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SATURDAY, APRIL 12, 1884. existence as a corporate body of the former ception. At the same time the influence of
kind does not commence until the year 1708. the ministers of the churches in Edinburgh No. 623, Now Series.
Such being the character of the new was paramount in its university, and at times THE EDITOR cannot undertake to return, or, foundation, the question arises, How did it almost despotic. On a certain occasion one of to correspond with the writers of, rejected acquire the power of conferring degrees ? | their number gave expression to his contempt manuscript.
Here Sir Alexander finds a precedent in the for metaphysical studies by publicly speaking It is particularly requested that all business Academy of Geneva, which, originally nothing of philosophy as “the dishclout of divinity; letters regarding the supply of the paper, more than a school of theology composed of and when a painstaking, conscientious regent, fc., may be addressed to the PUBLISHER, and the students who gathered round the chair of whose services as a teacher extended over a not to the EDITOR.
Calvin, assumed, before the close of the six- period of four-and-twenty years, ventured to teenth century, the power of creating doctors call this language in question, his opposition
and bachelors, whose titles, although recog- cost him his office, and he was compelled to LITERATURE.
nised by most of the Protestant universities, retire, with the inadequate compensation for The Story of the University of Edinburgh were denied by the King of France. Andrew his dismissal of a thousand pounds Scots.
In the second volume Sir Alexander traces during its first Three Hundred Years.
By the reformer of her universities, had himself the development of the four faculties from Sir Alexander Grant. In 2 vols.
(Long-filled a chair at Geneva from 1569 to 1574; 1708 down to 1858. He gives us the somemans.)
and it is conjectured by Sir Alexander that it what unedifying narrative of the continual | Ix anticipation of the tercentenary celebration may have been owing to his suggestions that bickerings between the Senatus Academicus of the university of Edinburgh, Sir Alexander King James was recommended
and the Town Council, which culminated in a Grant has compiled these two handsome “not to found a university, but to put the
“thirty years' war" between the two bodies; volumes, which, with their large type and Town Council of Edinburgh in the same position and he follows the history of the Universities thick paper, are as much a contrast to the as the Municipal Council of Geneva, and enable Act and its operation down to the present thin little octavo volume wherein Thomas them, with the advice of the ministers,' to time, concluding with “ the enfranchisement" Craufurd, “regent of philosophy and pro- found a college just as the Municipal Council of the university. Of the advantages resultfessor of mathematics," writing in 1646, of Geneva, with the advice of the Venerable ing from this last measure he speaks in terms sought to embody the main facts relating to Company, of Pastors,' had established their which contrast somewhat forcibly with the the same subject, as are the present buildings academy” (p. 127).
language that has of late been heard in the of the University to the humble structure in There is, however, another hypothesis put two older universities south of the Tweed. which Robert Rollock and Duncan Narne forward by our author which would serve to "The University of Edinburgh,” he says, commenced the instruction of their classes in divest this assumption of a degree-bestowing has found it a great advantage to have a 1582.
power of the appearance it otherwise wears of representative in the House of Commons The real founder of the University of Edin- something like a usurpation; and he devotes cognizant of its circumstances and watchful burgh was James Lawson, the intimate friend some fourteen pages to setting forth certain over its many important interests." We may of James Melville and Walter Balcanqual, considerations which would lead us to con- feel well assured that Oxford and Cambridge and himself sufficiently notable as the suc- clude that the charter given by King James, will not hastily resign the privilege which cessor of John Knox in the Reformed Church April 14, 1582, was not the original charter, they strove so long and earnestly to obtain. in Edinburgh. It was in the year 1578 that but one simply supplementary in character, Sir Alexander's labours have resulted in Lawson in a manner extorted from the Town and that there was an earlier document, after- the bringing together of a large and valuable Council the measure which is generally con- wards lost, which invested Edinburgh with collection of facts which he has embodied in a sidered to mark the origin of the university, all the customary privileges and functions of narrative of considerable interest. The presand his success was largely aided by that a regularly constituted university. The sure under which his volumes have been prostrong current of reactionary feeling against adoption of such a hypothesis, to which duced is indicated, however, by the relegation the Scottish bishops which in the same year sundry items of evidence would certainly seem of a great mass of material to a series of deprived them of their titles. The University to point, is, however, rendered difficult by the Appendices, much of which would, if of St. Andrews, founded in 1411 by Bishop fact that the charter of 1582 makes no refer- interwoven with the main story, have Wardlaw—that of Glasgow, founded in 1450 ence whatever to any earlier document. The added in no slight degree to its elucidation by Bishop Turnbull—that of Aberdeen, arguments with which Sir Alexander en and significance. Haste is recognisable, again, founded in 1494 by Bishop Elphinstone, are deavours to meet this difficulty will probably in certain misconceptions that appear in the all memorials of episcopal influence exerted not appear to all readers to be of the same introductory pages, where he seeks to deal for wise and salutary ends. The proposed value.
