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and this force was not greater than the emer-| the guilty deputies had suffered the just pungency required; for the multitude pursued ishment of their treason ; and the power of the carriages far on the road to Blois. the Mountain was broken for ever. These

At Amboise the prisoners learned that events strengthened the aversion with which Tours' was ready to receive them. The the system of Terror and the authors of that stately bridge was occupied by a throng of system were regarded. One member of the people, who swore that the men under whose Convention had moved, that the three prisorule the Loire had been choked with corpses, ners of Oléron should be put to death; anothshould have full personal experience of the er, that they should be brought back to Paris, nature of a noyade. In consequence of this and tried by a council of war. news, the officers who had charge of the positions were rejected. But something was criininals made such arrangements that the conceded to the party which called for severicarriages reached Tours at two in the morn-ty. A vessel which had been fitted out with ing, and drove straight to the post-house. great expedition at Rocheforte touched at Fresh horses were instantly ordered, and the Oléron, and it was announced to Collot and travellers started again at full gallop. They had Billaud that they must instantly go on board. in truth not a moment to lose ; for the alarm They were forthwith conveyed to Guiana, had been given ;.lights were seen in motion, where Collot soon drank himself to death and the yells of a great multitude, disap- with brandy. Billaud lived many years, pointed of its revenge, mingled with the shunning his fellow-creatures and shunned sound of the departing wheels.

by them; and diverted his lonely hours by At Poitiers there was another narrow es- teaching parrots to talk. Why a distinction cape. As the prisoners quitted the post- was made between Barère and his companhouse, they saw the whole population pouring ions in guilt, neither he nor any other writer, in fury down the steep declivity on which the as far as we know, has explained. It does not city is built. They passed near Niort, but appear that the distinction was meant to be at could not venture to enter it. The inhabit all in his favor; for orders soon arrived from ants came forth with threatening aspect, and Paris, that he should be brought to trial for his vehemently cried to the postilions to stop; but crimes before the criminal court of the dethe postilions urged the horses to full speed, partment of the Upper Charente. He was and soon left the town behind. Through accordingly brought back to the continent, such dangers the men of blood were brought and confined during some months at Saintes, in safety to Rochelle.

in an old convent which had lately been turn. Oléron was the place of their destination, ed into a jail. a dreary island beaten by the raging waves While he lingered here, the reaction which of the Bay of Biscay. The prisoners were had followed the great crisis of Thermidor confined in the castle; each had a single met with a temporary check. The friends of chamber, at the door of which a guard was the house of Bourbon, presuming on the inplaced ; and each was allowed the ration of dulgence with which they had been treated a single soldier. They were not allowed to after the fall of Robespierre, not only venture communicate either with the garrison or with ed to avow their opinions with little disguise, the population of the island; and soon after but at length took arms against the Conventheir arrival they were denied the indulgence tion, and were not put down till much blood of walking on the ramparts. The only place had been shed in the streets of Paris. The where they were suffered to take exercise vigilance of the public authorities was therewas the esplanade where the troops were drill- fore now directed chiefly against the Royal

ists, and the rigor with which the Jacobins They had not been long in this situation had lately been treated was somewhat relaxwhen news came that the Jacobins of Paris ed. The Convention, indeed, again resolved had made a last attempt to regain ascendency that Barère should be sent to Guiana. But in the state, that the hall of the Convention this decree was not carried into effect. The had been forced by a furious crowd, that one prisoner, probably with the connivance of of the deputies had been murdered and his some powerful persons, made his escape

from head fixed on a pike, that the life of the Presi- Saintes and fled to Bordeaux, where he redent had been for a time in imminent dan- mained in concealment during some years. ger, and that some members of the legisla- There seems to have been a kind of underture had not been ashamed to join the riot standing between him and the government,

But troops had arrived in time to pre- that, as long as he hid himself, he should not vent a massacre. The insurgents had been be found, but that, if he obtruded himself on put to flight; the inhabitants of the disaffect- the public eye, he must take the consequences ed quarters of the capital had been disarmed ; l of his rashness.



