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Heu ! fuge crudeles terras, fuge litus avarum 45. Ferrea seges te. Nam Polydorus ego : hìc confixum ferrea texit 45 lorum texit me confixum Telorum seges, et jaculis increvit acutis. hic 47. Pressus quoad

Tum verò ancipiti mentem formidine pressus mentem ancipiti

Obstupui, steteruntque comæ, et vox faucibus hæsit. 49. Quondam infelix Hunc Polydorum auri quondam cum pondere magno Priamus furtim mandâ- Infelix Priamus furtim mandârat alendum

50 hunc Polydorum Threïcio regi ; cùm jam diffideret armis Threïcio regi alendum,

Dardaniæ, cingique urbem obsidione videret. magno pondere auri

Ille, ut opes fractæ Teucrûm, et fortuna recessit, 53. Ille, nempe Polym- Res Agamemnonias victriciaquearma secutus, nestor, ut opes Teucrúm Fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat, et auro 55 fractæ sunt

Vi potitur. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
Auri sacra fames! Postquam pavor ossa reliquit,

Delectos populi ad proceres, primùmque parentem, 59. Quæ sit eorum Monstra Deùm refero; et, quæ sit sententia, posco. sententia de iis.

Omnibus idem animus, sceleratâ excedere terrâ, 60 60. Est idem animus omnibus excedere

Linquere pollutum hospitium, et dare classibus Austros.
Ergò instauramus Polydoro funus, et ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus: stant manibus aræ,
Cæruleis meestæ vittis atrâque cupresso:


son of lione, the daughter of Priam, and gold, what dost thou not force the hearts of wife of Polymnestor, king of Thrace. Tulit: men to perpetrate! The word sacer signiproduced, or bore. Stipite: the body, or fies, usually, sacred, holy: here, accursed, trunk.

execrable. The word facere or perpetrare, 45. Ferrea seges. To understand this pas- is to be supplied. Heyne says, ad quid: to sage, we may suppose that these darts were what, &c. thrown in upon the body of Polydorus as he 59. Monstra Deûm : the prodigies of the lay in the grave; which they pierced : and, gods. Primùm: in the sense of præcipuè. taking root in that place, sprang up, and Heyne says, primo loco grew in the form of sharp pointed javelins, 61. Hospilium: in the sense of locum forming a shade over the tomb. Heyne Dare austros classibus: to give the winds to says: excreverunt in arbores unde jacula pe- the fleet. In the sense of dare vela ventis, tuntur.

Auster, is here taken for the wind in gene46. Increvit aculis : grew up into sharp ral: the species for the genus. The south javelins : into trees like sharp javelins. wind would have been against him, going

47. Pressus : in the sense of percussus. from Thrace to Delos. Ancipiti : dubia, says Ruæus.

62. Instauramus funus : we perform the 50. Mandârat : in the sense of miserat. funeral rites to Polydorus. He had not 51. Diffideret : in the sense of desperaret. been buried with the usual solemnities, a Dardaniæ : in the sense of Troja. See Æn. matter which the ancients considered of i. 1.

great moment. These rites were called 53. Opes Teucrûm : the power of the justa. Without them, they thought the soul Trojans was broken. Ut: in the sense of wandered 100 years without any rest. Virquando.

gil here gives a full account of the funeral 54. Res Agamemnonias : embracing (se- rites performed by the Romans, at the cutus) the Grecian cause, and their victo- interment of the dead. rious arms, he breaks every sacred obliga- 63. Ingens tellus : a huge pile of earth is tion. Agamemnon was captain general of thrown up for the tomb. Aræ stant manithe Grecian forces in the expedition against bus. It appears that two altars were conTroy. His interest, therefore, is the general secrated to the Manes. See 305, infra, interest of the Greeks. Fas: properly a also, Ecl. v. 66. By manibus here, we are divine, or sacred law. By the murder of to understand the soul or spirit of Polydorus. Polydorus, he broke through the ties of 64. Mæstæ: mournful dressed in mournconsanguinity, hospitality, and friendship; ing. These fillets were of a deep purple or which are considered of a sacred nature. violet color a color between blue and black.

57. Sacra fames auri: O cursed desire of Rueus says, tristes.

Et circùm Iliades crinem de more solutæ.

