like the Mayor of Market

Jew. The pew of the Mayor of Marazion (or MarketJew) was so placed, that he was in his own light. A reference to this was made in "N. & QV 2°* S. ix. 51.

3. Not a word of Penzance.

The cowardice of the inhabitants of this town during the invasion of Cornwall by the Spanish, in 1595, was' so glaring, "that they added," as old Heath, in his work on Scilly, quaintly says, "one proverb more to this county."

4. Like Moroah downs, hard and never ploughed.

5. Always a feast or a fast in Scilly.

The prodigality of the Scillonians in old times was proverbial.

6. All Cornish gentlemen are cousins. Formerly, when the Cornish were almost entirely separated from the rest of England, they used to marry " with each others' stock,"—whence the origin of this saying.

7. The good fellowship of Padstow: Pride of Truro:

Gallants of Foy. By-words invented by the neighbouring and envious towns ; or, according to Carew, "by some of the idle-disposed Cornish men."

8. There are more Saints in Cornwall than in Heaven. The process of creation is continued even at

the present day: I lately, in a Cornish paper, met with Saint Newlyn.

9. All of a motion, like a Mulfra toad on a hot

show I {— shovel).

10. Blown about like a Mulfra toad in a gale of wind.

11. When Ramo Head and Dodman meet.

Two famous promontories, nearly twenty miles apart. The destruction of the world will occur at the time of their union.

12. Backwards and forwards like Boscastle Fair.

13. All play and no play, like Boscastle Fair, which

begins at 12 o'clock and ends at noon. Highly parallel to this saying is the proverb: "'Twill take place on St. Tib's Eve." That is, never, for " St. Tib's Eve" is neither before nor after Christmas Eve. Some account of this saint will be found in " N. & Q.," 2"1 S. ii. 269.

15. The Devil won't come into Cornwall for fear of

being put into a pie. In Cornwall every article of food is dressed into a pie. In a time of great scarcity, the attorneys of the county, at Quarter Sessions, determined to abstain from every kind of pastry; an allusion to the proverb was introduced into an epigram preserved for us in Dr. Paris's Guide to the Mounts Bay, p. 77 : —

"If the proverb be true, that the fame of onr pies,
Prevents ns from falling to Satan a prey,
It is clear that his friends—the attorneys—are wise,
In moving such obstacles out of the way."

16. There are more places than the parish church.

17. To be presented in Halgaver Court

An allusion to a carnival formerly held on Halgaver Moor, when those who had in any way offended "the youthlyer sort of Bodmin townsmen " were tried and condemned for some ludicrous offence. (Carew's Survey, 126 a.)

18. Kingston down, well wrought,

Is worth London Town, dear bought From this down, large quantities of tin were formerly derived, though the mines have long become exhausted. Another proverb relative to Kingston affirms, that when the top is capped with a cloud it threateneth a shower.

19. 'Tis unlucky to begin a voyage on Childermas Day.

Carew (p. 32 a) mentions that, "talk of Hares, or such uncouth things, proves as ominous to the fisherman as the beginning a voyage on Childermas Day to the Mariner." In the play of Sir John Oldcastle (Act II. Sc. 2), allusion _is made to this belief: —

"Friday, quotha, a dismal day: Childermas Day this year was Friday."

P. W. Tkefolpen.

THE LIBRARY OF THE ESCORIAL, SPAIN.

