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In the South of Italy, near Naples, is the celebrated Volcano of Vesuvius. In Sicily is the much more stupendous Volcano of Ætna, near Catania. The height of Vesuvius is not above 3600 feet, nor its circumference more than 30 miles; while Ætna rises at least 11,000 feet in height, and covers a space of 180 miles in circumference. . Many of the smaller mountains in the neighbourhood of Ætna exceed Vesuvius. The crater of Vesuvius is about half a mile in circumference, that of Ætna never less than three, and often six miles. In the neighbourhood of Sicily, to the North, are several small Volcanic Islands, known by the general name of the Lipari Isles.

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In Corsica

i N. La. E. Lo.? Bastia 42° 35' 9° 42' limi 1990 procent aferentes

In Spain are the following principal Seaports : -'

N. La. Long.
Cadiz 36° 32 6° 16' W.
Malaga 36 35 4 10 W..
Barcelona 41 23 2 13 E.
Corunna 48 23 8 19 W. Memorable for the famous Battle of

Corunna, between the English and
French, the latter of whom were
defeated; but the English General,
Sir John Moore, fell in the action,

16th January, 1809.
Carthagena 37 37 18
Alicant 38 16 05

Also the following cities and towns :

N. La. W. Lo. Valencia 39° 27° 0° 27'. Saragossa · 41 45 O 48 Memorable for its siege and gallant

defence against the French army. Toledo 39 50 3 20 Ciudad Real 39 1 3 57 Badajos 38 45 6 40 Memorable for its siege and capture

by Lord Wellington, 6th April, 1812.

Reckoned the Wonder of Spain. Seville 37 14 5 59 Murcia 37 58 1 16 Grenada 37 8 3 38 Valladolid 41 42 4 47 Salamanca 41 24 5 48 Memorable for the Battle of Sala

manca, July 22. 1812 ; in which the French army, under the command of Marshal Marmont, were totally defeated by the allied army, under the command of the Earl of Wel.

lington. Vittoria 42 52 2 50 Memorable for the Battle of Vittoria,

gained by the Marquis of Wellington, June 21. 1813.

Eastward, below Cadiz, is the famous Rock of

N. La. W. Lo. Gibraltar 36o 6° 5° 22' Belonging to the English, who took

it in 1704. Trafalgar 36 11 6 2 The promontory at the entrance into

the Straights of Gibraltar is the evermemorable Cape Trafalgar, where Lord Nelson defeated the combined fleets of France and Spain with immense loss, having taken no less than nineteen sail of the line, October 21, 1805, and was himself shot by a rifleman in the very moment of victory.

The principal Rivers of Spain are the Ebro, which rises near Reynosa, and flows into the Mediterranean near Tortosa; the Guadalquivir, which originates in the Sierra Morena, and flows into the Gulph of Cadiz near Xeres and St. Lucar; the Guadiana, which rises not very far from Toledo, and, flowing by Merida and Badajoz, falls into the Atlantic, East of Cape St. Mary; the Tajo, or Tagus, which rises in Castile, and flows through Spain and Portugal till it enters the Atlantic below Lisbon; and the Douro, which rises near the ruins of antient Numantia, and, flowing through Spain and Portugal, enters the Atlantic at Oporto. The principal Mountains of Spain are the Pyrenees, of which the highest, Mount Perdu, is about 11,000 feet, being not lower than Ætna; the Sierra Morena; and Sierra Nevada; and Montserrat; which last is a solitary mountain near Barcelona, and so high that the Islands of Majorca and Minorca can be seen from it, which are distant about 180 miles.

N. La. W. Lo.
Oporto 41° 10' 8° 22'
St. Ubes 38 22 8 54
Coimbra 40 25 8 20 Celebrated for its University:
Evora 38 28 7 50
Beja 37 58 7. 40

The Mountaiñs of Portugal are not of very peculiar magnitude or importance. The chief is the chain of Arrabeda, in Estremadura, some of the highest points of which may be 8000 feet. The principal Rivers are the Tagus and Douro, already described, the Mondego, which passes by Coimbra, and the Minho, which forms the boundary between Portugal and Gallicia.

The principal cities in Turkey in Europe are

N. La. E. Lo. Atini

380 5 230 52'. The antient Athens. Larissa

39 48 22 47 Salonica 40 53 23 5 Adrianople 41 55 26 27 Belgrade

21 5 Bucharest 44 57 26 8 Ismail 45 11 29 30 Bender 46 53 29 24

The principal Rivers of Turkey in Europe are the Danube, already described; and the Maritz, or antient Hebrus, which rises in Mount Hæmus, and falls into the Archipelago at the Gulph of Eno. The chief Mountains are part of the grand Carpathian chain, running through Wallachia ; the chain of Hæmus and Rhodope; Mount Olympus; Athos; and others, hereafter to be described in the account of Antient Greece.

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The principal Rivers of Prussia are the Elbe, already described; the Oder, which rises in the Mountains of Moravia, and flows into the Baltic below the Island of Rugen; and the noble River Wiesel, or Vistula, which rises in the Carpathian Mountains, and, flowing by Cracow and Warsaw, enters the Baltic, near Dantzic; and the Memel, which enters the Baltic by Tilsit, above Konigsberg. The principal Mountains of Prussia are in its Southern boundary, in what was formerly part of the Kingdom of Poland: they are part of the Carpathian chain, and called by the general appellation of the Sudetic Mountains; - the greatest height is about 5000 feet.

Russia in Europe contains the following principal cities : l

s sinas en N. La. E. Lo h

sitas - Moscow 31055° 45° 37°22' The antient capital of Muscovy.

Smolensk 54 50 32 34
Cherson 46 37 31 26 On the Black Sea.


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