65 65. Iliades, solutze Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte,

quoad crinem de moro.

stant circum
Sanguinis et sacri pateras : animamque sepulchro
Condimus, et magnâ supremùm voce ciemus.
Inde ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti

69. Prima fides est pe69

lago. Dant maria, et lenis crépitans vocat Auster in altum;

72. Recedunt à nostro Deducunt socii naves, et litora complent.

aspectu Provehimur portu, terræque urbesque recedunt.

73. Gratissima tellus Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus

sacra matri Nereïdum, Nereïdum matri et Neptuno Ægæo:

et Ægæo:

75. Quam errantem Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum

75 anieà circum oras, et Èrrantem, Mycone celsa Gyaroque revinxit;



65. Soluto crinem: loose as to their hair but if he should fail in the attempt, the ship -having their hair loose or dishevelled. should return with black sails. See Ecl. i. 55.

Theseus, on his return, forgot to hang out 66. Inferimus cymbia: we offer bowls the white flag, through grief for his beloved foaming with warm milk, and goblets of the Ariadne, whom Bacchus had ravished from consecrated blood. From the verb infero, him. The father, who was expecting him is formed inferiæ, sacrifices for the dead, with impatience, as soon as he, from the top which consisted in pouring into or upon the of a high rock, saw the ship in mourning, grave, milk and the blood of a victim slain, threw himself into the sea, supposing his as here mentioned.

son to have been slain. Ægeus was king of 67. Condimus animam: we place, or bury Athens. the soul in the grave. Ruæus says, claudi- The islands in the southern part of this mus animam.

sea were called Sporades, from a Greek word It was a prevailing opinion among the which signifies, to scatter, or sow; because Romans and Greeks, that the soul could not they lay as if scattered or sown, without orrest without burial; for this reason, they der or regularity. The islands farther north were so anxious about funeral rites. Hence were called Cyclades, from a Greek word conditorium came to signify a burial-place. signifying a circle, because they lay around Et supremùm: and lastly, we call upon him Delos in the form of a circle. Hodie, the with a loud voice. This they did, to call Archipelago. the soul to its place of its rest, and to take Neptune is here called Ægean, because the last farewell

, by pronouncing the word he was supposed to have his residence in vale, three times. Ciemus: in the sense of the Ægean sea. conclamamus. See Æn. i. 219.

75. Arcilenens. This was an epithet of 69. Fides: confidence—security. Pla- Apollo; also a name of Apollo, as in this cata : in the sense of quieta, vel tranquilla. place; compounded of arcus and toneo. He It agrees with maria.

is here called pius, because, it is said, that 70. Auster : properly the south wind; as soon as he was born, he slew the serpent here taken for wind in general. Crepitans: Python, which Juno sent to persecute his murmuring-rustling-blowing gently. mother Latona. Pierius would read priùs,

73. Gratissima tellus. The island Delos instead of pius, connecting it with erranter. is meant, the birth-place of Apollo and Di- He assures us that it is found in several an

Matri Nereïdum: to Doris, the wife cient copies. of Nereus, and mother of fifty sea-nymphs, Delos is a small island in the Ægean sea called Nereides. Colitur : in the sense of in lat. 37° 30' north, having Mycone on the incolitur, vel habitatur.

north-east, Gyarus and Naxus on the east 74. Ægæo. That part of the Mediter- and south, and Rhena on the west. ranean sea, lying betweer. Asia on the east, The fable is this: Juno being angry at and the Morea, Attica, and Thessaly on the her husband for loving Latona, resolved she west, was called the Ægean sea ; from should have no place to bring forth in peace. Ægeus, the father of Thescus, who threw Jupiter directed her to Delos, which was himself into it, and was drowned, expecting then a floating or wandering island, as a that son, who had undertaken to fight place of safe retreat. Apollo, after his birth, the Minotaur, was slain.

fixed and rendered it immoveable, for the The fable is this: it was agreed between residence of his mother. Its original name the father and son, that if he subdued the was Orlygia. This was changed into the monster, and returned victorious, he should name Delos, which, in the Greek, signifies hang out a white flag, or have white sails: apparent, or brought to view, it having been



Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnere ventos. 78. Hæc placidissima Huc feror: hæc fessos tuto placidissima portu insula accipit nos

Accipit. Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem. 79. Egressi navibus

Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phæbique sacerdos, 80

Vittis et sacrâ redimitus tempora lauro 82. Occurrit nobis Occurrit, veterem Anchisen agnoscit amicum.

Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus. 85. Et sic dixi: 0 Templa Dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto; Thymbræe Apollo, da Da propriam, Thymbræe, domum, da menia fessis, 85 nobis fessis propriam do- Et genus, et mansuram urbem : serva altera Trojæ

88. Quòve jubes nos Pergama, relliquias Dana ûm atque immitis Achillei.
ire? ubi jubes nos ponere
Quem sequimur ? quòve ire jubes ? ubi ponere

sedes? nostras sedes?

Da, pater, augurium, atque animis illabere nostris. 90. Repentè omnia Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repentè, 90 visa sunt tremere

Liminaque, laurusque Dei : totusque moveri 91. Totusque mons Mons circùm, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis. visus est moveri 94. Eadem tellus, quæ

Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad aures: tulit vos à prima stirpe Dardanidæ duri, quæ vos à stirpe parentum




hidden before under the waves. This part blood of victims; but only honored with of the fable some explain, by saying that prayers, and other simple rites of ancient Apollo here gave out his oracles plain and worship. intelligible, but in every other place, in terms

85. Thymbræe. Thymbræus was an epidark and obscure. See Ecl. iv. 10.

thet of Apollo, derived, as we are told by 77. Dedilque: and rendered it fixed to be Strabo, from Thymbra, a place near Troy, inhabited, and to condemn the winds. This where he had a famous temple. Propriam: alludes to the story of its having been a fixed, lasting. wandering island, and driven about by the winds, till fixed by Apollo for the residence

86. Genus : offspring-posterity. Ruæus of his mother. Hence it became sacred to

says, familias. Mansuram : permanent, to her.

89. Idem rex hominum. It was a custom 87. Pergama : neu. plu. properly the fort among many nations to unite in the samo or citadel of Troy ; often used for the whole person the offices of king and priest. Anius city. Altera Pergama. Simply, the other was both king, and priest of Apollo. Troy--the city which Æneas prayed Apollo

81. Redimitus: bound as to his temples to grant to him, and his followers, the rewith fillets, and the sacred laurel. The mains of the Greeks, and of cruel Achilles. laurel was sacred to Apollo. Hence the 89. Augurium: a sign, or omen. propriety of his priest being bound with it:

91. Laurus. Either the laurel, with which and the propriety of the epithet sacra.

the image of the god was crowned; or rather 83. Subimus iecta : we come under his the laurel tree, which was placed at the enroof--we enter his palace. But lecta here trance of the temple. It was an opinion may mean the temple mentioned below: the among the ancients that the gods gave signs word lectum properly signifying any covered of their approach, by causing the earth to building. Or tecta may be taken for the

move and shake. To this the poet here albuildings of the city in general. The mean- ludes. The laurel was sacred to Apollo. ång then will be; we enter the city.

84. Structa vetusto saxo : built of ancient 92. Cortina. The covering of the tripod, stone, or rock. Macrobius informs us that, whence the priest delivered responses. Hence when the temple at Delphi, and the temples by meton. the oracle itself. Adytis. The built to Apollo in other ) laces, were destroy- sanctuary, or inner part of the temple, where ed in any way whatever, his temple at Delos the Oracle was. Reclusis : in the sense of continued to stand unimpaired; and conse

apertis. Mons. This was mount Cynthus, quently retained its ancient or original stone. on which the temple was built: whence Whatever ravages the island had suffered, Apollo was sometimes called Cynthius, and the sanctity of the temple preserved it from Diana, Cynthia. Mugire: in the sense of violation. Venerabar: I worshipped I offered prayers. It is said that the altar of 94. Dardanidæ : the same as Trojani. Apollo at Delos was never stained with the Servius observes that the Trojans might



99. Ingensque lætitia 100 exorta est cum mixto

101. Nos errantes

Prima tulit, tellus eadem vos ubere læto
Accipiet reduces: antiquam exquirite matrem.
Hìc domus Æneæ cunctis dominabitur oris,
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.

