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65

Aggeritur tumulo tellus ; stant Manibus arae,
Caeruleis maestae vittis atraque cupresso,
Et circum Iliades crinem de more solutae ;
Inferimus tepido spumantia cymbia lacte
Sanguinis et sacri pateras, animamque sepulchro
Condimus, et magna supremum voce ciemus.

Inde, ubi prima fides pelago, placataque venti
Dant maria et lenis crepitans vocat auster in altum,

70

distinguished from the fortuitous one which chises 5. 77, of milk, wine, and oil to Polydorus had already received. •Et in. Daphnis E. 5. 67. In Aesch. Pers. 609 foll. gens' &c., as Wagn. remarks, expresses in water and honey are added to the list : detail what has been said generally in the comp. Soph. O. Č. 481...Cymbia' 5. 267. earlier part of the verse.

67.] Sanguinis sacri,' of the blood of 63.] Tumulo' is probably to be con- victims, 5. 78. •Animam sepulchro constructed with ‘aggeritur,' the casual mound dimus, just as we talk of laying a spirit, already existing (v. 22) being raised higher. as the soul would wander so long as the In another context we might accept body was unburied, 6. 327, &c. Gossrau Wagn.’s interpretation, “ut tumulus inde remarks that there was a distinction befiat,” constructing tumulo' as an abla- tween the Greek and the original Roman tive, like 'cumulo ' 1. 105., 2. 498. “Stant belief, the former placing the spirit of the Manibus arae' refers to the Roman custom buried body in the infernal regions, the of erecting altars dis Manibus,' which latter in the tomb along with the body. many inscriptions survive to attest. In Virgil, in that case, must be supposed to v. 305 Hector has two altars, which seems have held himself free to adopt either to have been the usual number (comp. E. view : here he is a Roman, in Book 6 a 6. 66, where Daphnis has two, and see on Greek. Gossrau comp. a similar expresA. 4. 610., 5. 81): in 5. 48 we hear of sion from Ov. F. 5. 451, “Romulus et funeral altars to Anchises. See Lersch, tumulo fraternas condidit umbras." Antiquitates Vergilianae, $ 59. 'Stant' 68.] The reference is to the 'inclamatio,' are erected: comp. 4. 508.

already mentioned on 1. 219. 'Supre64.] Altars are wreathed with fillets E. mum is not the accusative of the object, 8. 64, as elsewhere with boughs. •Caeru- as Thiel and Forb. think, but the adverbial leus' denotes that the wool was of a sad or cognate, as Serv. takes it, the object colour :

: see G. 1. 236. The use of the being animam.' Comp. 6. 506, “ Magna cypress in funerals (“feralis cupressos ” 6. Manis ter voce vocavi." •Condimus' and 215) was also Roman. The epithet ‘atra' ciemus ' rather jar with each other, “ciere' refers rather to these associations (comp. being specially used of calling up a shade G. 1. 129., 4. 407) than to the actual to upper air, 4. 490. colour of the leaves. “Maestae,' as we 69.) Ubi prima' for 'ubi primum,' as should say, in mourning. Comp. 11. 35, in 1. 723. With 'fides pelago' comp. 5. “maestum crinem."

800, “Fas omne est, Cytherea, meis te 65.] Another Roman custom, which, as fidere regnis." So “statio male fida cari. Lersch remarks, is the meaning of 'de nis” 2.23. “Placataque venti Dant maria: more.' The line is nearly repeated 11. 35, see note on E. 2. 26. • Placata dant' which shows that we need not supply nearly=ʻplacant' or placaverunt,' dare' *stant' to 'circum,' though ‘stant circum' having the force of Tidéval, as in “ vasta would be natural enough.

dare " 9. 323, “defensum dare" 12. 437. 66.] ‘Inferre' was a sacrificial term: There is also the notion of "dant navigansee Forc. Serv. says “inferias damus pro- tibus.” prie;" but the similarity between the words 70.] 'Lenis crepitans' like “ creber ad. seems merely accidental, though Forc. de. spirans” 5.764, "saxosus sonans” G. 4. rives “inferium vinum," the new wine 370 (note). Serv. again censures the comwhich was offered to Jupiter at the Vinalia bination, saying that Virg. has committed and on other occasions, from inferre.' the fault in ten places. Some copies get • Tepido,' newly milked. Bowls of new rid of it by reading "lene crepitans,' as milk, wine, and blood are offered to An- "saxosum' is read in the Georgics. "Aus.

