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The corruption of

ISAIAH.

Israel described. A. M. cir. 3244.

anger,

they are gone away 6. From the sole of the foot A. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760.

B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. backward.

even unto the head there is no Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ 1. Ante Urbem 5 kWhy should ye be stricken soundness in it; but wounds, Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. any more? ye will 'revolt more and bruises, and putrefying sores; and more: the whole head is sick, and the " they have not been closed, neither bound up, whole heart faint.

neither mollified with a ointment. i Heb. alienated, or separated ; Psa. lviii. 3. — Chap. ix. 13; I Hebrew, increase revolt. m Jeremiah viii. 22. Jer. ii. 30; v. 3.

n Or, oil. israel othi lo yada. The word 'nix othi has been lost its close and compressed structure, analogous to the out of the text. The very same phrase is used by sense which it expresses :Jeremiah, chap. iv. 22, wtb nix by ammi othi lo

Γεμω κακων δη· κ' ουκετ' εσθ' οπη τιθη.. yadau. And the order of the words must have been as above represented; for they have joined by yis.

I am full of miseries : there's no room for more. rael, with 'nix othi, as in regimine ; they could not

Herc. Fur. 1245, Long. sec. 40. have taken it in this sense, Israel Meus non cognovit, “ On what part will ye strike again? will ye add had either this phrase or the order of the words been correction ?" This is addressed to the instruments of different. I have endeavoured to set this matter in a God's vengeance; those that inflicted the punishment, clear light, as it is the first example of a whole word who or whatsoever they were. Ad verbum certæ lost out of the text, of which the reader will find many personæ intelligendæ sunt, quibus ista actio quæ per other plain examples in the course of these notes. verbum exprimitur competit; “ The words are adBut Rosenmüller contends that this is unnecessary, as dressed to the persons who were the agents employed the passage may be translated, “ Israel knows nothing : in the work expressed by the original word,” as Glasmy people have no understanding."

sius says in a similar case, Phil. Sacr. i. 3, 22. See The Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read pyn chap. viii. 4. veammi, and my people ;” and so likewise sixteen As from yt' yada, nyn deah, knowledge; from you MSS. of Kennicott, and fourteen of De Rossi. yaals, 1787 etsah, counsel; from youn yashan, 70 she

Verse 4. Ah sinful nation—" Degenerate"] Five nah, sleep, &c.; so from 70 yasar is regularly deMSS., one of them ancient, read Dinnuna moschathim, rived 1770 sarah, correction. without the first · yod, in hophal corrupted, not cor- Verse 5. The whole head is sick] The king and the rupters. See the same word in the same form, and in priests are equally gone away from truth and righteousthe same sense, Prov. xxv. 26.

Or, The state is oppressed by its enemies, and Are corrupters—" Are estranged"] Thirty-two the Church corrupted in its rulers and in its members. MSS., five ancient, and two editions, read 17113 nazoru ; Verse 6. They have not been closed, 80.—" It hath which reading determines the word to be from the root not been pressed," &c.) The pharmaceutical art in the 917 zur, to alienate, not from 173 nazar, to separate ; East consists chiefly in external applications : accordso Kimchi understands it. See also Annotat. in Nol- ingly the prophet's images in this place are all taken dium, 68.

from surgery

Sir John Chardin, in his note on Prov. They are gone away backward_" They have turn- iii

. 8, “ It shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to ed their backs upon him.") So Kimchi explains it: thy bones,” observes that “the comparison is taken as they have turned unto him the back, and not the from the plasters, ointments, oils, and frictions, which face.” See Jer. ii. 27; vii. 24. I have been forced are made use of in the East upon the belly and stomach to render this line paraphrastically; as the verbal in most maladies. Being ignorant in the villages of translation, “they are estranged backward," would have the art of making decoctions and potions, and of the been unintelligible.