Hæc Phæbus : mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu
Lætitia ; et cuncti, quæ sint ea mænia, quærunt,
Quò Phæbus vocet errantes, jubeatque reverti.
Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum,
Audite, ô proceres, ait, et spes discite vestras.
Creta Jovis magni medio jacet insula ponto,
Mons Idæus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostræ.
Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna.
Maximus unde pater, si ritè audita recordor,
Teucrus Rhæteas primùm est advectus in oras,

105. Ubi est Idæus

mons 105

106. Incolæ habitant centum

107. Unde Teucrus noster maximus pater primùm

NOTES. have understood from this declaration of tings, but paintings, columns, tombs, and the Oracle, that Italy was designed them, statues. Ruæus says, historias. Volvens : in whence Dardanus came; and not Crete, the sense of recogitans, vel revolvens in which was the birthplace of Teucer. Stirpe : mente. in the sense of origine.

104. Creta. A large island in the Mediter 95. Læto ubere : in its joyous bosom: or ranean, lying between the Archipelago on perhaps, in its fertile soil. Uber : signifies the north, and the Lybian sea on the south : the richness or fertility of the soil. Ruæus Hodie, Candia. It was called Creta, from says, ferlili sinu.

Cres, who is said to have reigned there 96. Reduces: brought back, or returning after Jupiter. It is sometimes called in safety. Matrem. It is supposed that the Crete. Teucer, from whom the Trojans poet had in view the circumstance of Brutus, were sometimes called Teucri, and Troy, and the Tarquins, who went to Delphi to Teucria, was a native of this island. He consult the Oracle of Apollo, concerning was the son of Scamander; and, in the the succession to the kingdom. They re- time of a famine, led a colony to Troas, ceived for answer, that the empire should and settled at Rheteum, a promontory on be his, who first kissed his great mother. the shore of the Hellespont. He was most Brutus, on leaving the ship, feigned a fall, probably the founder of the Trojans : and kissed the ground, which he considered whence Anchises calls him Maximus pater. as the great parent of all. He received the They were, however, very fond of deriving government, after the expulsion of the Tar- their descent_from Dardanus, who fled quins, being chosen Consul. He was slain from Italy to Troas, and became the son-inby Aruns, one of the Tarquins, soon after law to Teucer. By marrying his daughter, he entered upon his office.

he obtained a share in the kingdom, and at 97. Domus Æneæ: here the family of his death succeeded him in the government. Æneas shall bear rule over all lands, &c. Crete is here called the island of great These two lines are taken from the Iliad. Jove; because it was the place of his birth Lib. 20. 306. It is there said, however, and education. See Georg. 1. 121. ihat Æneas should reign over the Trojans. 105. Cunabula : neu. plur. the cradle or Hence some have inferred that he remained nursing place of your race. in Troas, and that the whole account of the origo. Idæus: an adj. from Ida, a mountain origin of the Romans is a mere fiction, a in Crete. compliment only to Augustus. But Diony- 106. Habitant: in the sense of occupant. sjus of Halicarnassus understands it of his Uberrima regna: most fertile realms. This reigning over the Trojans in Italy. And in answers to læto ubero, mentioned, 95, supra, this he is followed by Eustathius in his and tended to mislead Anchises. commentary upon this passage of the Iliad. 107. Audita : reports--iraqitions. It may be observed that Virgil does not say, 108. Rhæteas oras : the coast of Rheteum. Trojanis dominabitur, which answers to the Rholeum was a promontory of Troas, Greek of Honer ; but cunctis dominabitur where Teucer landed with his colony from oris. This circumstance hath led some to Crete. He introduced the wo alter the Greek text so as to conform to the bele, the mother of the gods, and gave to Roman.

the mountains of Phrygia the name of Ida, 101. Reverti : in the sense of procedere. from mount /da in Crete. He also changed Quò: in the sengo of ad que loca.

the name of Xanthus into that of Scam102. Monumenta : records, or inemorials. ander, after the name of his father. Hence These wero of various kinds; not only wric Homer says that the river was called X»

Ruæus says,

of Cy110

Optavitque locum regno: nondum Ilium et arces

Pergameæ steterant; habitabant vallibus imis. 111. Hinc venit mater Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque æra, Cybele

Idæumque nemus: hinc fida silentia sacris, 112, Hinc venerunt Et juncti currum dominæ subiere leones. fida silentia

Ergò agite, et, Divûm ducunt quà jussa, sequamur.