75

Deducunt socii navis et litora conplent.
Provehimur portu, terraeque urbesque recedunt.
Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus
Nereidum matri et Neptuno Aegaeo,
Quam pius Arcitenens oras et litora circum
Errantem Mycono e celsa Gyaroque revinxit,
Inmotamque coli dedit et contemnere ventos.
Huc feror ; haec fessos tuto placidissima portu

Accipit. Egressi veneramur Apollinis urbem. ter,' as Heyne remarks, must be under- harsh elision. The old reading was ‘Mystood generally, as Aeneas would not want cone,' which is clearly wrong, as Pierius the south wind in setting sail from Thrace. remarks, the name of the island being

71.] • Deducunt: see on 1. 551. With Múkovos. Med. and probably others write * litora conplent' comp. the picture 4. 'Myconoe,' which, being taken as 397 foll.

diphthong, would naturally produce con73–98.] We land in Delos and are fusion. Heins. and Heyne, following welcomed there. I consult the oracle, some of Pierius' copies, read Gyaro begging the god to tell us where to settle. celsa Myconoque,' Myconus being called An answer came at once, bidding us seek 'humilis' by Ov. m. 7. 463, while Peout the place from which our race sprung, tronius calls Gyarus alta. Statius how. and assuring us a new and lasting empire ever, as Wagn. remarks, seems to have there.'

found Myconus mentioned before Gyarus 73.] Mari medio' seems merely to mean in his copy, from his imitation Theb. 3. surrounded by water. Heyne comp. Od. 438, “ipsa tua Mycono Gyaroque revelli, 4. 844, ČOTI Tis vñoos uéoon ári tetph- Dele, times.” Mr. Clark (Peloponnesus,

. Colitur' is the Homeric valet, pp. 20, 21) says, “ It is plain, I think, that Valeta. For 'tellus' Burm. would read Virgil had never visited these parts when * Delus;' but Wagn. rightly remarks that he wrote the Aeneid. Myconos cannot be the two epithets would be against this. called lofty except, perhaps, in comparison

74.] Nereidum matri, Doris. The with Delos itself. But, indeed, in no part affection of the powers of the sea for of Aeneas' voyage before he reaches Italy Delos is not clearly explained. Strabo 8. can I trace any sign of the poet's personal p. 574 a says the island was sacred to acquaintance with the scenery.” He had Poseidon before it was given to Leto. The already spoken of “the narrow'rock of second syllable of "Nereis' is common in Gyaros, the Norfolk Island of the Romans, Latin poetry, the form Nnpets being adopted utterly barren, without a level or pleasant as well as Nopnts. The open vowels as spot of ground, scarcely six miles in cir. usual are an imitation of Greek rhythm. cumference, and as uninviting a residence

75.] ‘Pius,' grateful to his own birth- as could well be to a man fond of ease, or place and to the island which had sheltered change, or pleasure. Its familiarity to the his mother. Med., Pal., &c. have the spell. Roman ear doubtless induced Virgil to ing 'Arquitenens,'_which Ladewig and mention it as one of the anchors of Delos : Ribbeck adopt. The word is as old as otherwise Syra or Tenos would have had a Naevius: comp. Macrob. Sat. 6. 5. Another better claim.” Wagn. remarks that the reading “prius,' which would go with 'er- Latin poets are apt to call all islands rantem,' is mentioned by Serv. and found high,' and instances the application of the in some MSS.

epithet ‘alta' to Prochyta 9. 715 as 76.] The reading of this line is involved similar misnomer : see however note there. in some doubt. Med., and, as would appear 77.] Coli :' see on v. 73. •Contemfrom Ribbeck's silence, Pal. and Gud., be- nere ventos' is rightly taken by Heyne as sides others, have ‘Mycono e,' which Wagn., virtually equivalent to inmotam coli, as Gossrau, Forb., and Ribbeck adopt. Lade- against Forb., who explains it of the shelwig and Haupt read ‘Mycono' without 'e,' ter afforded by the circumjacent Cyclades. a reading which Heins. seems to have found Comp. Prop. 5. 6. 27, “Phoebus linquens in some copies, and which might be pre- stantem se vindice Delon, Nam tulit iratos ferable if better supported, as avoiding a mobilis ante Notos.” The position of

σσα.

a

80

Rex Anius, rex idem hominum Phoebique sacerdos,
Vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro,
Occurrit; veterem Anchisen adgnoscit amicum.
Iungimus hospitio dextras, et tecta subimus.

