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Scire : Helenum farique vetat Saturnia Juno. 380 381. Principio, longa Principio, Italiam, quam tu jam rere propinquam, via invia longis terriş Vicinosque, ignare, paras invadere portus, procul dividit Italiam à

Longa procul longis via dividit invia terris. te, quam tu, o ignare vir, jam rere esse propin- Antè et Trinacriâ lentandus remus in undà, quam, parasque invadere Et salis Ausonii lustrandum navibus æquor, 387 vicinos portus.

Infernique lacus, Æææque insula Circæ, 336. Infernique lacus Quàm tutâ possis urbem componere terra. transeundi sunt, insula

Signa tibi dicam : tu condita mente teneto. que Æææ Circa adeunda est, antè quàm tu pos

Cùm tibi sollicito secreti ad fluminis undam sis Litoreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus,

390 389. Cùm ingens sus, Triginta capitum fætus enixa jacebit, inventa tibi sollicito ad Alba, solo recubans, albi circum ubera nati; undam secreti fluminis sub Litoreis ilicibus,

Is locus urbis erit; requies ea certa laborum. enixa fætus triginta ca

Nec tu mensarum morsus horresce futuros. pitum, jacebat solo re- Fata viam invenient, aderitque vocatus Apollo. 395

NOTES.

knowledge of Helenus concerning that event: tory, which, from her, was called Circe's he only complains that he did not reveal it Mount. Hodie, Circello. to him: verse 712. infra. Expediam : in 387. Componere: in the sense of condere. the sense of explicabo.

Tula terra : in a safe land. This, perhaps, 381. Rere: in the sense of putas. is said in allusion to his being obliged to

382. Invadere: to take possession of—to abandon the settlements he had made in enter.

Thrace and in Crete. In Italy he should 383. Longa via invia: a long voyage, find a sure and permanent residence. interrupted by extensive lands, separates 388. Condita : in the sense of reposita . Italy at a distance from you, which, &c. it agrees with ea, understood. Inria: in the sense of perdifficilis. Æneas' 389. Tibi sollicito-Linventa : found by you voyage was much lengthened by his being solicitous-anxious-musing. The dat. is obliged to sail round the southern part of frequently used by the poets in the sense of Sicily; the islands that lay in his course, the abl.; also, in the sense of the gen. Ad and other lands, rendered it long, difficult, undan Auminis. The river Tiber is here and dangerous; and much interrupted and meant. turned from a direct course.

390. Sub litoreis : under the holm-trees 384. Trinacria : a name of Sicily, (used shading the river-growing on the banks of here as an adj.) taken from its triangular the river. form. Its three promontories were Pelorus, 391. Enira fætus : having brought forth Pachynus, and Lilybeum. Remus lentandus: a litter of thirty hcad. the oar must be bent in the Sicilian sea. 392. Recubans: this I take in the sense This implies that they were to labor hard at of prostratus, flat (at full length) on her side,

The verb est is to be supplied. in reference to the manner of her lying; 385. Æquor Ausonii salis : the surface of that being the position of the female when the Italian (Tuscan) sea is to be sailed over. she gives suck to her young. Jacebit solo Salis: gen. of sal: by meton. put for the recubans, alba: shall lie on the ground flat sea. Æquor is here used in its proper sense on her side; herself white, and her pigs and meaning.

white around her teats. In this ordo of con386. Inferni lacus : the infernal lakes struction, recubans conveye an addi-ional must be passed, and the island of Ææan idea to that already communicated by the Circc must be approached, before that (antè verb jacebit, and is very significant. In the quàm) you can, &c. Helenus here intimates usual ordo it is mere tautology. This cirto Æneas his descent to hell, which is the cumstance of finding a white sow,

with thirty subject of the 6th book.

pigs, was founded on ancient historical traCirce was

a celebrated sorceress, the dition. Alba, a city built by Ascanius, and daughter of the sun, and the nymph Perse. made the seat of his government, took its She is here called Ævan, from Æa, an name from this omen of the white sow and island and city of Colchis, not far from the her pigs, as Varro infornis us. river Phasis. She married a king of Sarma- 394. Morsus: the cati:ng, or consumption lia, whom she poi sor.ed. After which she of your tables.

d into Italy, to a m juntain and promon- 395. Aderit: in the scnse of adjuvabil.

the oar.

