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245

Sed neque vim plumis ullam nec volnera tergo
Accipiunt, celerique fuga sub sidera lapsae
Semiesam praedam et vestigia foeda relinquunt.
Una in praecelsa consedit rupe Celaeno,
Infelix vates, rumpitque hanc pectore vocem :
Bellum etiam pro caede boum stratisque iuvencis,
Laomedontiadae, bellumne inferre paratis
Et patrio Harpyias insontis pellere regno ?
Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta.
Quae Phoebo pater omnipotens, mihi Phoebus Apollo
Praedixit, vobis Furiarum ego maxuma pando.
Italiam cursu petitis, ventisque vocatis
Ibitis Italiam, portusque intrare licebit ;
Sed non ante datam cingetis moenibus urbem,
Quam vos dira fames nostraeque iniuria caedis

250

255

242.] The Harpies in Apollonius seem 251.] Phoebus receives his revelations not to be invulnerable, as we are told from Zeus, whose apophins he is, Aesch. (v. 284) that Zetes and Calais would have Eum. 19. In his turn he has the power slain them had they overtaken them. of imparting inspiration, as to Cassandra,

214.] Wagn. seems right in restoring Ag. 1202. Whether Celaeno is to be rethe spelling semiesam” for semesam,' garded as a prophetess, or merely as posthough found in none of the MSS. The sessed of this single communication of the unelided i is found in the majority of words future, is not clear. where “semi’ is followed by a vowel, and 252.] “Furiarum maxuma '6.605. The ought probably to be restored to all. In later mythology, which limited the number 8. 297 one MS., the Alburgensian, preserves of the Erinnyes, introduced gradations of “semiesa.” See below v. 578.

age among them. Virg. identifies or con246.] Rupit' was read before Heins. fuses the Harpies with the Furies, as Infelix vates,' an inauspicious prophet, Aesch. Eum. 50 does with the Gorgons. Homer's párti KAKW, Serv. So `infelix 253.] 'Cursu petere’of a speedy journey of the Trojan horse 2. 245.

1. 157., 2. 399, E. 6. 80. It is for Italy 247.] Celaeno asks whether they are that you are crowding all sail.' As Donagoing so far as to wage war in defence of tus remarks, Celaeno shows them that she their right to the cattle which they have knows the present, that they may believe so unjustly slaughtered.

her prophecy of the future. Vocatis' is 248.] Laomedontiadae,' a term of re- understood by Wagn. 'duly invoked,' and proach, like · Laomedonteae Trojae' G. 1. therefore favourable. Perhaps the sense 502.

rather is the winds shall come at your 249.] “Patrio' seems used loosely for call,' as if any stress were laid on due in'proprio,' as in G. 1.52 (note), which Serv. vocation, Celaeno would be inadvertently comp. His other explanation, belonging giving profitable advice where she intends to our father the sea-god' (see on v. 241), only to terrify. Comp. 5. 211., 8. 707, in other words, 'our island kingdom,' is far where the words occur, and see on 4. 223. less likely. The order before Pierius was 254.] With the repetition of . Italiam' 'insontis Harpyias.'

comp. 1. 553, 554. 250.] Repeated 10. 104. Animis'

goes 255.] ‘Datam urbem’ like "data moewith 'accipite,' as in 5. 304, “accipite haec nia” v. 501 below, "datas urbes” 4. 225. animis," not with 'figite,' though the 256.]. Dira,' monstrous, like word may be supplied in the second clause, cupido” G. 1. 37. “Iniuria :' the wrong which is a translation, as Heyne remarks, is regarded as having the power of avengof the Homeric ģēvi opeol Borneo ing itself. Caedis, since the Trojans were σησιν. .

murderers in will, if not in deed, as MeneVOL. II.