proper doses of such things, they generally make use Verse 5. Why should ye be stricken any more- of external medicines.”Harmer's Observations on "On what part,” &c. ?] The Vulgate renders no by Scripture, vol. ii. p. 488. And in surgery their maal meh, super quo, (see Job xxxviii. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxxii. teria medica is extremely simple, oil making the prin10,) upon what part. And so Abendana on Sal. ben cipal part of it. “ In India,” says Tavernier, “they Melech: “ There are some who explain it thus : Upon have a certain preparation of oil and melted grease, what limb shall you be smitten, if you add defection? which they commonly use for the healing of wounds." for already for your sins have you been smitten upon Voyage Ind. So the good Samaritan poured oil and all of them; so that there is not to be found in you a wine on the wounds of the distressed Jew : wine, whole limb on which you can be smitten.” Which cleansing and somewhat astringent, proper for a agrees with what follows : “From the sole of the foot fresh wound ; oil, mollifying and healing, Luke x. 34. even unto the head, there is no soundness in it :" and Kimchi has a judicious remark here : “When various the sentiment and image is exactly the same with that medicines are applied, and no healing takes place, that of Ovid, Pont. ii. 7, 42 :

disorder is considered as coming immediately from God.” Vix habet in nobis jam nova plaga locum.

of the three verbs in this sentence, one is in the There is no place on you for a new stripe.

singular number in the text ; another is singular in two

MSS., (one of them ancient,) non chubbeshah ; and Or that still more expressive line of Euripides ; the the Syriac and Vulgate render all of them in the sin. great force and effect of which Longinus ascribes to gular number,

ness.

The wretchedness and

CHAP. I.

desolation of Zion A. M. cir. 3214. B. C. cir. 760. 7 Your country is desolate, 8 And the daughter of Zion 4. M. cir. 3244.

B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. your cities are burned with fire : is left 4 as a cottage in a vine- Anno Olymp. Quinta 1.

Quinta I. Ante Urbem your land, strangers devour it in yard, as a lodge in a garden Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. your presence, and it is desolate, of cucumbers, 'as a besieged Pas overthrown by strangers.

city.

. Deut. xxvni. 51, 52.P Heb. as the overthrow of strangers.

9 Job xxvii. 18; Lam. ii. 6.- Jer. iv. 17.

66

Verses 7–9. Your country is desolate] The de- from the heat by day, and the cold and dews by scription of the ruined and desolate state of the coun- night, for the watchman that kept the garden or vinetry in these verses does not suit with any part of the yard during the short season the fruit was ripening, prosperous times of Uzziah and Jotham. It very well (see Job xxvii. 18,) and presently removed when it had agrees with the time of Ahaz, when Judea was ravaged served that purpose. See Harmer's Observ. i. 454. by the joint invasion of the Israelites and Syrians, and They were probably obliged to have such a constant by the incursions of the Philistines and Edomites. watch to defend the fruit from the jackals. • The The date of this prophecy is therefore generally fixed jackal,” (chical of the Turks,) says Hasselquist, (Trato the time of Ahaz. But on the other hand it may vels, p. 227,)“ is a species of mustela which is very be considered whether those instances of idolatry which common in Palestine, especially during the vintage; are urged in ver. 29—the worshipping in groves and and often destroys whole vineyards, and gardens of gardens--having been at all times too commonly prac-cucumbers.” “ There is also plenty of the canis vultised, can be supposed to be the only ones which the pes, the fox, near the convent of St. John in the desert, prophet would insist upon in the time of Ahaz; who about vintage time; for they destroy all the vines unspread the grossest idolatry through the whole country, less they are strictly watched.” Ibid. p. 184. See and introduced it even into the temple; and, to com-Cant. ii. 15. plete his abominations, made his son pass through the Fruits of the gourd kind, melons, water-melons, fire to Molech. It is said, 2 Kings xv. 37, that in cucumbers, &c., are much used and in great request Jotham's time “ the Lord' began to send against Judah in the Levant, on account of their cooling quality. Rezin—and Pekah.” If we may suppose any inva- The Israelites in the wilderness regretted the loss of sion from that quarter to have been actually made at the cucumbers and melons among the other good things the latter end of Jotham's reign, I should choose to of Egypt, Num. xi. 5: In Egypt the season of refer this prophecy to that time.