Has autem terras, Italique hanc litoris oram,

cubans, ipsa alba; et Proxima quæ nostri perfunditur æquoris æstu,

nati albi
Effuge : cuncta malis habitantur mænia Graiis.
Hìc et Narycii posuerunt mænia Locri,
Et Salentinos obsedit milite campos

400 Lyctius Idomeneus: hìc illa ducis Melibæi

401. Hic est illa parva Parva Philoctetæ subnixa Petilia muro.

Petilia subnixa muro

Philoctetæ
Quin, ubi transmissæ steterint trans æquora classes,
Et positis aris jam vota in litore solves;
Purpureo velare comas adopertus amictu :

405 Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore Dcorum

406. Ne qua hostilis Hostilis facies occurrat, et omina turbet.

facies occurrat inter Hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto :

sanctos ignes

408. Socii tenento Häc casti maneant in relligione nepotes.

hunc morem sacrorum, Ast, ubi digressum Siculæ te adınoverit oræ

410

tu ipse teneto hunc Ventus, et angusti rarescent claustra Pelori ;

410. Te digressum Læva tibi tellus et lungo læva petantur

hinc Siculæ ore

NOTES.

sea,

Sub

396. Effuge has terras. Helenus means y saly, near the foot of mount Ossa. He set the lands of Calabria, Apulia, and all the fire to the funeral pile of Hercules, at the lower part of the peninsula of Italy, which request of that hero, and received in return was called Magna Græcia: the whole of his bow and arrowe, that had been dipped which lies not far from Chaonia, in Epirus. in the poisonous blood of the FIydra Lernæa. After the Trojan war, many of the Greeks He set out for Troy with the other Greeks, were forced on this coast, and formed set. but was abandoned by them in the island of tlements in various places. Hence this Lemnos, on account of a wound which he part of the peninsula of Italy took the name had received from a serpent. But it being of Magna Græcia. It now constitutes a predicted, that Troy could not be taken considerable part of the kingdom of Naples. without these arrows, the chiefs were obliged It was washed on the east by the Ionian to send for him. On his return from Troy,

which Helenus here calls nostri æquoris, hearing that the Mel:bæans had revolted, because the saine sea washed the shores of he went to Italy, and founded the city PetiEpirus.

lia, or as some say, oily fortified it. 398, Malis: in the sense of hostilibus. nixa: in the sense of defensa.

399. Narycii Locri. The Locrians origi- 404. Solves: you shall pay, or discharge. nally were a people of Phocis, in Achaia. 405. Velare adoperius : be thou veiledThey followed Ajur, the son of Oileus, to covered as to your hair, with a purple veil. the Trojan war: and, after the capture of Simply, cover your head with a purple veil. that city, a colony of them settled in this from this circumstance, it is said, the Ropart of Italy, most probably under the con- mans derived the custom of veiling or coverduct of Evanthes ; Ajax having perished on ing the head in sacrifice, and other acts of his return home. There they built a city worship. Velare. Heyne takes this activecalled Nurycia or Narycium, probably after ly, the verb memento being understood : rethe name of Naryx, the city of Ajax. member to veil your locks, covering them, &c.

401. Idomeneus. He was called Lyctius, 406. Honore. Ruæus says, cultu. from Lyctus, a city of Crete. Being expelled 409. Casti: in the sense of pii. Relligifrom his dominions, he came to Italy, and one : rites-ceremonies. planted a colony on the promontory of Sa- 410. Admoverit : in the sense of appulelentum, then in possession of the Salentini. rit, vel attulerit. This peninsula, which extends almost to the 411. Claustra : the straits of narrow Pecoast of Epirus, was formerly called Messa- lorus shall widen-grow wider. Pelorus is pia, and Jäpygia; hodie, Terra d'Otranto: the northern promontory of Sicily : hodie, and its extremity, the cape of St. Mary, or Capo di Faro. It is separated from Italy by Șt. Mary de Lucca. Idomeneus either sub- the straits of Messina. As Æneas approachdued the Salentini; or, which is more pro- ed, the shores would appear to separate, bable, expelled them from their country. and grow wider. See verse 122. supra. Obsedit : in the sense 412. Læva Tellus. Helenus advises Æneas,

as sor as he had approached Sicily so 402. Philoctetæ. Philoctetes was the son near t. at the straits of Pelorus should apof Pæas, king of Melibæa, a city of Thes- pear to view, and plainly to grow wider, it

of occupat.