with the general antiquities of his subject foundation at Edinburgh, on the other hand, It is more important to note that, although and with mediaeval times. He finds fault, was conceived in a spirit of defiance of Edinburgh, like Dublin, started untrammelled for example, with those who, relying on the episcopalianism; and the three bishops who by those mediaeval theories of learning which bull of Nicholas V. in 1450, have asserted then represented the chancellors of the older still continued to cling round the older Pro- that the University of Glasgow was created universities did their best, to quote the ex- testant universities, it was fain to fall back, after the model of the University of Bologna; pression of Craufurd, “ to let the enterprise.” in practice, upon traditions which it at first and he does so on the ground that, if it had It is evident, again, that King James VI., refused to adopt. Disputation, especially been intended that the newly founded uniwho had studied at St. Andrews, although theological disputation, absorbed its best versity should have been a copy of that of he professed his intention of being “a god- energies; and Henderson, its master spirit, Bologna, “there would have been special father” to the new foundation, regarded it died in 1646, worn out by incessant and encouragements, either in its charter or its with but little sympathy. “He was not interminable controversies respecting doctrine, institutions, for the study of law” (p. 20). likely," says Sir Alexander, “to be zealous just as, half a century before, Whitaker had He then proceeds to speak of Bologna ás about the aggrandisement of a college the prematurely closed his career at Cambridge, a though it had never been much more than foundation of which had been so greatly due martyr to the same all-absorbing, baneful a school of law, although the other three to the ministers of Edinburgh, and in the influence. It at one time embraced, as did faculties of theology, arts, and medicine were government of which they were associated" Cambridge, the new logic of Ramus, which, all successively developed in connexion with (p. 175). It will be noticed that Sir Alex- however inadequate as a system, had at least the university Citing Cosmo Innes, he puts ander speaks of the society at this period as the merit of undermining the slavish sub- forward the notion that the real model for "a college;" and in this expression he designs jection to Aristotle ; but in a few years this Glasgow was Louvain, “then and for all the to imply another distinctive feature in the attitude of mental independence was aban- following century the model university of earlier history of Edinburgh-viz., that it doned, and the seventeenth century—“ the Northern Europe.” As Louvain was founded was not from the first a university, a studium period of deepest depression for literature and in 1426, it would have been somewhat surgenerale, but simply a college-like Owens science in Scotland”—witnessed a complete prising if in less than a quarter of a century College, for example, before it expanded into relapse into all that was perfunctory and it had become a model alike to earlier and the Victoria University—and that its real meagre in treatment and unprogressive in con- subsequent foundations. But such a descrip
tion is really appliable only to the University kind; and, while
they remained Irishmen in of the co-operation of States
and Governments of Paris, "the Sinai of the Middle Ages, ,the best sense of the word, true to their in furthering this desirable harmony. To the to which, however, Sir Alexander scarcely ancient faith and their country's interests, lawyer and the student of law who hopes to once refers in his outline. The question of they did not hesitate to ally themselves with rise above mere routine, we commend the study course arises, How did it happen that the party of progress in the Commonwealth, of the five lectures on Jurisprudence in its Nicholas V. named Bologna, and not Paris, nor did they conceive that Irish patriotism wider aspects; it shows very well how the as the model for Glasgow? Most students of consists in ferocious abuse of England and scientific knowledge of the best and most mediaeval French history will be able readily in paralysing and thwarting the Imperial rational system of law is even now of the to solve the difficulty. The University of Government. Wyn, Shiel, Woulfe, OʻLoghlen, highest value in various departments of legal Paris was distinguished by its Gallican (as Pigot, Ball, Monahan, Fitzgerald, rise to practice, and is rapidly growing in use and opposed to Ultramontane) sympathies, and it our minds as we survey this noble procession importance. The sketches, too, of the points warmly supported the Pragmatic Sanction of worthies; and Lord O'Hagan-almost the of difference between some of the laws of and Nicholas V, and his predecessor had last survivor of the illustrious concourse—is England and Ireland are very able and well already evinced their dislike of these tenden- entitled to hold a high place among them. finished, if of hardly more than professional cies by supporting the project of founding We shall not deny the undoubted traits of the interest; and the same may be said of one or a new university at Caen-a project which men who of late have become conspicuous in two papers on economic and statistical subParis denounced as a blow aimed at her own the troubled arena of Irish politics ; but will jects. Lord O'Hagan, moreover, deserves influence. In short, the speculative theology the Parnells, the Davitts, the Healys, the great praise for his method of handling Irish and philosophical spirit of Paris had become Sextons, ever achieve the pure and unsullied history-the theme, incidentally, of some of odious to Rome; and so, when, at the prayer fame of this generation of great Irish these pieces. His views are always liberal of Bishop Turnbull
, the University of Glasgow Catholics ? will they even approach them, in and just, if not specially profound and searchwas founded, Nicholas decreed that Bologna the sight of history, for the good they shall ing; and they are animated by the best spirit
. and not Paris should be the model. Now have done to their common country?