Placemus ventos, et Gnossia regna petamus. 116. Ila distant longo Nec longo distant cursu: modò Jupiter adsit,

Tertia lux classem Cretæis sister in oris.



NOTES. thus by the gods, but Scamander by men- priests of Cybele, derived from the Greek. the former being its original, and more ho. During her worship, they made a confused norable name.

noise with timbrels, pipes, and cymbals. 109. Optavit : in the sense of elegit. Stra- They danced, tossed their heads, and struck bo agrees with Virgil in making Teucer the their foreheads against each other, appearfirst who reigned in Troy. Dardanus ar. ing like mad men. rived not long after, married his daughter They were sometimes called Cureles, Batea, and succeeded him in the govern- from a Greek word which signifies a virgin, ment.

because they wore a long robe like young 110. Pergameæ : in the sense of Trojana. virgins. They were also called Dactyli,

111. Cybele. The same with Rhea or Ops, from a Greek word signifying a finger, beand wife of Saturn. She is so called pro- cause they were ten in number, there being bably from Cybelus, a mountain in Phrygia, so many fingers on both hands. The epiwhere she was worshipped. She is taken thet Idæi is here added, because they chiefly sometimes for the earth; and in that sense resided on mount Ida. is the common parent of all its inhabitants. Cybele is represented sitting on a car Her priests were called Corybantes, Curetes, with a robe of divers colors, and holding a and Idæi Dactyli. Among other things in key in her hand, to denote that she unlocks her worship, they used to beat brazen cym- and distributes in summer those treasures, bals together. The origin of this practice that the winter had hid and concealed. She was to prevent the cries of the child Jupiter wears a turreted crown on her head, and is from being heard by his father. Cybele is drawn by a pair of harnessed lions. The here called Cultrix, most probably because box and the pine tree were sacred to her: she was worshipped in a mountain of the former, because pipes were made of that Phrygia; whence might be said that she wood, and used in her worship; the latter inhabited it, and, as it were, became the for the sake of the boy Atys, whom she protectress of that country. This is the loved, and made president of her rites, or sense Ruæus gives. He says, protectrix loci. ceremonies : but afterwards changed him Æra: brazen cymbals. Any thing made of into the pine tree. Her sacrifices were perbrass may be called æs, or æru.

formed in private, and men were excluded Heyne reads Cybelæ, he gen. of Cybela, from participation. Silence was especially sometimes written Cybelus, the naine of a enjoined in her mysteries. This will exmountain in Phrygia. Mater Deûm, says plain fida silentia sacris, in the following he, qure colit, inhabilat Cybelen, moniem line. Phrygiæ : taking cultrix in the sense of quæ 112. Hinc fida: hence the faithful secrecy colit vel inhabitat. After the arrival of in her sacred rites. The mysteries of Cy. Teucer from Crete, he probably changed the bele, as we'l as those of Ceres, were carenanie of the mountain Cybela or Cybelus, fully concealed from the common people. calling it Ida, after the Cretan Ida.

Her chariot was drawn by harnessed lions, This goddess had several names: Cybele, juncti leones, to denote that maternal affecfrom the mountain already named, where it tion, figured by Cybele, or the earth, the is said she was first worshipped by sacrifi- common parent of all, triumphs over the ces: Ops, from a word implying help, be- most ferocious and savage natures. Subie. cause she brings help or assistance to every re: in the sense of traxerunt. Dominæ. production of nature: Rhea, from a Greek This is an epithet of Cybele, as being the word signifying to flow, because her benefits mother of the gods. flow without ceasing: Dindymene, from the 115. Gnossia : an adj. from Gnossus, the mountain Dindymus in Phrygia : Berecun- principal city of Crete, put by synec. for the Ihza, from Berecynthus, a Castle in the same whole island. country. See Æn. vi. 784. She was also 116. Nec distant : nor are the realms of called Bona Dea, and Mater Deorum. Sce Creto a long way distant Modò: providea Ecl. iv. 6. and Geor. i. 121.

that in case that. Corybantia : an adj. from Corybantes, the 117. Lux: in the sense of dies

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