water-melons, which are most in request, and which And your cities are burned.-Nineteen of Dr. Ken- the common people then chiefly live upon, lasts but nicott's MSS. and twenty-two of De Rossi's, some of three weeks. See Hasselquist, p. 256. Tavernier my own, with the Syriac and Arabic, add the conjunc- makes it of longer continuance : L'on y void de grands tion, which makes the hemistich more complete. carreaux de melons et de concombres, mais beaucoup

Verse 7. O'yi zarim at the end of the verse. This plus de derniers, dont les Levantins font leur delices. reading, though confirmed by all the ancient versions, Le plus souvent ils les mangent sans les peler, après gires us no good sense ; for “your land is devoured quoi ils vont boire une verre d'eau. Dans toute l'Asie by strangers; and is desolate, as if overthrown by c'est la nourriture ordinaire du petit peuple pendant strangers," is a mere tautology, or, what is as bad, an trois ou quatre mois; toute la famille en vit ; et quand identical comparison. Aben Ezra thought that the un enfant demand à manger, au lieu qu'en France ou word in its present form might be taken for the same aillieurs nous luy donnerions du pain, dans le Levant with Oni zerem, an inundation : Schultens is of the on luy presente un concombre, qu'il mange cru comme same opinion ; (see Taylor's Concord. ;) and Schindler on le vient de cueillir. Les concombres dans le Lein his Lexicon explains it in the same manner : and vant ont une bontè particuliere; et quoiqu'on les so, says Kimchi, some explain it. Abendana endea- mange crus, ils font jamais de mal; “ There are Fours to reconcile it to grammatical analogy in the to be seen great beds of melons and cucumbers, but a following manner : “O'N zarim is the same with on greater number of the latter, of which the Levantines zerem ; that is, as overthrown by an inundation of are particularly fond. In general they eat them withwaters : and these two words have the same analogy ont taking off the rind, after which they drink a glass as opp kedem and D'ap kadim. Or it may be a con- of water. In every part of Asia this is the aliment crete of the same form with 730 shechir ; and the of the common people for three or four months; the meaning will be : as overthrown by rain pouring down whole family live on them; and when a child asks violently, and causing a flood.” On Sal. ben Melech, something to eat, instead of giving it a piece of bread, in loc. But I rather suppose the true reading to be as is done in France and other countries, they present Dni zerem, and have translated it accordingly: the word it with a cucumber, which it eats raw, as gathered. D'ni zerim, in the line above, seems to have caught the Cucumbers in the Levant are peculiarly excellent; and transcriber's eye, and to have led him into this mistake. although eaten raw, they are seldom injurious.” TaBut this conjecture of the learned prelate is not con- vernier, Relat. du Serrail, cap. xix. firmed by any MS. yet discovered.

As a lodge, fc.] That is, after the fruit was gaVerse 8. As a cottage in a vineyard—“As a shed thered; the lodge being then permitted to fall into in a vineyard"] A little temporary hut covered with decay. Such was the desolate, ruined state of the boughs, straw, turf, or the like materials, for a shelter city,

A. M. cir. 3244.
B. C. cir. 760.
Anno Olymp.

Quintæ I.
Ante Urbem
Conditam 7.

Ante Urbem

The vanity and

ISAIAH.

hypocrisy of Israel. 9 Except the Lord of hosts am full of the burnt-offerings of A M. cir

. 3214

B. C. had left unto us a very small rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and Anno Olymp.

Quintæ 1. remnant, we should have been I delight not in the blood of bul

Conditam 7. as • Sodom, and we should have locks, or of lambs, or of whe-goats. been like unto Gomorrah.

12 When ye come *to y appear

before me, 10 Hear the word of the Lord, ye rulers who hath required this at your hand, to tread a of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, my courts ? ye people of Gomorrah.

13 Bring no more ? vain oblations; incense 11 To what purpose is the multitude of is an abomination unto me; the new moons your " sacrifices unto me? saith the Lord: 1 and Sabbaths, áthe calling of assemblies, I

• Lam. iii. 22 ; Rom. ix. 29.-Gen. xix. 24. — Deut. xxxii. 22; Mic. vi. 7.—* Heb. great he-goats. - Heb. to be seen. 32; Ezek. xvi. 46. -" Sam. xv. 22 ; Psa. I. 8, 9; li. 16; Prov. Exod. xxiii. 17; xxxiv. 23. Matt. xv. 9.a Joel i. 14; xv. 8; xxi. 27; chap. lxvi. 3 ; Jer. vi. 20; vii. 21 ; Amos v. 21, Lii. 15.