P

“ dira 260

Ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas.
Dixit, et in silvam pennis ablata refugit.
At sociis subita gelidus formidine sanguis
Deriguit; cecidere animi, nec iam amplius armis,
Sed votis precibusque iubent exposcere pacem,
Sive deae, seu sint dirae obscenaeque volucres.
Et pater Anchises passis de litore palmis
Numina magna vocat, meritosque indicit honores :
Di, prohibete minas; di, talem avertite casum,
Et placidi servate pios! Tum litore funem
Deripere, excussosque iubet laxare rudentis.
Tendunt vela Noti; fugimus spumantibus undis,
Qua cursum ventusque gubernatorque vocabat.

265

laus says of Ajax (Soph. Aj. 1126 foll.), they are goddesses. κτείναντά με . θεός γάρ εκσώζει με, 263.] . Et' was restored by Heins. for τώδε δ' οίχομαι.

‘at,' which is supported by a correction in 257.] • Ambesas absumere :' see on 1. Med. 29. Malis' goes with absumere 'as in 264.] “ Numina magna :' the powers G. 3. 268. So “absumere ferro” 4. 601., above, such as those from whom Celaeno 9. 494. This prophecy formed part of the derived her knowledge. He offers sacrifice traditional account of Aeneas' landing in on the shore. Italy (Heyne, Excursus 8), so that Virg. 266.] Placidi' seems to have the force had no choice about introducing it. The of “placati.' Pal. and Gud. a m. pr. have notion of putting it into the mouth of 'placide.' Celaeno, so far as we know, is his own; 267.] Med. has diripere : see on 1. 211 others having represented it as given by &c. Excutere rudentis' v. 682 below. Jupiter at Dodona, or by the Erythrean The 'rudentes' here are the ropes fastened sibyl to Aeneas, or by Venus to Anchises to the bottom of the sail at its two corners In 7. 122 foll., where the prophecy is ful. (*pedes '). “Before setting sail these ropes, filled, it is said to have been delivered by which our seamen call the sheets, would Anchises to Aeneas, no mention being lie in a coil or bundle. In order therefore made of Celaeno, though she is expressly to depart, the first thing was to unrol or named as its author later in this work, v. untie them, the next to adjust them ac365, an inconsistency which it seems better cording to the direction of the wind and to acknowledge than, with the commenta- the aim of the voyage. Laxate tors, to attempt to explain. The fulfilment rudentes' was equivalent to ease the of the prophecy will commented on in sheets.'» Dict. A. rudens.' its proper place. “Subigat: the subj. is 268—277.] We sail by the islands off used as if the Trojans would be anxious to the west coast of Greece, and at last land anticipate the visitation by establishing in Leucadia.' themselves in their city. One Ms. has 268.] For ‘fugimus' Heins. restored subiget.'

‘ferimur,' from Pal. a m. s., Gud., and a 258.] Pennis ablata’11. 867.

few other MSS. ; but the authority is not 260.] Deriguit' was restored by Heins. sufficient to recommend the word, though from Med. and others for ‘diriguit. Ce. it may have a slight rhythmical advantage. cidere animi :' comp. “contunsos animos Wagn. thinks it may have arisen from 5. 33, G. 4. 240, and see on A. 2. 120.

“vela secundi Intendunt Zephyri : fertur 261.] The 'pax' which they sought by cita gurgite classis ; " but the resemblance arms was liberty to feed unmolested : that is hardly great enough, and the parallel which they seek by prayer is freedom from might be turned into an argument on the further annoyance, if the Harpies are other side. merely monsters, deliverance from divine 269.] Imitated from Od. 11. 10, THY SP vengeance, such as that just denounced, if áveuós Te Kubepvhtas trouver. Vocabat'

270

Iam medio adparet fluctu nemorosa Zacynthos
Dulichiumque Sameque et Neritos ardua saxis.
Effugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna,
Et terram altricem saevi exsecramur Ulixi.
Mox et Leucatae nimbosa cacumina montis
Et formidatus nautis aperitur Apollo.
Hunc petimus fessi et parvae succedimus urbi ;
Ancora de prora iacitur, stant litore puppes.