Templa dei saxo venerabar structa vetusto :
• Da propriam, Thymbraee, domum ; da moenia fessis

Et genus et mansuram urbem ; serva altera Troiae
Pergama, reliquias Danaum atque inmitis Achilli.
Quem sequimur ? quove ire iubes ? ubi ponere sedes ?

85

Delos indeed may be regarded as the geo- The word has here the force of entreating, graphical truth which the myth of Apollo's as in Hor. 2 S. 6. 8 and older Latin, so binding shadows forth.

that the prayer naturally follows without 80.] Anius was a mythical person, whose further introduction. story was differently told : see Dict. Biog. 85. Propriam’E. 7.31, note. “ThymnOne account was that Lavinia, the wife of braee G. 4. 323. Da' need not have Aeneas, was his daughter, and like him, a the sense of ‘dic' (E. 1. 19), as Apollo is prophetess. He was himself represented looked upon as actually conferring a new by some as the son of Creusa. His friend- home on them by telling them where to ship with Anchises is explained by the find it. Wagn. comp. v. 460 below, 6. 66 legend that Anchises had consulted him in foll. • Fessis may be an oversight, as former years whether he should go with they were only beginning their wanderPriam to Salamis to recover Hesione. We ings; but they may well have been weary may perhaps wonder that Virgil should already. have mentioned him so slightly. Ovid, in 86.] Genus' is explained by mansuthe resumé of Aeneas' voyage which oc- ram urbem.' Comp. 1, 5, 6, "dum concupies parts of Books 13 and 14 of the deret urbem Inferretque deos Latio : genus Metamorphoses, introduces him more at unde Latinum.” So the parallel 5. 735, length (13. 631-703), giving a conversa- “Tum genus omne tuum, et quae dentur tion between him and Anchises, and de. moenia, disces.” 1. 380, which is also pascribing in detail the presents which he rallel in language, might suggest a differand his guests exchanged at parting. ent interpretation, 'genus' being taken of • Rex hominum’ is the Homeric évat ancestry; but though the Trojans have årdpôr. The ancient combination of the ultimately to seek for the original seat of royal and priestly functions may have been their

race, it is not till after Apollo's reply, introduced by Virg., as Gossrau remarks, y. 94 foll., that they know that they here and elsewhere, out of compliment to have to do so. * Altera Troiae Perga. Augustus.

ma:' the city is regarded as already exist82.] 'Adgnovit' is the reading of most ing in the persons of those who are to in. MSS., including Pal. and fragm. Vat., and is habit it. See on 2. 703. •Troiae Pergaadopted by Ladewig and Ribbeck; but ma:' in Hom. the citadel of Troy is called ‘adgnoscit' (Med.) suits occurrit’ better. Népyapos; but later writers, beginning Med. has accurrit.'

with Stesichorus, talk of répyaua Tpoins, 83.] “lunximus hospitio dextras ” 11. as if the name were a generic one for a 165. Hospitio' is the abl. ‘in hospitality, citadel. Etymologists connect it with not the dat. for the purpose of hospitality,' úpyos, like 'berg' and 'burg.' as the tie bad already been contracted. 87.] 1. 30.

84.] Saxo structa vetusto' merely 88.] Quem sequimur ?' 'who is to be means 'vetusta : though Macrob. Sat. our guide ?' like “ quae prima pericula 3.6 and Serv. find in it an allusion to the vito ?” v. 367 below, Aeneas expressing freedom of the island from earthquakes, himself in each case as if the matter on so that the old building was still preserved. which he sought advice were already preForb. comp. 8. 478 “saxo fundata ve sent, not future, and so showing the tusto.” For 'venerabar' some MSS. give urgency of the request. They had started 'veneramur,' which would be tautologous without any clear notion of their destinawith v. 79, and less consistent with v. 90. tion, v. 7.