tore

Æquora circuitu : dextrum fuge litus et undas. 414. Homines ferunt Hæc loca, vi quondam et vastâ convulsa ruinâ, hæc loca, quondam con- (Tantùm ævi longinqua valet mutare vetustas) 415 vulsa vi, et vastâ ruinâ Dissiluisse ferunt : cùm protinùs utraque tellus

Una foret, venit medio vi pontus, et undis

Hesperiun Siculo latus abscidit, arvaque et urbes 419. Angustoque æs. Litore diductas angusto interluit æstu. tu interluit arva, et urbex Dextrum Scylla latus, lævum implacata Charybdis 420 diductas, quasque suo lil

Obsidet : atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos
Sorbet in abruptum fluctus, rursusque sub auras

Erigit alternos, et sidera verberat unda.
426. Prima facies est At Scyllam cæsis cohibet spelunca latebris,
hominis, et illa est virgo
pulchro pectore,
Ora exsertantem, et naves in saxa trahentem.

425 tenùs pube: postrema Prima hominis facies, et pulchro pectore virgo pars est pristis cum im- Pube tenùs : postrema immani corpore pristis, mani corpore, commissa Delphinûm caudas utero commissa luporum. quoad caudas Delphi- Præstat Trinacrii metas lustrare Pachyni ûm utero luporum 429. Præstat te cesCessantem, longos et circumflectere cursus,

430 santem lustrare metas Quàm semel informem vasto vidisse sub antro

cum

NOTES.

would then be time to alter his course to into this devouring whirlpool. See Ecl. vi. the left, and coast down the eastern shore 74. Implacata : insatiable-greedy. Ruof Sicily, rather than venture through the æus says, immanis. Obsidet: in the sense strait, the passage of which was attended of occupat. with many difficulties and dangers to those

421. Atque imo gurgite: and thrice she who were not acquainted with it.

swallows the vast waves precipitately into 415. Longinqua vetustas ævi : in the sense

the deep gulf of her maw, and again raises of longa duratio temporis potest mutare res them alternate on high, and strikes the tantùm. Ferunt : they report.

stars. Charybdis is represented as a hun416. Cùm utraque tellus : when each

gry

and voracious monster. In abruptum, land was entirely one-united and formed may be taken adverbially, denoting the raone contiguous tract. It is supposed that pidity and quickness with which she absorbs Sicily at first was united to Italy, and rent the water. Taken as a sub. it conveys no or torn from it by some convulsion of na- additional idea: it is merely expletive. ture; and there is some ground for such a

425. Exsertantem : in the sense of pansupposition. Virgi) here gives us a full ac

dentem. It agrees with Scyllam. She is count of the tradition. 417. Pontus : in the sense of fretum.

here represented as a most hideous monster; 418. Abscidit: in the sense of separavit.

her upper part down to her waist resembling

a human being, while her parts below were It separated the Italian shore from the Sicilian.

a huge Pristis, whose belly resembled that 419. Angusto æstu: with a narrow strait of a wolf, with the tail of a dolphin. or current, flows between, &c. meaning the

426. Hominis : gen, of homo. It is here straits of Peloriis, now Messina, which se

used in the sense of humana. Homo proparate Sizily from Italy. Diductas : in the perly signifies a man or woman,the human sense of aisjunctas.

kind. Prima facies : in the sense of supe420. ScyllaCharybdis. Scylla, is a rock rior pars. lying in the straits of Messina on the Ita- 428. Commissa : in the sense of conjuncta. lian side Charybdis, a dangerous whirl. It is a part. adj. agreeing with pristis. This pool opporite to Scylla, on the Sicilian side. is a fish of the whale kind, said to be of These rendered the passage of the straits great length. Pliny mentions one of them very dangero is. They were represented in the Indian sea, to have been two hundred by the poets as hideous monsters.

cubits in length. Scyila was the daughter of Phorcus, 429. Lustrare: in the sense of circumwhom Circe is said to have transformed into navigare. Pachyni. Pachynum is the souththis monster, because she was her rival. ern promontory of Sicily. Trinacrii: an Charybdis is said to have been a rapacious adj. from Trinacria, a name of Sicily, froin prostitute, who, having stolen the oxen of its triangular figure, or form. Hodie, Capo Hercules, was thunderstruck by Jupiter, and Passaro. thrown into the sea, where she was changed 430. Cessantem : delaying.

et

Scyllam, et cæruleis canibus resonantia saxa.
Prætereà, si qua est Heleno prudentia, vati
Si qua fides, animum si veris implet Apollo;

434. Si qua fides est Unum illud tibi, nate Deâ, præque omnibus unum 435 habenda ei vati; si Apol

lo Prædicam, et repetens iterumque iterumque monebo.