While the constitution of 1795, with its deaux when he received intelligence that the Executive Directory, its Council of Elders, mob of the town designed him the honor of and its Council of Five Hundred, was in op- a visit on the ninth of Thermidor, and would eration, he continued to live under the ban of probably administer to him what he had in the law. It was in vain that he solicited, his defence of his friend Lebon, described as even at moments when the politics of the substantial justice under forms a little harsh. Mountain seemed to be again in the ascend. It was necessary for him to disguise himself ant, a remission of the sentence pronounced in clothes such as were worn by the carpenby the Convention. Even his fellow-regicides, ters of the dock. In this garb, with a buneven the authors of the slaughter of Vendé- dle of wood shavings under his arm, he made miarie and of the arrests of Fructidor, were his escape into the vineyards which surround ashamed of him.

the city, lurked during some days in a peasAbout eighteen months after his escape ant's hut, and, when the dreaded anniversary from prison, his name was again brought be was over, stole back into the city. A few fore the world. In his own province he still months later he was again in danger. He retained some of his early popularity. He now thought that he should be nowhere so safe had, indeed, never been in that province since as in the neighborhood of Paris. He quitthe downfall of the monarchy. The mounted Bordeaux, hastened undetected through taineers of Gascony were far removed from those towns where four years before his life the seat of government, and were but imper- had been in extreme danger, passed through fectly informed of what passed there. They the capital in the morning twilight, when knew that their countryman had played an none were in the streets except shop-boys takimportant part, and that he had on some oc- ing down the shutters, and arrived safe at casions promoted their local interests; and the pleasant village of St.Ouen on the Seine. they stood by him in his adversity and in his Here he remained in seclusion during some disgrace, witn a constancy which presents a months. In the mean time Bonaparte resingular contrast to his own abject fickleness. turned from Egypt, placed himself at the All France was amazed to learn, that the de- head of a coalition of discontented parties, partment of the Upper Pyrenees had chosen covered his designs with the authority of the che proscribed tyrant a member of the Coun- Elders, drove the Five Hundred out of their cil of Five Hundred. The council which, hall at the point of the bayonet, and became like our House of Commons, was the judge absolute monarch of France under the name of the election of its own members, refused to of First Consul. admit him. When his name was read from Barère assures us that these events almost the roll, a cry of indignation rose from the broke his heart; that he could not bear to see benches. 'Which of you,' exclaimed one of France again subject to a master; and that, the members, 'would sit by the side of such if the representatives had been worthy of a monster ?'—Not I, not I ! answered a that honorable name, they would have arrestcrowd of voices. One deputy declared, that ed the ambitious general who insulted them. he would vacate his seat if the hall were pol. These feelings, however, did not prevent him luted by the presence of such a wretch. The from soliciting the protection of the new govelection was declared null, on the ground ernment, and from sending to the First Conthat the person elected was a criminal skulk- sul a handsome copy of the Essay on the Libing from justice; and many severe reflections erty of the Seas. were thrown on the lenity which suffered him The policy of Bonaparte was to cover all to be still at large.

the past with a general oblivion. He belongHe tried to make his peace with the Di- ed half to the Revolution and half to the rerectory by writing a bulky libel on England, action. He was an upstart, and a sovereign; entitled, The Liberty of the Seas. He seems and had therefore something in common with to have confidently expected that this work the Jacobin, and something in common with would produce a great effect. He printed the Royalist. All, whether Jacobins or Roythree thousand copies, and, in order to defray alists, who were disposed to support his gorthe expense of publication, sold one of his ernment, were readily received—all, whether farms for the sum of ten thousand francs. Jacobins or Royalists, who showed hostility The book came out; but nobody bought it, to his government, were put down and punin consequence, if Barère is to be believed, ished. Men who had borne a part in the of the villainy of Mr. Pitt, who bribed the Di- worst crimes of the Reign of Terror, and rectory to order the Reviewers not to notice men who had fought in the army of Condé, so formidable an attack on the maritime were to be found close together, both in his greatness of perfidious Albion.

antechambers and in his dungeons. He decBarère had been about three years at Bor-Jorated Fouché and Maury with the same