I have often thought that the manuscripts and printed works, in the library of the Escorial, have never been properly examined by English scholars. Though they may not be so valuable as those at Simancas, yet the library is acknowledged to be, even now, the richest in Europe in manuscripts. Before the French invasion, it is

said to have contained 30,000 printed volumes and 4300 manuscripts; according to the statement of Townsend (Journey through Spain, in the Years 1786 and 1787, vol. ii. p. 120, London, 1791). Mr. Inglis, who visited the library in 1830, mentions that, in spite of the havoc and pilfering committed by the French, and the destruction caused by the conflagration at the Escorial in 1671 —

"The number of manuscripts yet preserved there exceeds 4000: nearly one half of the whole being Arabic, and the rest in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and the vulgar tongues. I shall name a very few of the most remarkable. There are two copies of the Iliad of the tenth and twelfth centuries. There are many fine and ancient Bibles, particularly in Greek, and one Latin copy of the Gospels, of the eleventh century. There are two books of Ancient Councils, in Gothic characters, and illuminated: the one belonging to the tenth century, called 'El Codigo Vigilano,' because written by a monk named Vigilia; the other of the year 994, written by a priest of the name of Velasco. Avery ancient Koran is also shown; and a work of considerable value, written in six large volumes, it is said by the command of Philip II., upon the Revenues and Statistics of Spain. But the most ancient manuscript is one in poetry, written in Longobardic: it dates as far back as the ninth century. The Arabic MSS. are also many and curious," &c — liawblcs in Spain, 2nd edit, London, 1831, p. 276.

Mr. Ford states in his Handbook for Spain (Part n. p. 760, edit. 1855) —

"that King Joseph removed all the volumes to Madrid, but Ferdinand sent them back again, minus some 10,000; and amongst them the Catalogue, which was most judiciously purloined. Thus, what is lost will never be known, and will never be missed," &c.

A catalogue of the Arabic MSS. was published by Miguel Casiri at Madrid, in two vols, folio, with the title, Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis, 1760-70. But, I believe, the work is full of inaccuracies.

There is an account, in Spanish, of the Escorial and its library, written by one of the Fathers named Francisco de los Santos; the work is entitled:

"Description del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Unica Maravilla del Mundo." Madrid, 1681.

At p. 84, &c. (Discurso xvi.), comes an account of the principal library. But it is a very meagre description of the books and manuscripts which, in the seventeenth century, must have been so numerous and complete. The author was evidently no bibliomaniac. He certainly mentions a few of the curiosities: such as the manuscript of the " Four Gospels," named "El Codice Aureo;" because it is "un Libro en que est an con letras de oro finessiino y resplandeciente, los quatro Evangelios enteros, con los Prefacios de San Geronimo." Has this Codex ever been examined by anyBiblical scholar? Is it still to be seen in the library? These are questions which I cannot answer. The ancient Bibles, in various languages, are also mentioned; but he does not state the dates, nor particular editions. A Greek Bible is referred to in these words: "Y una Griega del Emperador Catacuzeno (?), de mucha correspondencia con la de los Setenta, que se imprimio en Roma." No date is given.

A treatise of St. Augustine, entitled "De Baptismo Pnrvulorum," is mentioned as written in the saint's own handwriting; and another MS.: |

"Que contiene los Evangelios que se cantan en la Iglesia, por el discurso del auo, en la letra Griega antiquissima."

There is also preserved the manuscript Life of St. Teresa, written by herself, besides other treatises of the saint; which are now allowed to be seen by visitors, though other manuscripts are not, without special permission. The books used in the choir — Los libros del Coro — are splendidly illuminated: most of them are of gigantic parchment, and were originally 218 in number according to Ford. Philip II., Arias Montanus, and Philip IV., were the principal benefactors to the library. The books have their edges, not the backs, turned towards the spectator: the reason seems to be, because they were thus arranged by Montanus according to the plan observed in his own library. I am not certain, whether a correct and complete catalogue of the books and MSS. has been'published within the last few years. Permission may, however, be easily obtained to examine or copy from any work or manuscript. J. Damon.

Norwich.

CURIOUS MODE OF TAKING AN OATH IN
INDIA

A friend of mine, who spent several years in Indiaasan officer in the European and native forces, told me the following curious anecdote; and, as he vouches for its accuracy, I think it worth recording in a corner of "N. & Q." The transaction took place in Secundrabad in 1824, where my friend was stationed at the time with his regiment. An English serjeant-major, who was very much respected by the officers and men of the regiment, happened by accident to wound, but not dangerously, by a random shot, a coloured native, who was a person of some consequence in the locality.