His portraits, for instance, of Moore and the distinotive constitutional characteristies of These addresses and essays are fugitive O'Connell, as we have said, might have been Bologna as compared with Paris were, as pieces, composed, for the most part, amid more life-like; but no one, perhaps, has every student of Savigny is aware, that while the toils and anxieties of professional life; shown so clearly how valuable was the worth in Bologna the students elected the academical and they surely afford a true measure of Lord of both, not only in raising Catholic Treland, officers, whom even the professors were bound O'Hagan's intellectual height. Like the but in breaking down the barriers of caste to obey, in Paris it was the regents or teachers works, too, of many
able who have which were the blight and curse of the domiwho constituted the corporation (to the ex- become eminent in a public cause, they deal nant Protestants. All this is admirably clusion of the students) and exercised the with the province of speculation, when they thought out and written; and even in the electoral functions. And when Glasgow was enter it, on the practical side ; and occasion domain of pure criticism the many-sided founded on the model of the former university, ally, therefore, they are somewhat wanting in author has been successful. For example, we her matriculated students wero, as at Bologna, comprehensiveness, depth, and completeness. know of no better sketch of the characteristics invested with the supreme eleotoral power. Lord O'Hagan, for instance, is not a Savigny of English poetry in the seventeenth and
Sir Alexander adverts with complacency to when he surveys the domain of Roman Law; eighteenth centuries, and of the external the fact that a Sootohman taught at Louvain. and, in treating of the ancient laws of causes to which they were due, than is to be At a time when so many distinguished Ireland—a heritage, so to speak, of his family, found in the striking essay on the genius of members of the two great English universities once the judges of the O'Neill princes—he Coleridge. are about to cross the Tweed to receive shows few traces of the profound knowledge The best feature, however, of this book honours at Edinburgh, it would have been a and of the extraordinary constructive skill of is that it expresses clearly, although unnot inappropriate reminiscence if he had re- Sir Henry Maine in his well-known lectures consciously, what is most distinctive in the called to memory how Andrew Melville once on those most interesting archaic usages. As author's character. Those who know Lord sought, though ineffectually, to prevail upon a biographer, too, he does not possess, in a O'Hagan will bear witness how noble and two of the most distinguished Cambridge high degree, the artistic faculty ; his sketches, kindly his nature is, how gracious and genial teachers of that day, Cartwright and Walter for example, of O'Connell and Moore (men are his courtesies, how his disposition is lofty Travers, to become instructors of the classes known to him during many years), though of yet urbane; and we trace these qualities at St. Andrews. The letter, written in the real merit, in some respects scarcely present throughout this volume. The fine and lovevery year when the Town Couneil of Edin- to us the living images of the great Irish able spirit of the man is especially seen in burgh made its first grant to the new Tribune and of the versatile poet who wrote what he has written on Ireland in the past "college," is still extant, and may serve to the “Melodies" and the “Fudge Family." and the present, and this is honourable to him remind us of the advanée which aeademie It must be admitted, besides, that, in dealing, in the highest degree. An Irish Catholie, learning in Seotland has since made, as we as he repeatedly does, with the Irish Question, who, in early birth, was subject to legal and see the best scholarship of both Oxford and Lord O'Hagan has shown that in some par- social wrongs, and was not free to fight the Cambridge not only adorning her chairs, but ticulars he has not thoroughly grasped his battle of life on equal terms with his Proreceiving recognition at her hands.