He sent Aréna and Georges Cadou- | Republican armies had been great. Napodal to the same scaffold. From a govern- leon himself, when a young soldier, had been ment acting on such principles, Barère easily delighted by those compositions, which had obtained the indulgence which the Directory much in common with the rhapsodies of his had constantly refused to grant. The sentence favorite poet, Macpherson. The taste, inpassed by the Convention was remitted, and deed, of the great warrior and statesman was he was allowed to reside at Paris. His par- never very pure. His bulletins, his general don, it is true, was not granted in the most orders, and his proclamations, are sometimes, honorable form; and he remained, during it is true, masterpieces in their kind; but we some time, under the special supervision of too often detect, even in his best writing, the police. He hastened, however, to pay traces of Fingal, and of the Carmagnoles. his court at the Luxembourg palace, where It is not strange, therefore, that he should Bonaparte then resided, and was honored with have qeen desirous to secure the aid of Baa few dry and careless words by the master of rère's pen. Nor was this the only kind of France.

assistance which the old member of the ComHere begins a new chapter of Barère's his- mittee of Public Safety might render to the tory. What passed between him and the Con- Consular government. He was likely to find sular governinent cannot, of course, be so admission into the gloomy dens in which accurately known to us as the speeches and those Jacobins whose constancy was to be reports which he made in the Convention. overcome by no reverse, or whose crimes adIt is, however, not difficult, from notorious mitted of no expiation, hid themselves from facts, and from the admissions scattered over the curses of mankind. No enterprise was these lying Memoirs, to form a tolerably ac- too bold or too atrocious for minds crazed curate notion of what took place. Bonaparte by fanaticism, and familiar with misery and wanted to buy Barère: Barère wanted to sell death. The government was anxious 10 himself to Bonaparte. The only question have information of what passed in their sewas one of price; and there was an immense cret councils; and no man was better qualiinterval between what was offered and what fied to furnish such information than Barère. was demanded.

For these reasons the First Consul was Bonaparte, whose vehemence of will, fix- disposed to employ Barère as a writer and as edness of purpose, and reliance on his own a spy. But Barère-was it possible that he genius, were not only great, but extravagant, would submit to such a degradation ? Bad looked with scorn on the most effeminate as he was, he had played a great part. He and dependent of human minds. He was had belonged to that class of criminals who quite capable of perpetrating crimes under fill the world with the renown of their crimes ; the influence either of ambition or of re- he had been one of a cabinet which had ruled venge ; but he had no touch of that accursed France with absolute power, and made war monomania, that craving for blood and tears, on all Europe with signal success. Nay, he which raged in some of the Jacobin chiefs. had been, though not the most powerful, yet, To proscribe the Terrorists would have been with the single exception of Robespierre, the wholly inconsistent with his policy; but of most conspicuous member of that cabinet. all the classes of men whom his comprehen- His name had been a household word at sive system included, he liked them the Moscow and at Philadelphia, at Edinburgh least; and Barère was the worst of them. and at Cadiz. The blood of the Queen of This wretch had been branded with infamy, France, the blood of the greatest orators and first by the Convention, and then by the philosophers of France, was on his hands. Council of Five Hundred. The inhabitants He had spoken ; and it had been decreed, of four or five great cities had attempted to that the plough should pass over the great tear him limb from limb. Nor were his vices city of Lyons. He had spoken again ; and redeemed by eminent talents for administra- it had been decreed, that the streets of Toution or legislation. It would be unwise to lon should be razed to the ground. When place in any honorable or important post a depravity is placed so high as his, the hatred man so wicked, so odious, and so little quali- which it inspires is mingled with awe. His fied to discharge high political duties. At place was with great tyrants, with Critias and the same time, there was a way in which it Sylla, with Eccelino and Borgia; not with seemed likely that he might be of use to the hireling scribblers and police runners. government. The First Consul, as he afterwards acknowledged, greatly overrated Ba

• Virtue, I grant you, is an empty boast;

But shall the dignity of vice be lost?' rère's powers as a writer. The effect which the Reports of the Committee of Public So sang Pope; and so felt Barère. When Safety had produced by the camp-fires of the it was proposed to him to publish a Journal

