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Sed quoniam earum rerum quas ego gesi, non eft eadem fortuna atque conditio, quæ illorum qui externa bella gefferunt: quod mihi vivendum fit cum illis, quos vici ac fubegi : ilti holtes aut interfectos, aut oppreffus reliquerunt ; veftrum eft : Quirites, fi cereris recta sua facta profunt, mihi mea ne quando obfint, providere; mentes enim hominum audaciflimorum fceleratæ ac nefariæ ne vobis nocere possent, ego providi: ne mibi noceant, veftrum eit providere, Quanguam, Quirites, mihi quidem ipfi nihil jam ab iftis noceri poteft; magnum enim eftin bonis præsidium, quod mihi in perpetuum comparatum eit: magna ia republica dignitas, quæ me semper tacita defender ; magna vis
est conscientiz, quam qui negligent, cum me violare volent, je ipfi indicabunt. Et etiam in nobis is animus, Quirites, ut non modo nullius audaciæ cedamus, fed etiam omnes improbos ultro semper lacessamos. Quod fi omnis impetus domefticorum hoftium depulsus à vobis se in me unum converterit; vobis erit providendum, Quirites, qua conditione pofthac eos esse velitis, qui se pro falute veftra obtulerint invidiæ, periculisque omnibus. Mihi quidem ipfi quid eft quod jam ad vitæ fructum poffit acquiri, præfertim cum neque in honore veltro, neque in gloria virtutis quidquam videam altius, quò quidem mihi libeat ascendere ? Illud perficiam profecto, Quirites, ut ea quæ gesli in consulatu, privatus tuear, atque ornem ; ut, fiqua elt invidia in conservanda republica fuscepta, lædat invidos, mihi valeat ad gloriam. Derique ita me in republica tractabo ; ut meminerim semper quæ gef ferim, curemque ut ea virtute, non casu gefta efle videantur. Vos, Quirites, quoniam jam nox eft, veneramini illum Jovem, cuftodem hujus urbis ac veftrum ; atque in veftra tecta discedite; & ea, quan, quam jam periculum eft depulsum, tamen, æque ac priori nocte custo diis vigiliisque defendite. Id ne vobis diutius faciendum fit, atque ut in perpetua pace effe poffitis, providebo, Quirites.'
Which Capt. R. translates thus :
· For all theie inestimable benefits, I do not even as the reward of virtue. I druire no monument ; I solicit no triumphs. . A perpetual commemoration, an eternal memorial of the event, is the sum of my withes. Let all my triumphs, my enligns of honor, my monuments of glory, all orations in my praise, be constructed in your minds. Let them be there deposited, and preserved. Mure honors, and silent memorials of glory, the reward of common services, affect not me. I wish them not. In your memory, O Romans! let my glory live; upon your tongues let it be displayed ; and in the justice of your and polierity's records, let it gather ftrength from time, and flourish in immoriality. And this day, the day of your deliverance, a deliverance which heaven grant may prove erernal! being established as a memorial of your prefervation, will, if my prerages are just, transmit to. la:eft poilerity the glory of my Consulate ; and at the same time establish as a truth to all ages, that at this period lived two citizens ; one, who removed the boundaries of your empire from earth to heaver., while the other confirmed the ilability of its center, and that the center of the universe.
• but, there is an eilential difference between the successes of war and those services which I have rendered to my country. The gene. Jal, and the warrior, can succeed only by the daughter or enthral
ment of their enemies. But I continue to live, to associate with those over whom I have triumphed. Be it therefore your especial care, O my countrymen! that, while the successes of such men procure for them the most solid advantages, my services may not eventually injure me. I have amply secured you against the impious and abominable machinations of your enemies; do you then take the same precautions in respect of my safety.
* Not, my friends, that I apprehend there exists in my enemies the power of doing violence to my person. Great is the defence I have in the friendlhip of the virtuous; a defence that I am assured will never fail me. Great the dignity of my station, my perpetual though silent defender. And great, so great, indeed, the force of conscience; no man can abuse that monitor, without anticipating that violence meant for me, by a manifestation of his purpose. There is belide, my friends, a spirit in Cicero, which scorns to yield to the most daring opposition ; such a spirit, as courts the attack of the infamous and abandoned. But, if an hoit of domestic enemies, repelled from their attack upon you, should oppose their united force to my fingle person; the care of my fafety would then be your duty. In every case, O Romans! you are to consider the predicament in which you place those, who have the virtue and the courage to set at nought the malice of thousands; and to incur the most imminent dangers, for your protection and preservation.
• In respect of personal advantages, what have I now to hope, that can improve the enjoyment of lite? The plenitude of your power cannot give me increase of dignity; nor add to my honours. With respect to the glory of virtue a:so, I have ascended the climax ; and am firmly fixed opon the uppermost feat. Nevertheless, my conduct in private life, shall never disgrace my Consulate ; but, if possible, ornament and dignify my public elevation ; and I hope in such a degree, that if my services to the Republic mult necessarily be purfued by the obloquy of envy, those efforts will recoil upon itself; and ferve eventually to brighten my glory. In brief, my future deporte ment upon every occasion shall bear, a reference to my pait conduct ; that the whole may appear the resul: of uniform and fixed principles of virtue; not the offspring of accident or chance.