great subject; he hus not fathomed Ireland testant fellows, might well indulge in bitter J. Bass MULLINGER. in the inmost depths of her national passions, invectives against the system that kept him
wants, and tendencies; and his views are, we down, and, having achieved distinction, might
believe, too sanguine, and are coloured with view with dislike those of the once favoured Occasional Papers and Addresses. By Lord the unconscious optimism of one who, in spite creed who had been distanced by him... Yet O'Hagan. (Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co.) of
many obstacles, has risen to a high place Lord O'Hagan only refers to the Catholic This volume possesses sterling merit, yet we in the State. Notwithstanding drawbacks disabilities as evil things, pernicious alike to notice it less for its own sake than for that like these, if we consider these papers in all Irishmen, and to be forgotten of its distinguished author. Lord O'Hagan their true aspect—as the holiday work, to use memories; and in his large sympathy for all belongs to a class of Irishmen who have the phrase, of a very able and accomplished ranks of his countrymen—which is very attained great and peculiar emingnce in their man, who has generally aimed at treating uncommon in an Irish writer-he has no own country during the last half-century, and practically, and in an easy and popular way, regard for religious distinctions. A manifest have left a mark on the annals of Ireland not a variety of important subjects—they rank purpose pervades his book whenever he to be soon effaced by time and its changes. high in this class of performances. The touches Irish questions—that of smoothing These men adhered to a proscribed creed, and address, for instance, on International Law away the differences of the past, of reconciling were all born in a state of society in which deserves the attention of thoughtful men as sectarian feuds, of bringing together and the Irish Catholie found himself at a indicating,
with much clearness and force, the uniting Irishmen; and this rare excellence disadvantage, in every respect, with the agencies which in modern times are tending to more than makes' up for deficiencies already Protestant reared in the lap of "Ascendency. bring the civilised
world into accord in this noticed, and gives his book the stamp of Yet these men rose to high power in the great province of thought; and it contains valu- sincere patriotism. A high-souled and philanState, having conquered dificulties of every | able and frequent remarks on the expediency thropic nature is also seen in his admirable
sketch of the gradual amelioration of our painting, and that, as such, he anticipated by Watts compiled this biography. But a false criminal law; and in his remarks on the half a century what is now known by statement ceases to be dangerous when it mercy and wisdom of endeavouring to reclaim the slang title of the aesthetic school. It becomes notoriously a lie. No one now the criminal classes we perceive the pure is not easy to agree with this. Alaric believes that Alaric Watts was dishonest and and humane charity which rejoices over the Watts elevated the public sentiment on minor disloyal; and to rise once more in arms against repenting sinner. The genuine kindly sym- points of taste, and the public taste on minor this dead slander is as needless and, therefore, pathy, too, with which Lord O'Hagan regards points of sentiment. It is conceivable that as ludicrous as to defend Coleridge against those who have come in contact with him in the beautiful books he produced yearly had the charge of drunkenness, or Leigh Hunt the walks of life is illustrated in many of a sensible effect in bringing about that wor- against that of incest. these pages; and we would especially dwell shipful attitude of mind towards beautiful As might have been expected, the best part on the sincere sympathy he often displays objeots which has had the ridiculous result of of this book is that which affords us fragtowards young aspirants. In a word, if elevating taste into a religion. This is not mentary reminiscences of the men and women Montaigne’s was a book of “good faith,” this much to be proud of, but, so far as the claim among whom Alaric Watts spent his life ; is a thoroughly " well-conditioned” volume; goes, it can be allowed. True sentiment, and the best part of these fragmentary remiand for this reason, if for no other, we com- however, of which the primary elements are niscences are quoted from some autobiomend it cordially to our readers.
strength and purity, has never at any time graphical notes which the son prints in a WILLIAM O'Connor MORRIS. played an important part in this form of somewhat discursive fashion. The glimpses religiosity.
of poor Sidney Walker, and of Colton at his
We trust it is not uncharitable to say that rag-and-bone-shop residence, are thoroughly Alaric Watts. By A. A. Watts. In 2 vols. in the dearth of material the biographer has enjoyable. Some stories of Constable and (Bentley.)
occasionally fallen into the error of amplifying of Mrs. Inchbald are also delightful in their SURELY this work is somewhat out of propor- to a tiresome degree some trivial and some way. The side views of Wordsworth are tion. It consists of two stout volumes, and unpleasant incidents. This is especially not always pleasant, and those of Coleridge tells in hardly less than seven hundred pages noticeable in the long account given of the add little to preconceived notions of the man. the story of a life that had no very remark- slander of Alaric Watts by Fraser's. The It is, however, interesting to learn that Wordsable passages in it. Alaric Watts ħas a two- libel was certainly of a scurrilous kind; and worth found " Christabel” an indelicate poem, fold claim to remembrance—first
, as a man the quarrel was so far unlike most other and that down to 1828 Coleridge earned hardly of letters whose actual performances were by quarrels of authors that there was scarcely an more than £50 by his writings, his salary on no means inconsiderable ; and next, as an angle of truth in the accusations, which the Morning Post and Courier excepted. associate of men of letters whose achievements appeared to have their origin in malice alone.