Ergo insperata tandem tellure potiti
Lustramurque Iovi votisque incendimus aras,

275

Med., vocabant' inferior MSS., which however objects that they are not likely to Heyne retained.

have landed there, as the 'parva urbs’ in 270.] Again from Homer (Od. 9. 24), that case inust bé Leucas, which was beΔουλίχιόν τε Σάμη τε και υλήεσσα Ζάκυν- sides in a different part of the island, not, Bos. Mr. Long says of “nemorosa,' “ This as the next sentence seems to prove, Ac. is true now, if the reference in Virg. and tium; he accordingly thinks that the Hom. is to plantations, as I think it is, not temple of Apollo at Actium is meant, thus to forests.” Medio fluctu :' note on v. 73. separating v. 275 from v. 274. The fol

271.] Neritos in Hom. (Od. 9. 22., 13. lowing lines certainly seem to show that 351) is a mountain in Ithaca. Some have they landed in Actium : the present line thought that Virg. considers it so here; naturally points to Leucata. Can Virg. but the subsequent mention of Ithaca in have confused the two temples ? Aperithe next line is against this, and all the tur,' comes into sight, like 'aperire' v. 206. other names here are names of islands. 277.] Repeated at the end of Book 6. Mela 2. 7 mentions Neritos among the 278–293.]'

‘At Actium we sacrifice and islands in the Ionian sea, and the same is celebrate games, in joy of our escape so evidently the meaning of Ov. M. 13. 712, far. We winter there, and then depart, Sil. 15. 305, who however as evidently leaving a memorial of our sojourn. We have merely copied the present passage. next land in Chaonia.' Perhaps Virg. was thinking of n. 2. 633, 278.] Insperata' is explained by vv. where Neritos is mentioned separately from 282, 283, as Wagn. remarks. *Tellure Ithaca among the places from which Ulys. potiti’ 1. 172. ses' followers came, Zacynthos and Samos 279.] 'Lustramur' middle. The purifollowing two lines afterwards.

fication was doubtless required by their 272.] Serv. may be right in supposing recent adventure with the Harpies. Iovi,' that something of a taunt may be intended in honour of Jupiter. The expression is in scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna,' with imitated by Gratius Cyn. 492, “ Lustrawhich he comp. “inmania saxa, Vestras, turque deae.” It is asked why Jove is Eure, domos” 1. 139. Taubm. appositely singled out rather than Apollo, the tutecites Cic. De Orat. 1. 44, “Ut Ithacam illam lary god of the place. Jove had doubtless in asperrimis saxulis tanquam nidulum ad been invoked foremost among the ‘numina fixam sapientissimus vir inmortalitati ante- magna,' v. 264, and he would be specially poneret.' Here and in the next line Virg. propitiated here for the same reason, as is evidently glancing at Ulysses' own de- aggrieved in the matter of the Harpies, scription of his country, Od. 9. 27, as partly perhaps by the inauspicious sacrifice, τρηχείο αλλ' άγαθή κουροτρόφος, and per- v. 223, partly by the attempt to injure his haps also, as Heyne thinks, at 11. 3. 201, 8s ministers, which the prophecy v. 251 seems τράφη εν δήμω Ιθάκης, κραναής περ εούσης. to show that he resents. Votis' here

274.] Leucata or Leucates is the pro- stand for votive offerings. Wagn. well montory of Leucas, or Leucadia, celebrated comp. Aesch. Ag. 91, Bwuol súpouoi préas the scene of the Lover's Leap.

γονται. .