יהוה אלהי צבאות ing it as an elliptical expression for

to see.

As a besieged city-"A city, taken by siege") So So has Persius ; see Sat. ii. v. 71-75:the üç Toreç Tohlopkovjevn ; Septuagint : see also the “Quin damus id Superis, de magna quod dare lanæ,” &c. Vulgate. Verse 9. The Lord of hosts—“ Jehovah God of The two or three last pages of Plato's Euthyphro

contain the same idea. Sacrifices and prayers are hosts") As this title of God, nixas 717 Yehorah tsebaoth, “ Jehovah of hosts,” occurs here for the first not profitable to the offerer, nor acceptable to the gods, time, I think it proper to note, that I translate it al- unless accompanied with an upright life. ways, as in this place, “ JEHovah God of hosts ;" tak

Verse 11. The fat of fed beasts, c.] The fat and

the blood' are particularly mentioned, because these Yehovah Elohey tsebaoth. This title imports that Je- were in all sacrifices set apart to God. The fat was HovaH is the God or Lord of hosts or armies ; as he always burnt upon the altar, and the blood was partly is the Creator and Supreme Governor of all beings in sprinkled, differently on different occasions, and partly

See Lev. iv. heaven and earth, and disposeth and ruleth them all in poured out at the bottom of the altar. their several orders and stations ; the almighty, uni

Verse 12. When ye come to appear] Instead of versal Lord.

09825 leraoth, to appear, one MS. has nixos liroth, We should have been as Sodom] As completely and

See De Rossi. The appearing before God finally ruined as that and the cities of the plain were,

here refers chiefly to the three solemn annual festivals. no vestige of which remains at this day.

See Exod. xxiii. 14. Verse 10. Ye rulers of Sodom—“Ye princes of

Tread my courts (no more)] So the Septuagint Sodom”] The incidental mention of Sodom and Go divide the sentence, joining the end of this verse to the morrah in the preceding verse suggested to the pro

beginning of the next : Πατειν την αυλην μου, ου προσphet this spirited address to the rulers and inhabitants Onorobe ; “ To tread my court ye shall not add—ye shall of Jerusalem, under the character of princes of Sodom not be again accepted in worship.” and people of Gomorrah. Two examples of a sort of

Verse 13. The new moons and Sabbaths-" The fast elegant turn of the like kind may be observed in St. and the day of restraint") 77891 j18 ave vaatsarah. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, chap. xv. 4, 5, 12, 13.

These words are rendered in many different manners See Locke on the place; and see ver. 29, 30, of this by different interpreters, to a good and probable sense chapter, which gives another example of the same.

by all ; but I think by none in such a sense as can And—like unto Gomorrah.—The I vau is added by arise from the phrase itself, agreeably to the idiom of thirty-one of Kennicott's MSS., twenty-nine of De the Hebrew language. Instead of pix aven, the SepRossi's and one, very ancient, of my own,

tuagint manifestly read diy isom, vnotelav," the fast.” ver. 6.

This Houbigant has adopted. The prophet could not Verse 11. To what purpose, &c.—“What have I well have omitted the fast in the enumeration of their to do.”] The prophet Amos has expressed the same

solemnilies, nor the abuse of it among the instances of sentiments with great elegance :

their hypocrisy, which he has treated at large with

such force and elegance in his fifty-eighth chapter. “I hate, I despise your feasts ;

Observe, also, that the prophet Joel, (chap. i. 14, and And I will not delight in the odour of your 80- | ii. 15,) twice joins together the fast and the day of lemnities :

restraint:
Though ye offer unto me burnt-offerings
And your meat-offerings, I will not accept :
Neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your

atsarah kiru isom kaddeshu
fatlings.