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in defence of the Consular government, rage It has been often asserted, we know not and shame inspired him for the first and last on what grounds, that Barère was employed time with something like courage. He had by the government, not only as a writer, but filled as large a space in the eyes of mankind as a censor of the writings of other men. as Mr. Pitt or General Washington; and he This imputation he vehemently denies in his was coolly invited to descend at once to the Memoirs; but our readers will probably level of Mr. Lewis Goldsmith. He saw, too, agree with us in thinking, that his denial with agonies of envy, that a wide distinction leaves the question exactly where it was. was made between himself and the other Thus much is certain, ihat he was not restatesmen of the Revolution who were sum- strained from exercising the office of censor moned to the aid of the government. Those by any scruple of conscience or honor; for statesmen were required, indeed, to make he did accept an office, compared with which large sacrifices of principle; but they were that of censor, odious as it is, may be called not called on to sacrifice what, in the opin- an august and beneficent magistracy. He ion of the vulgar, constitutes personal dig- began to have what are delicately called relanity. They were made tribunes and legislations with the police. We are not sure that tors, ambassadors and counsellors of state, we have formed, or that we can convey, an ministers, senators, and consuls. They exact notion of the nature of Barère's new might reasonably expect to rise with the calling. It is a calling unknown in our counrising fortunes of their master; and, in truth, try It has indeed often happened in Engmany of them were destined to wear the land, that a plot has been revealed to the badge of his Legion of Honor and of his government by one of the conspirators. The order of the Iron Crown; to be arch-chan- informer has sometimes been directed to cellors and arch-treasurers, counts, dukes, carry it fair towards his accomplices, and 10 and princes. Barère, only six years before, let the evil design come to full maturity. As had been far more powerful, far more widely soon as his work is done, he is generally renowned, than any of them; and now, while snatched from the public gaze, and sent to they were thought worthy to represent the some obscure village, or to some remote majesty of France at foreign courts, while colony. The use of spies, even to this exthey received crowds of suitors in gilded an- tent, is in the highest degree unpopular in techambers, he was to pass his life in mea- England; but a political spy by profession, suring paragraphs, and scolding correctors of is a creature from which our island is as free the press. It was too much. Those lips as it is from wolves. In France the race is which had never before been able to fashion well known, and was never more numerous, themselves to a No, now murmured expostu- more greedy, more cunning, or more savage, lation and refusal. 'I could not ’-these than under the government of Bonaparte.

a point as to serve the First Consul merely in the Consular and Imperial police may perthe capacity of a journalist, while so many haps be incorrect. Such as it is, we will try insignificant, low, and servile people, such to convey it to our readers. We image to as the Treilhards, the Ræderers, the Le- ourselves a well-dressed person, with a soft bruns, the Marets, and others whom it is su- voice and affable manners. His opinions are perfluous to name, held the first place in this those of the society in which he finds himgovernment of upstarts.'

self, but a little stronger. He often comThis outbreak of spirit was of short dura- plains, in the language of honest indignation, tion. Napoleon was inexorable. It is said, that what passes in private conversation finds indeed, that he was, for a moment, half in- its way strangely io the government, and clined to admit Barère into the Council of cautions his associates to take care what State; but the members of that body remon- they say when they are not sure of their comstrated in the strongest terms, and declared pany. As for himself, he owns that he is that such a nomination would be a disgrace indiscreet. He can never refrain from speakto them all. This plan was therefore relin- ing his mind; and that is the reason that he quished. Thenceforth Barère's only chance is not prefect of a department. of obtaining the patronage of the government In a gallery of the Palais Royal he overwas to subdue his pride, to forget that there hears two friends talking earnestly about the had been a time when, with three words, he King and the Count of Artois. He follows might have had the heads of the three Con- them into a coffee-house, sits at the table suls, and to betake himself, humbly and in- next to them, calls for his half-dish and his dustriously, to the task of composing lam- small glass of cognac, takes up a Journal, poons on England and panegyrics on Bona- and seems occupied with the news.