435. Prædicam tibi Junonis magnæ primùm prece numen adora :

unum, unumque præ Junoni cane vota libens, dominamque potentem

omnibus, repetens Supplicibus supera donis : sic denique victor

illud iterumque iterumTrinacriâ fines Italos mittêre relictâ.

440 que monebo ie Huc ubi delatus Cumæam accesseris urbem,

441. Ubi tu delatus Divinosque lacus, et Averna sonantia sylvis,

huc accesseris
Insanam vatem aspicies, quæ rupe sub imâ
Fata canit, foliisque notas et nomina mandat.
Quæcunque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 445
Digerit in numerum, atque antro seclusa relinquit:
Illa manent immota locis, neque ab ordine cedunt.
Verùm eadem verso tenuis cùm cardine ventus

448. Verùm cùm te

nuis Impulit, et teneras turbavit janua frondes;

impulit

eadem Nunquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 450

450. Curat prendere Nec revocare situs, aut jungere carmina curat.

folia volitantia Inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odêre Sibyllæ.

saxo, nec
Hìc tibi ne qua moræ fuerint dispendia tanti,
Quamvis increpitent socii, et vi cursus in altum
Vela vocet, possisque sinus implere secundos; 455

ventus

cavo

NOTES.

432. Saxa: and the rocks resounded with cat, vel aperit. Mandat : in the sense of sea-green dogs. This interprets that part inscribit. Notas: her characters. Nomina: of the fable respecting the lower part of words-prophecies. the monster resembling dogs, or wolves. Varro inforins us, that the prophecies of The waves, dashing against the rocks in the the Sibyl were written on the leaves of the lower part, caused a hoarse growling noise, palm-tree. which resembled that of a dog, or the howling of a wolf . See Ecl. vi. 74, and Æn. I. fies a verse or song. But because the re

445. Carmina. Carmen properly signi200. Virgil took this description from the

sponses were delivered in poetic numbers, Odyssey of Homer, Lib. xii.

carmen came to signify, as here, a porophecy, 433. Prudentia: in the sense of scientia.

or prediction. Descripsit : in the sense of 436. Monebo: in the sense of inculcabo.

inscripsit. Numen: Ruæus says, divinitatem. 438. Cane : offer vows to Juno. Ruæus

446. Digerit in numerum : she places in says, fer, vel ferto. Dominam: in the sense

measure—she arranges in poetic numbers. of reginam.

Seclusa: a part. of secludor : laid by them441. Cumæam: an adj. from Cume, a city selves in her cave. of Campania, but long since destroyed.

449. Janua: the door being open, hath See Ecl. iv. 4.

deranged. Saxo: for antro. 442. Divinos lacus. The lakes of Aver- 451. Revocare: in the sense of restituere. nus and Lucrinus are here called divine, 452. Inconsulti : without receiving ad probably on account of their nearness to vice-unadvised. Homines is understood the cave of the Sibyl. The lake Avernus, 453. Ne qua disperdia morre: let no ex (plu. Averna,), was formerly surrounded pense of delay be to you of so much value, with high woods, which occasioned a very importance, but that you go to the pronoxious atmosphere; so that it is said no phetess, &c. bird could fly over it without being suffoca- 455. Secundos sinus : prosperous sails — ted. Hence it derived its name. From the full sails. Sinus is properly the middle, or noxious quality of its waters, the poets belly of the sail; here put for the whole sail. feigned it to be the mouth of hell. See Æn. The expression implies that the wind be vi. 126.

fair for prosecuting their voyage. It would 443. Insanam vatem : the inspired pro- be better to read this and the preceding line phetess.

as a parenthesis. Vi: in the sense of 444. Canit: here, in the sense of expli- hementer.