“Sanctify a fast; proclaim a day of restraint :" 'Take away from me the noise of your songs ; which shows how properly they are here joined toAnd the melody of your viols I will not hear. gether. 77784 atsarah, “the restraint," is rendered, But let judgment roll down like waters;

both here and in other places of our English transAnd righteousness like a mighty stream." lation, “the solemn assembly.” Certain holy days

21-24. ordained by the law were distinguished by a particular

See on

צום קראו עצרה

קדשו

Amos v.

d

[ocr errors]

o Or, grief:

k Heb. bloods.

Exhortations and

CHAP. I.

threatenings. A. M. eir. 3244. cannot away with; it is iniqui-l. 18 Come now, and P let us rca

A. M. cir. 3244. B. C. cir. 760.

B. C. cir. 760. Anno Olymp. ty, even the solemn meeting. son together, saith the LORD : Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ. I. Ante Urbein 14 Your new moons and your though your sins be as scarlet, Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. appointed feasts my soul ha- they shall be as white as snow; teth: they are a trouble unto me; • I am though they be red like crimson, they shall be weary to bear them.

as wool. 15 And when ye spread forth your hands, 19 If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall I will hide mine eyes from you : 8 yea, when eat the good of the land : ye make many prayers, 'I will not hear : 20 But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be your hånds are full of i blood.k

devoured with the sword : " for the mouth of 16 ? Wash you, make you clean; put away the Lord hath spoken it. the evil of your doings from before mine eyes ; 21 - How is the faithful city become a cease to do evil;

harlot! it was full of judgment ; righteousness 17 Learn to do well; n seck judgment, re- lodged in it; but now murderers. lieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead 22 · Thy silver is become dross, thy wine for the widow..

mixed with water : - Num. xxviii. 11. Lev. xxii. 2, &c. ; Lam. m Psa. xxxiv. 14 ; xxxvii. 27; Amos v. 15; Rom. xii. 9 ; 1 Pet. fi. 6. -e Chap. xliii. 24. - Job xxvii. 29 ; Psalm cxxxiv. 2; ii. 11.- Jer xxii. 3, 16; Mic. vi. 8; Zech. vii. 9; viii. 16. Prov. i. 28; chap. lix. 2 ; Jer. xiv. 12; Mic. ini. 4, -- Psa. lxvi. Or, righten. -- Chap. xlii. 26; Mic. vi. 2. - Psalm li. 18; 1 Tim. ii. 8. - Heb. multiply prayer. i Chap. lix. 3. 7; Rev. vii. 14. - Num. xxiii. 19; Tit. i. 2.- - Jer. ü. 20, 1 Jer. iv. 14.

21.- Jer. vi. 28, 30; Ezek. xxii. 18, 19. charge that "

no servile work should be done therein ;" | loa's Voyage, book v., chap. ii., note to page 342. Lev. xxviii. 36 ; Num. xxix. 35 ; Deut. xvi. 8. , This There is a shrub of this kind that grows in Provence circumstance clearly explains the reason of the name, and Languedoc, and produces the like insect, called the restraint, or the day of restraint, given to those the kermes oak, (see Miller, Dict. Quercus,) from kerdays.

mez, the Arabic word for this colour, whence our word If I could approve of any translation of these two crimson is derived. words which I have met with, it should be that of the

“ Neque amissos colores Spanish version of the Old Testament, made for the

Lana refert medicata fuco," use of the Spanish Jews : Tortura y detenimento, “it is a pain and a constraint unto me.

." But I still think says the poet, applying the same image to a different that the reading of the Septuagint is more probably purpose. To discharge these strong colours is imposthe truth.

sible to human art or power ; but to the grace and Verse 15. When ye spread) The Syriac, Septua- power of God all things, even much more difficult, are gint, and a MS., read oung) beparshecem, without possible and easy. Some copies have b'vɔ keshanim, the conjunction 1 vau.

like crimson garments.". Your hands—“For your hands"] Al yap XELPES- Though they be red, gc.) But the conjunction 1 Sept. Manus enim vestre-Vulg. They seem to vau is added by twenty-one of Kennicott's, and by have read QJ'7"3 ki yedeychem.

forty-two of De Rossi's MSS., by some early editions, Verse 16. Wash you] Referring to the preceding with the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, and Arabic. It verse, “ your hands are full of blood ;" and alluding to makes a fuller and more emphatic sense,

“ And though the legal washings commanded on several occasions. they be red as crimson,&c. See Lev. xiv. 8, 9, 47.