His parte.

neighbors go on talking without restraint,

and in the style of persons warmly attached and he proceeded to atone for his republican to the exiled family. They depart, and he heresies by sending republican throats to the follows them half round the boulevards till guillotine. he fairly tracks them to their apartments, and Among his most intimate associates was a learns their names from the porters. From Gascon named Demerville, who had been that day every letter addressed to either of employed in an office of high trust under the them is sent from the post-office to the police, Committee of Public Safety. This man was and opened. Their correspondents become fanatically attached to the Jacobin system of known to the government, and are carefully politics, and, in conjunction with other enwatched. Six or eight honest families, in thusiasts of the same class, formed a design different parts of France, find themselves at against the First Consul. A hint of this once under the frown of power, without design escaped him in conversation with being able to guess what offence they have Barère. Barère carried the intelligence to given. One person is dismissed from a pub- Lannes, who commanded the Consular lic office; another learns with dismay that Guards. Demerville was arrested, tried, and his promising son has been turned out of the beheaded; and among the witnesses who Polytechnic school.

appeared against him was his friend Barère. Next, the indefatigable servant of the state The account which Barère has given of falls in with an old republican, who has not these transactions is studiously confused and changed with the times, who regrets the red grossly dishonest. We think, however, that cap and the tree of liberty, who has not un- we can discern, through much falsehood and learned the Thee and Thou, and who still much artful obscurity, some truths which he subscribes his letters with ‘Health and Fra- labors to conceal. It is clear to us that the ternity.' Into the ears of this sturdy politi- government suspected him of what the Italcian our friend pours forth a long series of ians call a double treason. It was natural complaints. What evil times! What a that such a suspicion should attach to him. change since the days when the Mountain He had, in times not very remote, zealously governed France! What is the First Con- preached the Jacobin doctrine, that he who sul but a King under a new name? What smites a tyrant deserves higher praise than is this Legion of Honor but a new aris- he who saves a citizen. Was it possible tocracy? The old superstition is reviving that the member of the Committee of Public with the old tyranny. There is a treaty with Safety, the king-killer, the queen-killer, the Pope, and a provision for the clergy. could in earnest mean to deliver his old conEmigrant nobles are returning in crowds, federates, his bosom friends, to the execuand are better received at the Tuileries than tioner, solely because they had planned an the men of the tenth of August. This can- act which, if there were any truth in his own not last. What is life without liberty ? Carmagnoles, was in the highest degree virtuWhat terrors has death to the true patriot? ous and glorious ? Was it not more probaThe old Jacobin catches fire, bestows and ble that he was really concerned in the plot, receives the fraternal hug, and hints that and that the information which he gave was there will soon be great news, and that the merely intended to lull or to mislead the pobreed of Harmodius and Brutus is not quite lice? Accordingly spies were set on the

spy. extinct. The next day he is a close prisoner, He was ordered to quit Paris, and not to and all his papers are in the hands of the come within twenty leagues till he received government.

further orders. Nay, he ran no small risk To this vocation, a vocation compared of being sent, with some of his old friends, with which the life of a beggar, of a pick- to Madagascar. pocket, of a pimp, is honorable, did Barère He made his peace, however, with the now descend. It was his constant practice, government so far, that he was not only peras often as he enrolled himself in a new party, mitted, during some years, to live unmolested, to pay his footing with the heads of old but was employed in the lowest sort of pofriends. He was at first a Royalist; and he litical drudgery. In the summer of 1803, made atonement by watering the tree of lib- while he was preparing to visit the south of erty with the blood of Louis. He was then France, he received a letter which deserves a Girondist; and he made atonement by to be inserted. It was from Duroc, who is murdering Vergniaud and Gensonné. He well known to have enjoyed a large share of fawned on Robespierre up to the eighth of Napoleon's confidence and favor. Thermidor; and he made atonement by moving, on the ninth, that Robespierre should Citizen Barère is about to set out for the coun

"The First Consul, having been informed that be beheaded without a tri He was now try, desires that he will stay at Paris. enlisted in the service of the new monarchy; i Citizen Barère will every week draw up a

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