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That strike beside us.

Enter, sir, the castle.

[Exeunt. Alarum.

Re-enter MACBETH.

Macb. Why should I play the Roman fool, and die On mine own sword?9 whiles I see lives, the gashes Do better upon them.


Re-enter MACDUFF.

Turn, hell-hound,' turn.

Macb. Of all men else I have avoided thee: But get thee back, my soul is too much charg'd With blood of thine already.


I have no words,

My voice is in my sword; thou bloodier villain

Than terms can give thee out!


[They fight.

Thou losest labour:

As easy may'st thou the intrenchant air
With thy keen sword impress, as make me bleed: 2

9 Why should I play the Roman fool, and die

On mine own sword?] Alluding, perhaps, to the suicide of Cato Uticensis, which our author must have read of in the old translation of Plutarch, as the same circumstance is mentioned again in Julius Cæsar :


I did blame Cato for the death

"Which he did give himself." Steevens.

1 I have no words,

My voice is in my sword;] Thus Casca, in Julius Cæsar:
"Speak bands for me.'

2 As easy may'st thou the intrenchant air

With thy keen sword impress, as make me bleed:] That is, air which cannot be cut. Johnson.

Mr. M. Mason wishes to interpret the word intrenchant differently, and says that it may signify surrounding; but of a participle with such a meaning, I believe there is no example.Shakspeare's indiscriminate use of active and passive participles has been frequently noticed. In Timon he has trenchant in an active sense, and in the line before us intrenchant is employed as passive.

Milton, in his Paradise Lost, B. VI, seems to have imitated this passage:

"Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound

"Receive no more than can the fluid air." Steevens. So, in Hamlet:

"For it is as the air invulnerable." Malone.

Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests;

I bear a charmed life,3 which must not yield
To one of woman born.


Despair thy charm;

And let the angel, whom thou still hast serv'd,
Tell thee, Macduff was from his mother's womb
Untimely ripp'd.

Macb. Accursed be that tongue that tells me só,
For it hath cow'd my better part of man!
And be these juggling fiends no more believ❜d,
That palter with us in a double sense;◄
That keep the word of promise to our ear,

And break it to our hope.-I'll not fight with thee.
Macd. Then yield thee, coward,

And live to be the show and gaze o' the time.
We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,
Painted upon a pole; and underwrit,

3 I bear a charmed life,] In the days of chivalry, the champions' arms being ceremoniously blessed, each took an oath that he used no charmed weapons. Macbeth, according to the law of arms, or perhaps only in allusion to this custom, tells Macduff of the security he had in the prediction of the spirit. To this likewise Posthumus alludes in Cymbeline, Act V : I, in my own woe charm'd,


"Could not find death." Upton.

So, in The Dumb Knight, 1633, by L. Machin:

"Here you shall swear by hope, by heaven, by Jove,
"And by the right you challenge in true fame,
"That here you stand, not arm'd with any guile,
"Of philters, charms, of night-spells, characters,
"Or other black infernal vantages," &c.

Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, B. I, c. iv:
66 be bears a charmed shield,

"And eke enchaunted arms that none can pierce."


palter with us in a double sense;] That shuffle with

ambiguous expressions. Johnson.

So, in Marius and Sylla, 1594:

"Now fortune, frown and palter, if thou please."

Again, in Julius Cæsar :


Romans, that have spoke the word,

"And will not palter." Steevens.

5 We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,

Painted upon a pole ;] That is, on cloth suspended on à

pole. Malone.

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I'll not yield,

To kiss the ground before young Malcolm's feet,
And to be baited with the rabble's curse.
Though Birnam wood be come to Dunsinane,
And thou oppos'd, being of no woman born,
Yet I will try the last: Before my body

I throw my warlike shield; lay on, Macduff; And damn'd be him that first cries, Hold, enough. [Exeunt, fighting

Retreat. Flourish. Re-enter, with Drum and Colours, MALCOLM, old SIWARD, ROSSE, LENOX, ANGUS, CATHNESS, MENTETH, and Soldiers.

Mai. I would the friends we miss, were safe arriv'd. Siw. Some must go off: and yet, by these I see, So great a day as this is cheaply bought.

Mal. Macduff is missing, and your noble son. Rosse. Your son, my lord, has paid a soldier's debt: He only liv'd but till he was a man ;

The which no sooner had his prowess confirm'd
In the unshrinking station where he fought,

But like a man he died.


Then he is dead?

Rosse. Ay, and brought off the field: your cause of


Must not be measur❜d by his worth, for then

It hath no end.


Had he his hurts before?

Rosse. Ay, on the front.