270

P. VIRGILII MARONIS

the Meant

Haraufh.

D

vocem

456. Poscasque pre- Quin adeas vatem, precibusque oracula poscas cibus ut ipsa canat ora. Ipsa canat, vocemque volens atque ora resolvat, cula, volensque resolvat illa tibi Italiæ populos, venturaque bella,

458. Illa expediet tibi Et quo quemque modo fugiasque ferasque laborem, populos Italiæ Expediet ; cursusque dabit venerata secundos. 460

460. Illa venerata da- Hæc sunt, quæ nostrâ liceat te voce moneri. bit

Vade, age, et ingentem factis fer ad æthera Trojam.

Quæ postquàm vates sic ore effatus amico est,
Dona dehinc auro gravia sectoque elephanto
Imperat ad naves ferri, stipatque carinis

465
Ingens argentum, Dodonæosque lebetas,
Loricam consertam hamis, auroque trilicem,
Et conum insignis galeæ, cristasque comantes,
Arma. Neoptolemi : sunt et sua dona parenti.
Addit equos, additque duces;

470
Remigium supplet : socios simul instruit armis.

Intereà classem velis aptare jubebat

Anchises, fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti. 478. Necesse est ut Quem Phæbi interpres multo compellat honore : præterlabare hanc pror- Conjugio Anchisa Veneris dignate superbo,

475 imam partem Italiæ pe- Cura Deûm, bis Pergameis erepte ruinis, lago

Ecce tibi Ausoniæ tellus : hanc arripe velis. 479. Illa pars Ausoniæ est procul, quam

Et tamen hanc pelago præterlabare necesse est. Apollo pandit tibi Ausoniæ pars illa procul, quam pandit Apollo.

NOTES. 457. Canat: reveal-disclose-declare. plates (trilicem) of iron, fastened (conserlam) 460. Expediet : in the sense of explicabit. together

with gold rings, or hooks. 463. Postquàm: in the sense of cùm. 468. Conum. Whatever has the form of

464. Dehinc: in the sense of deinde. the fruit of the pine inay be called conus, Gravia auro: heavy with gold and ivory. a cone. This form is round, and diminishivory is the tooth of the elephant, cut and ing to the top. Hence it is taken for that polished.

part of the helinet, which rises at the top, 465. Stipat : stows, or crowds in his ships and supports the crest, or plume. All these a great mass of silver. Carinis: properly, accusatives are governed by the verb stipat. the keels; here taken for the ships, by 469. Sua dona : there are also for my synec.

father his own gifts-gifts suitable to his 466. Dodonæos lebetas: Dodonean kettles dignity. Arma Neoptolemi. The coat of -kettles made of Dodonean brass. Dodona mail, the helmet, and the crest, had belonged was a city of Epirus, whoso brass was much to Pyrrhus; at whose death, they fell to celebrated. Here Jupiter had a very cele- Helenus, as his successor. Sua : in the sense brated temple. The manner of delivering of propria vel apta. the oracles in this temple, we are told, was 470. Duces : pilots to direct their course. by a certain number of brass kettles sus- 471. Remigium: in the sense of remiges. pended, so as to touch each other; and any 473. Ferenti: blowing fair. Ruæus says, motion communicated to any one of them, faventi. Interpres : in the sense of vates. would be given to the rest. From the 475. Anchisa: O Anchises, honored with sounds thus emitted, the meaning of the the exalted bed (embrace) of Venus, the oracle was gathered by the priests. 467. Loricam. The Lorica was a coat of

476. Erepte : agreeing with Anchisa. armour, which covered the body down as He was twice saved from the ruins of Troy: far as the waist. It was at first made of first when it was taken by Hercules, and a leathern thongs, whence it derived its name.

second time, when destroyed by the Greeks. It was afterwards made of thin plates (lamine) of iron, linked together with hooks with your ships—direct your course to it.

477. Arripe hanc: take possession of it or rings. These plates were sometimes

Velis : in the sense of navibus ; so says single, sometimes double, and triple. The

Ruæus. one here mentioned was of the latter form, Hamis auroque : for aureis hamis, by hend. 478. Præterlabare: in the sense of naviThe meaning is, that this coat of armour ges ultrà. was of triple fold, or consisting of three 479. Pandit: in the sense of ostendit

care, &c.

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