• Night is now approaching. Offer, therefore, your supplications to Jove, the guardian of yourselves and of your city. Retire to your abodes; and though you might, I doubt not, lie down without apprehensions, ftill for this night keep watch as before. Afterward, your watchings will be no longer necessary. I, my friends, will from that time forward be responsible for your continuance in peace and safety.'
If we may venture to trust our untaught ears, we must be of opinion, that the flowing harmony of the original, especially in the former part of this passage, is wholly lost in the abrupt and disjointed sentences of the translation. We must also add, that in the first sentence, the Translator, in breaking up the construction, has missed the Author's meaning. Cicero does not say, that he asks not the reward of virtue : this was the reward of which he was above all things ambitious; but he asked no other recompence than the perpetual commemoration of that R 4
day. Let all orations in my praise be constructed in your minds,' is an aukward phrase, scarcely intelligible. In the justice of your and pofterity's records, &c.' is a ftiff and inelegant arrangement. - At the close of this paragraph, the TranfJator introduces an extravagant and ridiculous idea, for which he has no authority in the original : While the other confirmed the stability of its center, and that the center of the universe'-This paffage is, in our judgment, much more harmonioully, as well as correctly, rendered in Duncan's Translation :
“ For all these important services, Romans, I desire no other reward of my zeal, no other mark of honour, no other monument of praise, but the perpetual remembrance of this day. It is in your breasts alone, that I would have all my triumphs, all my titles of honour, all the monuments of my glory, all the trophies of my renown, recorded and preserved. Lifeless ftatues, filent teftimonies of fame, in fine, whatever can be compassed by men of inferior merit, has no charms for me. remembrance, Romans, thall my actions be cherished; from your praises thall they derive growth and nourilament; and in your annals shall they ripen and be immortalized Nor will this day, I Aatter myself, ever cease to be propagated, to the safety of the city, and the honour of my Consullhip: but it Mall eternally remain upon record, that there were two citizens living at the same time in the republic, one of whom was terminating the extent of the empire by the bounds of the horizon itself, the other preserving the seat and capital of the empire."
In the latter paragraph, the Reader cannot but observe the ungrammatical conftrudion of the sentence- And great, fo great indeed the force of conscience, &c.'— With what a redundancy of swelling words is the Author's meaning clouded, in the version of the sentence, Mihi quidem ipfi, &c.' which Duncan, with great elearness and fimplícity, renders, “ As to myself in particular, what have I farther to wish for in life, fince, both with regard to the honours you confer, and the reputation Howing from virtue, I have already reached the highest point of my ambition ?"- Ornament is inelegantly used as an active verb. In rendering the clause; Magna enim eft in republica dignitas, quæ me femper tacita defendet; the Translator has exchanged the idea of the dignity of the Republic for the dignity of office ; and, not contented with this perversion of his Author's meaning, he remarks, in a Note, that. Shakespeare seems to have had this passage in view, when he makes the King in Hamlet saya
í Do not fear our perfon ;
To discover this resemblance surely required the penetration of a Fluellin, who could find Macedon in Monmouth, and Alexander the Great in Harry of Monmouth.-But probably the Translator labours under fome confusion in his ideas on this subject, and is not aware, that no two things in nature are more unlike each other, than the divinity of a King, and the dignity of a Republic, the MAJESTY of the PEOPLE.