Verse 19. Yè shall eat the good of the land] ReferVerse 17. Relieve the oppressed" Amend that ring to ver. 7 : it shall not be “devoured by strangers.' which is corrupted”) pion iux asheru chamols. In Verse 20. Ye shall be devoured with the swordrendering this obscure phrase I follow Bochart, (Hieroz. “ Ye shall be food for the sword") The Septuagint Part i., lib. ii., cap. 7.,) though I am not perfectly sa- and Vulgate read ouboxn tochalchem," the sword shall tisfied with this explication of it.

devour you ;" which is of much more easy construction Verse 18. Though your sins be as scarlet] 190 than the present reading of the text. shani, “scarlet or crimson,dibaphum, twice dipped,

bechereb or double dyed ; from 0734 shanah, iterare, to double, oyeb teachelu, “ye shall be consumed by the sword of or to do a thing twice. This derivation seems much the enemy." The Syriac also reads gina bechereb, more probable than that which Salmasius prefers, from and renders the verb passively. And the rhythmus pie shanan, acuere, to whet, from the sharpness and seems to require this addition.—Dr. Jubb. strength of the colour, ofvDoLVIKOV ; y ho tela, the same ; Verse 21. Become a harlot) See before, the Disproperly the worm, vermiculus, (from whence vermeil,) course on the Prophetic Style; and see Lowth's Comfor this colour was produced from a worm or insect ment on the place, and De Sacr. Poës. Hebr. Præl. xxxi. which grew in a coccus or excrescence of a shrub of Verse 22. Wine mired with water] An image used the ilex kind, (see Plin. Nat. Hist. xvi. 8,) like the for the adulteration of wines, with more propriety than cochineal worm in the opuntia of America. See Ul- I may at first appear, if what Thevenot says of the peo

lecheorel נחרב אויב תאכלו The Chaldee seems to read

W

The degeneracy

ISAIAH.

of the people. A. M. cir. 3244.

23 Thy princes are rebellious, judge not the fatherless, neither AM. cir. 3214. B. C. cir. 760.

C. 760. Anno Olymp. and companions of thieves : doth the cause of the widow come Anno Olymp. Quintæ I.

Quintæ l. Ante Urbem every one loveth gifts, and fol- unto them.

Ante Urbem Conditam 7.

Conditam 7. loweth after rewards: they 24 Therefore saith the LORD, u Hos. ix. 15. — Prov. xxix. 24. -W Jer. xxii. 17; Ezek. xxii. 12; Hos. iv. 18; Mic.ii. 11; vii. 3. - Jer. v. 28; Zech. vii. 10. ple of the Levant of late times were true of them for- wine is turbid : it is full of a mixed liquor, and he poureth merly. He says, “ They never mingle water with out of it;" or rather, “he poureth it out of one vessel their wine to drink ; but drink by itself what water into another," to mix it perfectly, according to the readthey think proper for abating the strength of the wine.” | ing expressed by the ancient versions, :7: 5x iD " “Lorsque les Persans boivent du vin, ils le prennent vaiyagger mizzeh al zeh, and he pours it from this to tout pur, à la facon des Levantins, qui ne le mêlent that, “ verily the dregs thereof,” the thickest sediment jamais avec de l'eua ; mais en beuvant du vin, de temps of the strong ingredients mingled with it, "all the unen temps ils prennent un pot d'eau, et en boivent de godly of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them.” grand traits.” Voyage, part ii., liv. ii., chap. 10. * Ils R. D. Kimchi says, “ The current coin was adulter(les Turcs) n'y meslent jamais d'eau, et se, moquent des ated with brass, tin, and other metals, and yet was cirChrétiens, qui en mettent, ce qui leur semble tout à fait culated as good money. The wine also was adulterated ridicule.” Ibid. part i., chap. 24. “ The Turks never with water in the taverns, and sold notwithstanding for mingle water with their wine, and laugh at the Chris- pure wine.” tians for doing it, which they consider altogether ridi- Verse 23. Companions of thieves—“Associates"] culous."