* Incensa altaria” occurs 8. 285. 275.] • Formidatus nautis Apollo' The vows are explained partly by what plainly indicates a temple of Apollo built follows, v. 282, partly by what precedes, on a dangerous rock. Such a temple ex

v. 261. isted on Leucata (Dict. G. Leucas). Heyne

66

280

Actiaque Iliacis celebramus litora ludis.
Exercent patrias oleo labente palaestras
Nudati socii ; iuvat evasisse tot urbes
Argolicas mediosque fugam tenuisse per hostis.
Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum,
Et glacialis hiemps aquilonibus asperat undas.
Aere cavo clipeum, magni gestamen Abantis,
Postibus adversis figo, et rem carmine signo:
AENEAS HAEC DE DANAIS VICTORIBUS ARMA.
Linquere tum portus iubeo et considere transtris.
Certatim socii feriunt mare et aequora verrunt.

285

290

280.] The celebration of games at Ac- shield, which obtained victory even after tium by Aeneas is a compliment to Augus- his death (Dict. Biog., following Serv. on tus, who instituted a quinquennial cele- this passage). This shield appears to have bration at Actium in honour of his vic- been fastened up in the temple of Here at tory, Dion 51. 1. The adjective · Actius' Argos, that the conqueror in the games occurs again 675, 704, and elsewhere celebrated there might bear it in procesin the Latin poets, the prose form being sion. Another story, also mentioned by • Actiacus. “Čelebramus litora ludis' is a Serv., made Abas the inventor of the variety for celebramus ludos in litore,' shield. Virg. can hardly be thinking of ' celebrare' having its strict sense of 'to this mythical person, whose date would make populous.'

involve an anachronism here, though it is 281.] The palaestra’ is given as a singular that the words de Danais vicspecimen of other games, which may per. toribus,' v. 289, coincide with the pedigree haps be the force of the plural. •Exercent of the shield, which is said originally to palaestras' like “choros exercet ” 1. 499, have belonged to his grandfather Danaus, “ exercet ludos ” Prop. 4. 14. 3. "Oleo while the story about the games again labente:' the oil is said to slip, probably seems as if it might be glanced at in the from its effect on the bodies of those who Actian games just mentioned, as if Aeneas use it.

were bearding the old hero on his own 284.] The sun is said to roll round the ground. But for these coincidences, the year, as it is said to roll round the sky, the Abas of the present passage would be to year being equivalent to what is traversed us merely the name of some unknown in the year. "In a Greek author we should Grecian warrior whom Aeneas had slain at once pronounce 'annum’ to be a cog- at some time or other, and whose shield nate accusative; here it is evidently an he hangs up on Grecian soil as a crowning ordinary accusative of the object, though act of triumphant joy after an unmolested the acc. of the duration of time may help sojourn there. Ov. M. 15.664 talks of the us to understand the expression. The shield of Euphorbus, which Pythagoras epithet * magnum’ is merely an ornamental recognized as his own, as hanging up one, just as Hom. 1. 2. 124 speaks of Aids Abanteis templo Iunonis in Argis." uegálov èviautol (comp. G. 4. 154 note), "Gestamen’ 7. 246. not, as Wakefield thinks, used with the 287.] “ Multaque praeterea sacris in feeling of an exile. For the date which postibus arma” 9. 183. *Adversis,' as this point marks in Aeneas' wanderings Heyne says, is merely ornamental--on the see Introduction to the present Book. door as it faces you. It is not said where

285.] The inference to be drawn from the door was ; indeed, we are left to imathis line apparently is that they remained gine for ourselves how Aeneas contrived to on shore during the winter, though prima inhabit the town unmolested. facie it would seem from v. 289 that they 288.] E. 7. 30 note. started immediately. Here as elsewhere 289.] This and the next line are imitated the narrative is touched very lightly. from Od. 9. 103, 104, oi go alyi eto Baivov

286.] The name of Abas, an early king kal éri kinio. Kdo.Cov, 'Etñs dcóuevou of Argos, son of Lynceus and Xyper- noninvåra TÚNTOV &petuois. mnestra, is connected in legends with a

295

Protinus aerias Phaeacum abscondimus arces,
Litoraque Epiri legimus portuque subimus
Chaonio et celsam Buthroti accedimus urbem.