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Hold, enough.] See Mr. Tollet's note on the words-"To cry, hold, bold" p. 57, n. 9. Again, in Stowe's Chronicle, one of the combatants was an esquire, and knighted after the battle, which the king terminated by crying Hoo, i. e. hold. Thus also, in the ancient MS. Romance of The Sowdon of Babyloyne, p. 33:

"His bare guttis men myght see,
"The blode faste downe ranne:
"Hoo, Olyuere I yelde me to the,
"And here I become thy man.'

"" Steevens.

"To cry bold, is the word of yielding," says Carew's Survey of Cornwall, p. 74, i. e. when one of the combatants cries so.



Why then, God's soldier be he!

Had I as many sons as I have hairs,

I would not wish them to a fairer death:
And so his knell is knoll'd."


And that I'll spend for him.


He 's worth more sorrow,

He's worth no more;

They say, he parted well, and paid his score:
So, God be with him!-Here comes newer comfort.
Re-enter MACDUFF with Macbeth's Head on a Pole.
Macd. Hail, king! for so thou art: Behold where


The usurper's cursed head: the time is free:
I see thee compass'd with thy kingdom's pearl,1

Had I as many sons as I have hairs,

I would not wish them to a fairer death:

And so his knell is knoll'd.] This incident is thus related from Henry of Huntingdon, by Camden, in his Remains, from which our author probably copied it.

When Siward, the martial earl of Northumberland, understood that his son, whom he had sent in service against the Scotchmen, was slain, he demanded whether his wounds were in the fore part or hinder part of his body. When it was an swered, in the fore part, he replied. "I am right glad; neither wish I any other death to me or mine." Johnson.

Our author might have found the same incident recorded by Holinshed, in his Chronicle, Vol. I, p. 192.


8 So, God &c.] The old copy redundantly reads—And so, God &c.


9 on a Pole.] These words I have added to the stage. direction, from the Chronicle: "Then cutting his head from his shoulders, he set it upon a pole, and brought it unto Malcolm.” This explains the word stands in Macduff's speech.

Many of the stage-directions appear to have been inserted by the players; and they are often very injudicious In this scene, (as Mr. Steevens has observed) according to their direction, Macbeth is slain on the stage, and Macduff immediately afterwards enters with Macbeth's head. Malone.

Our ancient players were not even skilful enough to prevent absurdity in those circumstances which fell immediately under their own management. No bad specimen of their want of common sense, on such occasions, may be found in Heywood's Golden Age, 1611: "Enter Sybilla laying in childbed, with her child laying by her," &c. Steevens.


thy kingdom's pearl,] This metaphorical expression was excluded by Mr. Rowe, after whom our modern editors were content to read-peers.

That speak my salutation in their minds;
Whose voices I desire aloud with mine,—
Hail, king of Scotland!


King of Scotland, hail !2


Mal. We shall not spend a large expense of time,3 Before we reckon with your several loves,

And make us even with you. My thanes and kinsmen,
Henceforth be earls, the first that ever Scotland
In such an honour nam'd. What's more to do,

The following passage from Ben Jonson's Entertainment of the Queen and Prince at Althorpe, may, however, countenance the old reading, which I have inserted in the text:

"Queen, prince, duke, and earls,

"Countesses, ye courtly pearls," &c.

Again, in Shirley's Gentlemen of Venice:


he is the very pearl

-. Steevens.

"Of courtesy 99

Thy kingdom's pearl means thy kingdom's wealth, or rather or nament. So, J. Sylvester, England's Parnassus, 1600: "Honour of cities, pearle of kingdoms all.”

Again, in Sir Philip Sydney's Ourania, by N. Breton, 1606: an earl,

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"And worthily then termed Albion's pearl."

John Florio, in a Sonnet prefixed to his Italian Dictionary, 1598, calls lord Southampton-"bright pearle of peers.” Malone.

2 King of Scotland, hail!] Old copy-" Hail, king of Scotland!" For the sake of metre, and in conformity to a practice of our author, I have transplanted the word-bail, from the beginning to the end of this hemistich. Thus, in the third scene of the play, p. 35:

"So, all bail, Macbeth, and Banquo!


Banquo, and Macbeth, all bail" Steevens.

3 We shall not spend a large expense of time,] To spend an expense, is a phrase with which no reader will be satisfied. We certainly owe it to the mistake of a transcriber, or the negligence of a printer. Perhaps extent was the poet's word. Be it recollected, however, that at the end of the first scene of the third Act of The Comedy of Errors, Antipholus of Ephesus says "This jest shall cost me some expense. Steevens.

the first that ever Scotland

In such an honour nam'd.] "Malcolm immediately after his coronation called a parlement at Forfair, in the which he rewarded them with lands and livings that had assisted him against Macbeth.-Manie of them that were before thanes, were at this time made earles, as Fife, Menteth, Atholl, Levenox, VOL. VII.


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