The Septuagint, Vulgate, and four MSS., read on It is remarkable that whereas the Greeks and Latins chabrcy, without the conjunction 1 vau: by mixed wine always understood wine diluted and Verse 24. Ah, I will ease me—“Aha! I will be lowered with water, the Hebrews on the contrary gene- eased"] Anger, arising from a sense of injury and rally mean by it wine made stronger and more ine- affront, especially from those who, from every conbriating by the addition of higher and more powerful sideration of duty and gratitude, ought to have behaved ingredients, such as honey, spices, defrutum, (or wine far otherwise, is an uneasy and painful sensation : and inspissated by boiling it down to two-thirds or one-half revenge, executed to the full on the offenders, removes of the quantity,) myrrh, mandragora, opiates, and other that uneasiness, and consequently is pleasing and quietstrong drugs. Such were the exhilarating, or rather ing, at least for the present. Ezekiel, chap. v. 13, instupifying, ingredients which Helen mixed in the bowl troduces God expressing himself in the same manner :together with the wine for her guests oppressed with

“ And mine anger shall be fully accomplished ; grief to raise their spirits, the composition of which she

And I will make my fury rest upon them; had learned in Egypt :

And I will give myself case.”
Aυτικαρ' εις οινον βαλε φαρμακόν, ενθεν επινον,
Νηπενθες τ' αχολoν τε, κακων επιληθον άπαντων.

This is a strong instance of the metaphor called an-
Homer. Odyss. lib. iv., ver. 220.

thropopathia, by which, throughout the Scriptures, as

well the historical as the poetical parts, the sentiments, “ Meanwhile, with genial joy to warm the soul,

sensations, and affections, the bodily faculties, qualities, Bright Helen mix'd a mirth-inspiring bowl ;

and members, of men, and even of brute animals, are Temper'd with drugs of sovereign use, to assuage

attributed to God, and that with the utmost liberty and The boiling bosom of tumultuous rage : Charm'd with that virtuous draught, the exalted mind vious ; it arises from necessity ; we have no idea of

latitude of application. The foundation of this is obAl sense of wo delivers to the wind." Pope.

the natural attributes of God, of his pure essence, of Such was the "spiced wine and the juice of pome- his manner of existence, of his manner of acting : when granates," mentioned Cant. viii. 2. And how much therefore we would treat on these subjects, we find ourthe Eastern people to this day deal in artificial liquors selves forced to express them by sensible images. But of prodigious strength, the use of wine being forbidden, necessity leads to beauty ; this is true of metaphor in may be seen in a curious chapter of Kempfer upon that general, and in particular of this kind of metaphor, subject. Amen. Exot. Fasc. ii., Obs. 15.

which is used with great elegance and sublimity in the Thus the drunkard is, properly described, Prov. xxiii. sacred poetry ; and what is very remarkable, in the 30, as one “ that seeketh mixed wine,” and “is mighty grossest instances of the application of it, it is generally to mingle strong drink,” Isa. v. 22. And hence the the most striking and the most sublime. The reason poet took that highly poetical and sublime image of the seems to be this : when the images are taken from the cup of God's wrath, called by Isaiah li. 17, the “ cup superior faculties of the human nature, from the purer of trembling,” causing intoxication and stupefaction, and more generous affections, and applied to God, we (see Chappelow's note on Hariri, p. 33,) containing, as are apt to acquiesce in the notion ; we overlook the St. John expresses in Greek the Hebrew idea with the metaphor, and take it as a proper attribute ; but when utmost precision, though with a seeming contradiction the idea is gross and offensive, as in this passage of in terms, KEKEPSOLlevov arpatov, merum mixtum, pure Isaiah, where the impatience of anger and the pleasure wine made yet stronger by a mixture of powerful in- of revenge is attributed to God, we are immediately gredients; Rev. xiv. 10. “ In the hand of Jehovah," shocked at the application ; the impropriety strikes us saith the psalmist, Psa. lxxv. 8, “there is a cup, and the at once; and the mind, casting about for something in

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