Hic incredibilis rerum fama occupat auris
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes,
Coniugio Aeacidae Pyrrhi sceptrisque potitum,
Et patrio Andromachen iterum cessisse marito.
Obstipui, miroque incensum pectus amore
Compellare virum et casus cognoscere tantos.
Progredior portu, classis et litora linquens,

300

291.] 'Abscondimus' of passing a place, Dodona (see on v. 257). Varro makes the or seeing it vanish, like årrokpÚTTELV Plato “parva Troia' (v. 349) a name given to Protag. 338 A. Not unlike is the use of the site where the Trojans encamped while *condere' E. 9. 52. The “aeriae Phaea- waiting for Aeneas' return from the oracle. cum arces' (G. 1. 240) are the mountains 297.] Patrio,' as being an Asiatic, Anof Corcyra, ópea okidevta rains bachaw, dromache being the daughter of Eetion, Od. 5. 279.

king of the Cilician Thebe (II. 6. 395). 292.] Portu' may be either dat. or Cessisse passed to, as in v. 332 below, local abl. * Muro subibant” 7. 161, 12. 17. "subeunt luco” 8. 125, seem in favour of 298.] For ‘incensum' a few MSS. give the former. Portus ... Chaonios' is the incensum est,' a few others “incensus,' reading of many MSS., including Med. which Jahn prefers, coupling compellare' a m. sec., the text having originally been with progredior.' In any case the inportus ... Chaonio,' which Valerius Pro- finitives depend on 'amore,' as 2. 10., 8. bus actually explained as a genitive, com- 163 show. paring Chaonio' with • Androgeo.' Serv. 299.] Partly from 2. 280, partly from notices the plural as unmetrical.

2. 10. 293.) • Adscendimus,' the reading before 300.] “Notandum sane finitum esse Heins., is favoured by .celsam,' but hardly versum participio, quod rarum apud Laagrees with what follows, vv. 300, 345, tinos est, apud Graecos vitiosissimum," which shows that Aeneas did not reach the Serv. Wagn. examines this dictum in an city till afterwards. “ The epithet of lofty excursus on 12. 609-613, ending by accannot be applied with any propriety to cepting it in a very limited sense, as apply. Buthrotum," Dict. G. Perhaps it is only ing to the supposed case of a bona fide par. meant to be a perpetual epithet of a city: ticiple in the nominative terminating a

294—343.] *Here I am told that Priam’s paragraph, of which he finds no example son, Helenus, is king of the country and in Virg., and which he thinks objectionable married to Andromache. Going to the on account of the weakness of such a tercity, I find her making offerings at Hec- mination. The question is one of some tor's tomb. From her I hear that the interest, but belongs perhaps more protale is true, Andromache having been perly to a treatise on Latin composition given by Pyrrhus to Helenus, when he was than to a commentary on a Latin poet. wearied of her himself, and Helenus having Serv. is evidently wrong at the outset in succeeded to part of Pyrrhus' dominions the distinction which he takes between after Pyrrhus had been killed by Orestes.' Latin and Greek poetry, as if the offending

294.) “ • Incredibilis rerum fama :' in participle were more to be condemned in credibilium rerum fama," Serv.

the case of the latter than in that of the 296.] 'Coniugio' for coniuge? 2. 579. former. The present participle at any rate The story of Aeneas' meeting with Helenus is known to be much more idiomatic in seems to have been told by Varro in his Greek than in Latin. Homer says in one 2nd book · Rerum

divinarum' (Serv. on vv. of his most wonderful passages (II. 6. 201) 256 above, 349 below), as it is told byřTO 8 Kèm Tediou to 'Anhčov olos ålaro, Dionys. Hal. 1. 51. Both appear to have "Ov Quudu kat édwv, nátov åvOpbrwv åreel. agreed in one point omitted by Virg., the vwv. Cicero renders it nearly verbally consultation by Aeneas of the oracle at (Tusc. 3. 26) “ qui miser in campis mae

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