We shall next felect our Translator's version of the animated conclusion of Cicero's Oration in defence of Milo:
• His lacrymis non movetur Milo; eft quodam incredibili robore apimi : exilium ibi effe putat, ubi virtuti non sit locus : mortem naturæ finem esse, non penam. Sit hic eâ mente, quâ natus eft; quid ? vos Judices, quo tandem animo eritis ? memoriam Milonis retinebitis, ipsum ejicietis ? & erit dignior locus in terris ullus, qui hanc virtatem excipiat, quàm hic qui procreavit ? Vos, vos appello, fore' tiffimi viri, qui multum pro republicâ fanguinem effudiftis ; vos in viri & in civis invicti appello periculo, centuriones, vosque milites :: vobis non modo inspectantibus, sed etiam armatis, & huic judicio præfidentibus, hæc tanta virtus ex hâc urbe expelletur ? exterminabitur? projicieturi ô me miserum! me infelicem! revocare cu me in patriam, Milo, potuisti per hos ? ego te in patriâ per eofdem retinere non potero? Quid respondebo liberis meis, qui te parentem alterum putanti quid tibi, Q. frater, qui nunc abes, consorti mecum temporum illorum ? me non potuiffe Milonis falutem tueri per eosdem, per quos noftram ille fervaffet i at in quâ causâ non potuiffe ? quæ ek grata gentibus ? à quibus non potuiffes ab iis, qui maximè P. Clodii morte acquierunt; quo deprecance me. Quodnam eg9 concepi tantum fcelus ? aut quod in me tantum facinus admisi Judices, cùm illa indicia communis exitii indagavi, patefeci, protuli; extinxi? omnes in me meosque redundant ex fonte illo dolores, Quid me reducem esse voluiftis ? an ut, inspectante me, expellerentur ii, per quos effem reftitutus ? Nolite,'obsecro vos, pati, mihi acerbiorem reditum esse, quàm fuerit ille ipfe difceffus. Nam quî poffum putare me reftitutum effe, fi diftrahor ab iis, per quos reftitutus sum. Utinam dii immortales feciffent (pace tuâ, patria, dixerim : metuo enim ne fceleratè dicam in te, quod pro Milone dicám piè) ut P. Clodius non modò viveret, fed etiam Prætor, Conful, Dictator, effet potiùs quàm hoc spectaculum viderem. O dii immortales ! foriem, & à vobis, Judices, conservandum virum! Minimè, minimè, inquit; immò verò penas ille debitas luerit : nos fubeamus, fi ita neceffe eft, non debitas. Hiccine vir patriæ natus, ufquam nih in patriâ morietur? aut, í fortè, pro patriâ, hujus vos ani. mi monumenta retinebitis, corporis in Italiâ nullum fepulchrum efle patiemini? hunc faâ quisquam fententiâ ex hâc urbe expellet, quem omnes arbes expulsum à vobis ad fe vocabunti terram illam beatam, quæ hunc virum exceperit ! hanc ingratam, fi ejecerit! miferam, fi amiserit ! Sed finis fit; neque enim præ lacrymis jam loqui poffum : & hic fe lacrymis defendi vetat; vos oro obteftorque, judices, ut in fententiis ferendis, quod fentietis, id audeatis. Veftram virtutem, justitiam, fidem (mihi credite) is maximè probabit, qui in judicibus legendis optimum & fapientiflimum & forcillimum quemque legis
• Still superior to his fate, behold Milo! Still unmoved, even by this torrent of tears. What fortitude, what dignity of soul! Alas! he deems nothing banishment, but what severs him from virtue ! Death itself to him, is but a common incident of nature ; no obje&t of punithment! Let him think so ever; and may the same dignity of mind, which was born, expire with him! Bus how, my Lords, are you to determined With what feelings can you condemn Milo?
you refect on the benefits you have derived from his virtues; and, at the fame cime, cast him forth from among you? Or, can there be, fellow-cirizens, so noble a foil for the display of virtues, as that wherein they first blossomed? I call on you, ye heroes ! on you, who have so freely, so unfparingly bled, for your country's honour! on you, centurions! soldiers of Rome! bravest and beit of men ! on you I call, and in the hour big with the fate of my friend! on you, who behold the scene, with arms in your hands, guarding this assembly, I call! and, of you, I alk: whether such ftupendous virtue, such undaunted courage, shall be thrust forth, expelled, extirpated from your city ?
wretched, miserable Cicero! shall future ages record that you, Milo, could prevail on those very men to whom I now appeal, to reftore me to Rome; and that, in a viciffitude of fortune, I unable to preserve you to your country? How, alas ! shall I answer this to my children, who think they never can be orphans, while Milo lives? How justify myself to you, Quintus, my abfent brother, but once my associate in the common dangers of the times? How, alas! be able to tell you, that all my interest with those, who were the means of my own preservation, could not secure the safety of Milo? In what a cause, O Heaven! have I failed ? In defending an act, the admiration of the universe. And, who were the men could not be prevailed upon?' The very men who were benefited by the death of Clodius. Who the advocate? CICERO HIMSELF.
• What wickedness have my conceptions teemed withal? Of what crimes have I been convicted! I discovered, I prosecuted, I dissolved a conspiracy, fraught with the ruin of the republic. Alas! from that fountain all my forrows Aow! But, wherefore did you decree my return from banilment? To be a witness to the banishment of those who were the instruments of my return? Spare me, I beseech you, spare me, my Lords, the mortification of feeling greater compunctions of distress by my restoration to Rome, than at my separation from thence, But how, indeed, can you say that I am restored to my country, when I am torn from those who effected my return? O! that the Gods! with severence to my country I speak, lett my pious declarations for Milo should be construed a libel upon you; O, that the allpowerful Gods had permitted, that Clodius Thould have lived, been Prætor, Consui, Dictator ; rather than that I should have beheld such a day of calamity to Milo! Immortal Gods! is not this the instant, that the preservation of a brave man waits upon your faving power? He waves the question. The craitor then suffers the just penalties of his crimes. Let me, however, rather suffer those penalties I have not deserved. And ihall such a man, the man born to be the deliverer of his country, be refused the privilege of succouring that country in future, or of yielding his last breath in his native land? Can