That this book will contribute to perwere much greater than his own. He wrote We do not say that Watts would have done petuate Alaric Watts's name seems proba biographical sketch of Turner, which his son wisely if he had ignored the attack, for there able ; that it will establish for him the place has properly described as manly, vigorous, and seems sometimes to be an element of injustice of a leader of taste and sentiment is more than unaffected. He wrote poems which Coleridge in the passive resistance of wanton and brutal doubtful; that it will add anything to the welcomed as full of glow and spirit. He assault. But he certainly attached much more current idea of his worth as a poet is scarcely cannot claim the praise (whatever the measure than sufficient importance to it. Maginn, to be expected. As a whole it is a readable of it may be) of introducing the kind of book who is said to have received substantial work, simply and pleasantly written, and well known formerly as the "Annual,” but he benefits at Watts's hands, told the public packed with ana. If the biographer somecertainly deserves the credit of carrying that that there was not a person to whom Watts times conveys the idea that in certain of his form of periodical to its most luxurious per- had been under obligations, “ from the man generalisations and abstract disquisitions he is fection. For more than forty years he sus- who fed him from charity to the man who a little beyond his depth, he has the discretion tained the character of a reputable, if not a had from equal charity supported his literary to keep these digressions within modest limits. successful, journalist. As editor of a pros- repute," whom he had not libelled. This was
T. HALL CAINE. perous Annual, he was brought into active a gross and palpable falsehood; and the credit relations with many men and women eminent of a reputable person thus vilified by a totally in literature and the arts, and his intercourse unscrupulous one would surely have been South Africa : a Sketch-Book of Men, Manwith some of them appears to have been sustained by the Court of King's Bench, in
ners, and Facts. By James Stanley Little. friendly without being intimate. That they which Watts gave his accusers an opportunity
In 2 vols. (Sonnenschein.) had a warm admiration of his talents and a of substantiating their accusations. He went HERE are two more volumes on a well-worn genuine regard for his character is shown the further length, however, of writing to topic. Mr. Little finds Englishmen singularly by their letters. It must, however, be said nearly every man of eminence with whom he uninformed on the subject of South Africa, that as a liberal dispenser of favours had been brought into relations, asking point- and wishes to enlighten them.
The same and rewards he was not in the best position edly if he had at any time within their apology has been made by many previous for benefiting by their franker sentiments. cognizance been guilty of the duplicity indi- writers on the same subject, and, we fear, That he did not leave a considerable reputa- cated. The replies are explicit enough in will yet be made by many more. In the tion behind him at his death was partly due their denial of the libel; but they are by no meantime, one may ask, Is it in the least true to the circumstance that he had outlived most means agreeable reading, bearing for the most that South Africa is such a terra incognita as of the men of any distinction with whom he part the appearance of formal testimonies those who want an excuse for appearing in had worked in his best years. This fact is to character, designed for the use of Lord print represent it? We cannot think so. On not of itself enough to account for the com- Denman's court, and being deficient in nearly the contrary, it is probable that, owing to the parative neglect into which his name had all the spontaneity of genuine sympathy frequent wars and constant coming and going fallen. There is the further fact that which at such a moment might be ex- of troops and officers, our colonies in South Alaric Watts had neither done enough to pected to characterise the letters of friends. Africa are at least as well known as any give him a separate niche on his own morits, That Alaric Watts felt it necessary to ask for others. However, whether the English public nor had he associated himself with any move these letters is at least comprehensible under be ignorant or not, Mr. Little has written an ment in which other men were doing more the conditions in which he found himself, but amusing and very comprehensive book. There than he had done. Perhaps the man who is that his biographer should feel it necessary to is no point on which he has not touched, and surest of reputation in the generation imme-publish them fifty years after the event seems generally touched with effect, though we diately succeeding his own is not he who has only explicable on the ground that he had could wish he were a little less diffuse, and done excellent and even conspicuous work some natural desire to make known to the would pay more attention to the line from himself, but he who has set other people world the high esteem in which his father Chaucer which he has placed as a motto on about the doing of such work. Alaric was held by men like Wordsworth, Wilkie, his title-page, “Not oo word spak he more Watts's task was done at his death, and his Southey, Landseer, and Theodore Hook, the than was neede.” Had he rigorously done so, surviving influence was inconsiderable. His very men who were alleged to have least his two volumes might have been compressed biographer endeavours to show that he was a cause to value him at his worth. True, the into one, and we might have been spared an leader of taste and sentiment in poetry and libel was about
to be reproduced when Mr. account of the journey from Paddington to
Dartmouth-a journey which was absolutely The Revision Revised. By John Williams ment criticism, the majority of critics would uneventful.
Burgon. (John Murray.)