90

Da, pater, augurium, atque animis inlabere nostris.

Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repente,
Liminaque laurusque dei, totusque moveri
Mons circum, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis.
Submissi petimus terram, et vox fertur ad auris :
Dardanidae duri, quae vos a stirpe parentum
Prima tulit tellus, eadem vos ubere laeto
Accipiet reduces. Antiquam exquirite matrem.
Hic domus Aeneae cunctis dominabitur oris,
Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis.
Haec Phoebus; mixtoque ingens exorta tumultu

95

89.] Pater' G. 2. 4; though here usual expression elsewhere in Virgil. there is probably a further reference to 95.] "The land which first produced you Apollo's Delian title of yevéTwp. ‘Augu- from your ancestral stock,' i.e. the land rium' is used loosely for an oracular re- where your ancestral stock first grew, the sponse : see on v. 5. Heyne comp. Hdt. birthplace of your ancestors. • Ubere 4. 155, where the oracle tells Battus where laeto expresses the quality of Italy (comp. to settle.

* Animis inlabere nostris,' as 1. 531., 2. 782), perhaps with a reference Heyne observes, is expressed as if the in. to the image of a mother immediately folspiration which Apollo gives to the seer lowing. They are told not merely that (6. 11) were imparted to the ordinary ap- they shall find a home, but that the home plicant at the temple.

shall be a fruitful one. 90.] For the motion of the sanctuary 96.] 'Antiquam exquirite matrem' sums see on E. 4. 50. ‘Omnia' is explained by up what had been said in the previous two what follows.

lines and a half. The enigmatic character 91.] Here and in 12. 363 que’ is of the Greek oracles would perhaps have lengthened before a single consonant. been better preserved if it had been al. Gossrau (Excursus on the Virgilian Hexa- lowed to stand alone; but Virgil is going meter) cites other instances, from Ov. M. to demand our attention for the thing said, 1. 193., 4. 10., 5. 484., 10. 262. So at not for the manner of saying it. With Delphi the high altar stood in the front of the image comp. G. 2. 268, and the oracle the temple before the gates, and was given to the Tarquins and Brutus that he crowned with bay, Eur. Ion 103 foll. should be king who first kissed his mother.

92.] Cortina,' properly a caldron, 97.] This and the next line are transseems to have been used to designate the lated from Poseidon's prophecy n. 20. vessel which formed the body of the tripod. 307, vûv de 8h Aivelao Bin Tpbeoou àvátel, Others make it the slab on which the Kαι παίδων παίδες, τοι κεν μετόπισθε γέ. priestess sat (Dict. A. s. v.). "Reclusis :'

We may observe however the so the temple flies open to give the re- verbal changes, 'domus Aeneae' for Alvelao

Bin, which involves making the second line 93.] Submissi petimus terram’ is from epexegetical of the first, not, as in Homer, Lucr. 1. 92, “Muta metu terram genibus an addition to it, and the separation of submissa petebat," as Cerda remarks. The 'qui nascentur ab illis' from ‘nati natovariant ad auras' is here partially sup- rum,' and the real change of converting a ported by Pal.

νωνται, .

prediction of the supremacy of Aeneas and 94.] •Durus’ is the Homeric Tolútaas. his family in a revived Phrygian Troy into Like Ulysses, Aeneas and his comrades are a promise of the Roman empire. V. 98 is destined to many hardships and formed to an answer to Aeneas' prayer v. 86. Serv. bear them. See G. 1. 63 note. • Dar- has a curious statement, borrowed, Heyne danidae' is doubtless intended to be signi. suggests, from some Alexandrian poem, ficant, though not understood by those to such as the Chiliad of Euphorion, that whom it was addressed. It is noticed by Homer took th words from Orpheus, as Macrob. Somn. Scip. 1. 7. It is to be ob. Orpheus had taken them from the oracle served that the MŠS. here uniformly give of Apollo. 'a stirpe,' 'ab stirpe' being the more 99—120.] ‘All are eager to know th

sponse 6. 81.