Although it was well known that the affair was purely accidental, the wounded man and his friends raised considerable discussion about it, and insisted on having the offender brought to trial for it, on a charge of having attempted to murder the native. The colonel who commanded the regiment at last consented, and the accused was brought to trial. A padra (a native), an individual who combined the character of lawyer, priest, and interpreter, undertook to have the prisoner

acquitted, and he was gladly engaged for that purpose.

The whole case rested on the single evidence of the injured man, and on the mode of swearing him the padra rested his defence. The manner in which the natives of India are sworn is as follows: — A piece of chunam (lime) about the size of pea, with a piece of leaf called a betel leaf, are given to the witness to chew and swallow, and he is then solemnly warned that if he speaks anything but the truth after swallowing the above, the first time he expectorates afterwards his heart's blood would come up. The padra knew that the natives were strongly impressed with this notion, in fact it is a dogma of their religious belief; but they are quite ignorant that the amalgation by mastication of the leaf and the chunam with the gastric juice, produces a substance much resembling blood. In the case under notice, the oath was put or administered in the usual manner, and when the witness had swallowed the contents, the padra called on him to expectorate which he did, when a loud cry was raised in the court that he was a false witness as the substance resembled blood, and the witness himself became so alarmed that he refused to proceed further in the case, and the sergeant-major was acquitted. My friend at the time was rather startled, but on a subsequent interview with the padra, the latter explained the whole affair, which is, to say the least of it, very curious.

I have ascertained since the above was written that the mode of swearing alluded to is the common mode in India, another Indian officer having told me he saw it administered in all cases where the natives are sworn, in criminal or civil cases.

S. Redmond.

Liverpool.

WHAT BECAME OF VOLTAIRE'S REMAINS?

Some of the French papers are now discussing this question. The Figaro (this resume of the statement is taken from an English daily newspaper), states —

"That a rumour, for some time past in circulation, to the effect that the remains of Voltaire are no longer at the Pantheon, has now been confirmed. The tomb is empty, and nothing is known as to what has become of its contents. This discovery was made, it declares, through the following incident:—The heart of Voltaire, as is generally known, was left by will to the Villette family, and had been deposited in their chateau; the present Marquis de Villette, a descendant of Voltaire, having resolved to sell the estate, offered the celebrated relic to the Emperor; it was accepted by the Minister of the Interior in the name of his Majesty, and the question then arose as to what should be done with it. The most natural idea was to place it with the body in the tomb of the Pantheon; but a scruple arose: the Pantheon had again become a place of Christian worship, and if the tomb of Voltaire was still in the vaults, the reason was rather from a consideration that what was done could not be undone than from any other; at all events, no fresh ceremony relative to Voltaire could take place in that building without the authorisation of the Archbishop of Paris. Mgr. Darboy, on being consulted, before making a reply, first hinted that there was a belief that, since 1814, the Pantheon possessed nothing belonging to Voltaire but an empty tomb. In consequence, it was determined to verify the truth of the report. A few days back the stone was raised, and, as the archbishop had stated, the tomb was found to be empty. A strict inquiry into the subject has been ordered, and the Emperor has given instructions that the heart shall be enclosed in a silver vase, and deposited either in the great hall of the Imperial Library, or at the Institute of France." In a subsequent paper I find the following: — "The removal of the remains of Voltaire from the vaults of the Pantheon is related in the following terms in one of the numbers of the Intermediate, which was directed by the blbliophilist Jacob. It will be seen that the mortal remains of Rousseau were carried away at the same time:—' One night in May, 1814, the bones of Voltaire and of Rousseau were taken out of the leaden coffins in which they had been enclosed, put into a canvas bag, and carried to a hackney-coach, which was in waiting at the back of the church. The vehicle drove off slowly, accompanied by five or six persons, among whom were the brothers Puymorin. They arrived at about two in the morning, by deserted streets, at the Barriere de la Gare, opposite Bercy. At that place was a large piece of ground, intended as the site for an entrepot of the commerce of the Seine, but which project was never carried into execution. This ground, surrounded by a wooden fence, belonged at that time to the city of Paris, and had not yet received any other destination; the neighbourhood was full of low wine shops and eating-houses. A deep pit had been dug in the midst of this waste ground, where other persons, besides those who accompanied the carriage, were in waiting. The bag containing the bones was emptied on a bed of hot lime. The pit was then filled up with earth, and trampled on in silence by the authors of this Inst inhumation of Voltaire. Then they drove off, satisfied with themselves at having fulfilled, In their opinion, a sacred duty as Royalists and Christians." Is it correct that the remains of Voltaire were placed in the Pantheon? It is related by one of his biographers, F. H. Standish, that his body was embalmed and carried at night out of Paris to the convent of Selliere, of which his nephew Mignot was abbot; his heart was sent to his friend the Marquise * de^Villette, enclosed in a sarcophagus, &c. The same writer states previously, that the Curate of St. Sulpicehad declared that he would not bury him, anil that if the commands of his.superior obliged him to perform the office, he would have the body dug up during the night. Mr. Standish treats this as an improbable rumour, but mentions it as one that had been publicly made.