say that it is precisely the opposite of this, Mr. Little does not flatter the colonists, Wien (now a good many years ago) it became and that of the spuriousness of those verses least of all the Natalians, to whom he ad certain that there was really to be a Revised there can be no reasonable doubt. Again ministers some home-thrusts which are likely Version of the New Testament, and when and again Dean Burgon affirms that the to penetrate rather deeply. The prevailing a company of learned men was actually Vatican is the most depraved of all MSS. vice of intemperance is not confined to any appointed to execute the task, there was a Of course, it is either the most depraved
, or particular class, and is the great stumbling- very widespread feeling that, unless the text it is the purest; but which it is is not to be block in the working-man's way. The restric
was dealt with as well as the translation, the settled by clamour and invective, but by tions on drink are fewer, and the temptations work would be only half done. There was
sober reasoning; yet it is not till towards the greater, than in England; no wonder, then, little doubt that the Revisers would omit from close of his book that the author seems to that, with higher wages, drinking in these the text, though it was feared that they might waken to the propriety of presenting the cast colonies is carried on to a far greater excess retain in the margin, such a notorious corrup- in this alternative form. Then, at last
, he than at home. Many men employed on the tion as 1 John V. 7; but how would they
"Codd. B railways save considerable sums of money, deal with the last twelve verses of the Gospel and N are either among the purest of manuand come into Cape Town to spend their of Mark ? Would they bracket or omit or scripts, or else they are among the very earnings on a week's dissipation;
transfer to a note the passage De adultera in foulest.” Again and again Dean Burgon “the same thing may be said of the successful John ? Would they have the courage to impresses upon us that he takes the Textus diamond-diggers, many of whom come to Cape give the true reading--assuming that to be Receptus merely as a standard of reference, Town with the fruits of their labours, intending who" instead of “God”-in° 1 Tim. iii. not of excellence, which, of course, is perto proceed to England, but with the assistance
16 ? of a coterie of boon companions they soon empty version made its appearance, it was found expected from a When, on May 17, 1881, the new fectly intelligible and quite what might be
man of his consummato their hoard into the pockets of the hotel and canteen keepers. One of the worst phases of that the Revisers had been bold beyond scholarship; but the suspicion that he was this evil, moreover, is that drinking commences all expectation. It was felt that they had inclined to suffer no appeal from it was not so early in the morning. Not a few ardent given us a text which, though not, of course, unnatural, and there is everywhere apparent votaries of the cup begin spirit-imbibing before above criticism or question, might be relied on a bias in its favour, or, at any rate, against they are fairly out of bed, and a very much for its fearless honesty, and in which the most that shorter and less elaborate text which it larger number take to it immediately after advanced critical scholarship of the day was is supposed to have superseded. After all
, breakfast. A man can scarcely meet an acquaint- fairly represented ; and it is probable that however, the great question is, What is the out receiving an invitation to come and have many were willing to condone the numerous true position of B and N, and especially of B:
faults, as they might deem them, of the trans- Is B (the Vatican MS.), as it is the oldest, The financial condition of Natal is a serious lation, for the sake of the greatly improved also the purest and best of our authorities, as one ; almost every sugar estate in the colony favourably received by the Press, and by demonstrated, or is it, as the reactionaries
The work was, on the whole, very Drs. Westcott and Hort believe they have is mortgaged, and a vast majority of business scholars of various shades of opinion, if not as maintain, the most corrupt and untrust and private houses also.
a perfectly satisfactory version, yet as one worthy? Dean Burgon speaks repeatedly of “The land which might, and does, flow with well deserving to be placed by the side of the the omissions of B, thus at once prejudicing milk and honey is yet powerless to support the Authorised translation, and used as a help the case. But are they omissions, or is it that in truly remarkable state of things obtains in this towards a better understanding of the New later copies additions have been made for which country. Despite its countless dairy farms, it Testament. The new version, however, had there was no warrant in the original ? We is as yet under the necessity of importing the not been long before the public (not more will bring the matter to the test; and, writing greater portion of the milk in ordinary use from than three months) when there appeared in as one of the unlearned or half-learned—for Norway and Switzerland, in the form of the the Quarterly Review a tremendous attack in respect of documentary or patristic learning familiar tins of condensed abomination. The colonists rely upon Europe in a large measure known, of Dean Burgon.
upon it from the pen, as quickly became I have, of course, no pretension to compare for their cheese supply also.”
This first attack, with either Dean Burgon on the one side or
which was directed entirely against " the new Drs. Westcott and Hort on the other— I will Butter and eggs are dearer in Natal—a country Greek text,” was followed by another, in the take an example which will be easily underspecially adapted for their production-than January number of the Quarterly, in which stood of all men. It is well known that the in London. This shows a singular want of the translation was mercilessly handled ; and two great uncials, the Sinaitic and Vatican
, enterprise. The whites, according to our this
, again, by a third article, in which the both present the Lord's Prayer in an abbreauthor, take advantage of every loop-hole to Dean made it his business to expose—I use viated form in Luke's Gospel
. Both omit one escape labour. The Kafirs have little induce his own words—" the absolute absurdity of whole clause,“ but deliver us from evil." ment to work; hence the necessity for the Westcott and Hort's new textual theory." The Vatican further omits “ Thy will be done, importation of coolies. Mr. Little is suffi- It is these three articles which are now re- as in heaven so in earth.” Both begin "Father, ciently alive to the danger to Natal from the printed under the title of The Revision hallowed be Thy name," leaving out "Oar.” enormous preponderance of blacks, and writes Revised; and to them is added a reply to and “which art in heaven.” Now, which is very sensibly on this subject. It must always Bishop Ellicott's pamphlet in defence of the easier to suppose, that a scribe having the be borne in mind that the Natal blacks are Revisers and their text. Vigorous, learned, Lord's Prayer in full before him should omit not natives, but refugees from Zululand; full of audacities and self-assertiveness, these such important words and clauses, as must be that we have not dispossessed them of their pages will prove, to those who take an the case if this is an example of the depravity country, but they have come into ours to interest in their subject, delightful and often of the Vatican, or that later scribes added to escape the military service and oppressions of entertaining reading; and assuredly they must the text such words as were required to bring their own chiefs. Mr. Little is a strong not be neglected by anyone who wishes to Luke into harmony with Matthew? It is advocate for confederation, and is unsparing arrive at an independent judgment on the entirely a question of probability, and Dean in his denunciations of English policy—if it matters under dispute.