100

105

Laetitia, et cuncti, quae sint ea moenia, quaerunt,
Quo Phoebus vocet errantis iubeatque reverti?
Tum genitor, veterum volvens monumenta virorum,
Audite, o proceres, ait, et spes discite vestras :
Creta Iovis magni medio iacet insula ponto;
Mons Idaeus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrae.
Centum urbes habitant magnas, uberrima regna ;
Maxumus unde pater, si rite audita recordor,
Teucrus Rhoeteas primum est advectus ad oras,
Optavitque locum regno. Nondum Ilium et arces
Pergameae steterant; habitabant vallibus imis.
Hinc mater cultrix Cybelae Corybantiaque aera

110

his son,

meaning of the oracle. My father explains 107.] ‘Maxumus pater' is evidently used to them that Crete was the original cradle loosely for the founder of the race; it is of our race and our national religious ob- worth while however to comp. quartus servances, and that we can reach it in a pater' Pers. 6. 58 for a great-great-grandthree days' sail, and orders sacrifices to father, and the expression 'maxumus parender the voyage auspicious.'

turus' or 'avunculus' for a great-great100.] 'Ea moenia,' the city which Apollo grandfather's or grandmother's brother. had promised by implication.

According to the legend, Anchises seems to 101.] *Quo' seems to be a separate have been the great-great-great-grandson question, not a dependent on ‘moenia.' of Dardanus, whom one story made the * Errantis,'truants from their home. son-in-law of Teucer, another his father

102.] “Volvens,' 1. 305; but Virg. may in-law. also have meant to suggest the notion of 108.] For the two legends about Teucer unrolling a volume, 1. 262. • Veterum see Dict. Biog. Rhoeteas:' the Troad is monumenta virorum,' the traditions (not so called here and in 6. 502 from the of course written, but oral) of past gene. Rhoetean promontory on the Hellespont. rations, of which in those days the old "Teucrus’ is defended by Heins. as better were the natural depositaries, just as in supported by the MSS. than “Teucer,' Plaut. Trin. 2. 2. 100, the father says to which others give.

“Historiam veterem atque anti- 109.] •Optavit’1. 425 note. Virgil is quam haec mea senectus sustinet.”. It again translating Hom. (Il. 20. 216 foll.): may be questioned whether 'virorum' is a possessive genitive, or a genitive of the κτίσσε δε Δαρδανίην έπει ούπω "Ίλιος object, “quae monent de veteribus viris.” In 8. 356, where the words recur, the εν πεδίω πεπόλιστο, πόλις μερόπων ανlatter is evidently meant.

θρώπων, 103.] ‘Spes,' the object of your hope, αλλ' έθ' υπωρείας φκεον πολυπίδακος like “vestras spes uritis” 5. 672.

*18ns, 104.] Κρήτη τις γαϊ” εστί, μέσω εν. Olvoti hOVTŲ Od. 19. 172. Iovis magni where it is Dardanus that is spoken of. insula,' as the birthplace of Jove. “Medio 110.] Steterant :' see on v. 403 below. ponto: see on v. 37.

Habitabant' like habitant' v. 106. 105.] The existence of a mount Ida is 111.] ‘Mater,' of goddesses, like 'pater' adduced to prove that Troy was colonized of gods, G. 1. 498, but with a special refrom Crete. Cunabula' of a birthplace, ference to Cybele as the mother of the Prop. 4. 1. 27, “Idaeum Simoenta, Iovis gods. "Cultrix Cybelae : Cybele derived cunabula parvi.”

her name from a mountain Cybele in Phry106.] Habitant, men inhabit (G. 3. gia. “Dindymon et Cybelen et amoenam 158, 312), another way of saying “centum fontibus Iden, Semper et Iliacas mater amaurbes habitantur.” Ninety is the number vit opes” Ov. F. 4. 249. •Corybantiaque of the cities of Crete in Od. 19. 174; but aera: see on G. 4. 151. The Corybantes in Il. 2. 649 the island is called éxaT Outros. are classed with the Curetes Or. F. 4.

iph

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