In Gorton's Biographical Dictionary it is stated that by a decree of the Convention in 1791 the body was brought to the church of St Genevieve, which church during the revolution was constituted the Pantheon. The same authority says, that he was interred secretly in the first place at Selliere, —

• Query Marquis.

"in consequence of the refusal of the Archbishop of Paris to allow him Christian burial. It is generally received that the body was exhumed and deposited in the Pantheon, and this is stated by Alison in his History of Europe. The bodies of Rousseau and Descartes were removed and deposited there also, and no doubt such a decree was made by the Convention; but it may be open to question whether the fact of the tomb of Voltaire, being now found empty is not evidence that the body had not been removed from its first resting-place, rather than that a second exhumation had taken place under the circumstances named by the Intermidiart."

It might be the removal was only made in form. T. B.

Swift And Hughes. — When the handsome Hughes, the protege of Cowper and Macclesfield, died in 17*20, almost within hearing of the first night's applause which crowned his Siege of Da' mascus, his friends began to collect his poetical pieces, and, though they were long about it, they published them in two vols, in 1735. A copy was sent to Swift, who, acknowledging the receipt of it to Pope, writes: "I never heard of the man in my life, yet I find your name as a subscriber." Swift does not add, what is the fact, that his own name is down as a subscriber 1 He says of the small bard who wrote a tragedy to show the inexpediency of spreading religion by the sword, and penned lines on Molinda cutting peacocks out of paper, and Lucinda making tea: "He is too grave a poet for me, and I think among the mediocrists in prose as well as in verse. Pope thought that what Hughes lacked in genius was compensated for by his honesty as a man,— which was Pope's way of agreeing with Swift. J. Dorak.

Latest Yankee Word.—I see from the American papers for February that the people of the Federal Republic have coined for themselves a new word. If it be worth "making a note of" here it is: Miscegenation, the act of amalgamation, of mixing races; more especially of freed negroes and whites. It is made up of miscere and genvs.

As the result is so ugly, one may be allowed to hope that it will never become "a household word" on this side of the Atlantic. H. B.

Meaning or Hoo.— Seeing a question in a recent number of " N. & Q." respecting the ending of certain local names with the syllable hou, or hoo, I venture to put forth a suggestion in hopes of extracting some further information on the subject. In Thoroton's History of Notts, Bingham is stated to have been called BinghamsAoM; and the author remarks that it was so called on account of the great turne or pit near the Fosse Koad, about a mile from the town, where anciently court leets were held, and borough business transacted; such meetings being convened there even

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