Burgon flouts at transcriptional probability, can in any sense be called a policy—in South
There is, at any rate, one person to whom but this is such a plain case that I fancy the Africa. The political outlook, he thinks, this work seems to give supreme satisfaction, general verdict must be that the Vatican has could scarcely be darker. We fear it requires and that is the author of it ; for has he not here preserved the true text. But has Dean a very sanguine disposition to differ from him.
“demonstrated the worthlessness” of the Burgon no way of accounting for these omisIt is a pity that he is not more careful in new Greek text, and shown the new transla- sions ? Yes; he would apparently have it revising what he has written ; if he was, we tion to be a mass of error and bad taste from believed that the Vatican Luke is little more should not be told that the battle of Worcester beginning to end? Again and again we are than Marcion's mutilated recension of that was fought in the month of May; and where assured by Dean Burgon that he has “ demon- gospel-a suggestion which seems to be altocan he have discovered that loaf-sugar costs strated ” 'the last twelve verses of Mark together preposterous.
It would have been 29. 6d. a-pound in Natal ?
be genuine. Now, if there is anything more plausible to say that the scribe, being in WILLIAM WICKHAM. capable of being demonstrated in New Testa- haste, did not think it necessary to write in
full so well known a passage ; but then surely to some at least of his readers, to apply most are unable to win the game within the neceshe would have written“ Our Father, &c., ” admirably to himself. In his reply to Bishop sary number of fifty moves allowed by the and not omitted a clause here and a clause Ellicott, Dean Burgon labours hard to defend rules, when they are left with the knight and there. On p. 50 of his work, moreover, I that notorious, and now generally acknow- bishop against the solitary king, when, with find Dean Burgon making an admission, or ledged, corruption of Scripture-Ocòs épa- absolutely correct play, the mate can be perhaps he would call it simply a statement, vepvon-in 1 Tim. iii. 16; but his learned and effected from any position within twenty. which I must venture to think is fatal to his plausible arguments will convince none but The end games with pawns alone on each whole case. Referring to the ancient scribes those who are determined to read Oeós at side are also a terrible stumbling-block to the and critics, he says, “ That it was held any rate. If some shadow of doubt still knight player. After having judiciously worn allowable to assimilate one gospel to another hangs over the reading of the Alexandrian out his antagonist by a system of exchanges, is quite certain.” Precisely so. That is MS., it is not possible that it can now ever and correctly given up his knight for his exactly what is maintained by Drs. West- be dispelled ; and Dean Burgon, by producing opponent's last pawn, he will constantly throw cott and Hort and the critics of the school instances of O actually standing for © in the away the fruit of his victory by losing in which they have taken a foremost place. uncials, has certainly weakened the force of the opposition at the last moment, and so And yet, with this knowledge in his mind, the transcriptional probability in favour of turn a won game into a draw. Dean Burgon can treat with contempt the O2, but that is perhaps as much as can be The game of chess can be divided into three remarkable reading in which both B and conceded. For my own part, so difficult is it parts—the opening, in which the player is agree in Matt. xix. 18—“Why askest thou to make either grammar of os or sense of o, entirely dependent upon book-knowledge, and me concerning the good ?" Now, while it is that I confess I should, on those grounds, where, if he accepts attacking openings withimpossible to imagine what motive there could greatly prefer Oeós, though that, too, is not out knowing the details of the proper defence be for such a corruption as this, if, on the without difficulty ; but the external evidence as laid down by the leading authorities, he is other hand, it be assumed to be the true meaning by that the evidence of the most pretty certain to find himself, against an reading, there could be no better example of ancient authorities—is decidedly against it. experienced antagonist, with a game absoassimilation than that furnished by the later Had the original reading been eós, it is lutely lost by its nature; the middle game, in text.
simply impossible to account for the all but which, if the inexperienced player has got But it is perhaps rather superfluous, if not unanimity of the Versions in reading either through his opening without ruinous loss of indeed a little presumptuous, for me to ở or ós; as to the Fathers, and especially Cyril position, he may fairly hope by his unaided attempt to enter into controversy with Dean of Alexandria, notwithstanding that Dean powers to hold his own against the most Burgon, especially in such a short article as -Burgon claims him as a witness on his own learned antagonist, for here, and here alone, this must be. Drs. Westcott and Hort will side, the arguments of Sir Isaac Newton, in mere book-knowledge is of no avail; and, doubtless feel that a strong attack has been his well-known Historical Account, seem finally, the end game, in which, as I have made upon their position-stronger, it may pretty conclusive.
said above, the inexperienced amateur is be, in words than in argument—but they will I will make only one other remark. There generally doomed to his most bitter disapbe well able themselves to defend it. In the is a large and increasing number of persons, pointments, and where again acquired knowforegoing remarks I trust I have done no of whom I must count myself one, who have ledge is as necessary as in the openings of the injustice to the Quarterly Reviewer. It is come to think it a matter of no importance game. impossible not to admire his learning, his (except, of course, in the sense in which Mr. Horwitz has long been known as the industry, his courage, and even his zeal, every question of nice criticism is important) most able exponent of this branch of chess. although it may sometimes be a little wanting whether the true reading of 1 Tim. ii. 16 It is now more than thirty years since he in charity. In much of his criticism of the be cós or ős, but who think it immensely published, in conjunction vith the problem Revised Version, I must confess myself very important that such questions should be rated composer, Kling, his Chess Studies—the most much at one with him. But if he supposes that at no more than their true value. Dean beautiful collection of end games that has he can turn back the course of critical enquiry, Burgon rates them far too high. He writes ever appeared ; and during that period he has and re-establish the hitherto received text-or throughout in the spirit of a partisan, and devoted himself to a continued research on something much more like it than that of therefore he can hardly be accepted as a very the same ground, the result of which is Drs. Westcott and Hort-in face of the con- safe guide. ROBERT B. DRUMMOND. now brought before the public in the book clusions of the most advanced scholarship, he
under notice, which contains about four will undoubtedly find that he has undertaken Chess Studies, and End Games, Systematically pieces that can constitute an end game. These
hundred studies on every combination of a hopeless task. At the same time, it would be a pity, and
Arranged By B. Horwitz. (Wade.)
have been divided by Mr. Horwitz into what probably a great mistake, if it were assumed As stated by Mr. Wayte in his Preface, he is pleased to call elementary and advanced that the Cambridge Professors had finally the study of end games has received but little chess-endings; but the classification is purely settled the text of the New Testament for all attention since the publication of Staunton's arbitrary, and, so far as I have been able to coming time. It is much more likely that hand-book in the recent treatises on the judge from a cursory examination, the sotheir text will require to be re-corrected in game; and, until the subject was taken up called elementary endings are quite as difficult many places, and a return made to readings systematically by Mr. Horwitz, the know- and quite as beautiful as the advanced ones. hitherto generally accepted. Much, however, ledge of this department of chess had, in fact, The latter will be old friends to the readers will no doubt depend on the final settlement made but slight progress since the days of of the Chess Monthly, in which they have of the question of the relation of B to H. The Philidor. The studies of the great French regularly appeared since the publication of its evidence of their independence is perhaps master, now more than a century old, are still first number, and in this way have enjoyed hardly so decisive as might be desired, but unsurpassed in this branch of chess; and it is the advantage of careful examination by Dr. Dean Burgon may be assured that he will impossible to exceed the beauty of the analysis Zukertort—alone sufficient to ensure their produce little effect by simply reiterating, by which he proved that in some positions the accuracy both in chess analysis and, what is with whatever increased emphasis, that they rook and bishop can win against the rook. of almost equal importance to the student, are the most corrupt MSS. in existence, and More labour than the question perhaps merits in freedom from errors of the press, which alleging in proof of it their agreement in has been devoted fruitlessly to attempts to solve so often mar the usefulness of chess publicathe very readings which are the principal the problem whether the position which Phili- tions. matters in dispute. “When I am taking a dor has proved to be a won game can be forced ; In addition to the two hundred positions ride with Rouser' (quietly remarked Professor and practically in play such end games are which have stood the test of publicity, the Saville to Bodley Coxe), 'I observe that if I abandoned as drawn, as are the cognate posi- student will find in the book as many more, erer demur to any of his views, Rouser's tions of single rook against single knight or all of interest, many of them of extraordinary practice always is, to repeat the same thing bishop. As a general rule, it will be found complexity, all original, and of a character, orrt again in the same words-only in a louder that the ordinary amateur, however much he like the others, specially suited to improve tone of roice.'” The excellent Dean must not may have studied book-openings, is not so the student's powers in practical play. It be astonished if this anecdote, told by him as well acquainted with the theory of end games; is this quality which in reality distinguishes applicable to Profs. Westcott and Hort, seems, and there are many fairly strong players who the end game from the problem, which, how