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will give of the pardon I grant them. I know they are ftill grieved and afraid. Go then, and carry the pardon of their crime for the feaft of Eafter. Pray that God may blefs my arms, and be affured, that after this war I will go in perfon and comfort the city of Antioch.

The holy prelate fet out immediately; and to haften the joy of the citizens, he dispatched a more expeditious courier than himself, who freed the city from it's uneafinefs and alarms.

I once more beg pardon for the length of this kind of digreffion. I imagined, that the extract of this eloquent homily might be as ufeful to youth, as any paffage in profane authors. There would be room for many reflections, especially on two characters, which though feemingly incompatible are united, however, in Flavian's oration; the humility and proftrate fubmiffion of a fuppliant, with the magnificence and greatness of a bishop, but which are fo modified, that they mutually fupport each other. We at first behold the bifhop trembling, intreating, and, as it were, lying down at the Emperor's feet. But afterwards, towards the end of the difcourfe, he appears invefted with all the fplendor and majefty of the Lord, whofe minifter he is. He commands, he threatens, he intimidates; but ftill humble in his elevation. But I will content myself with the reflection which arifes naturally from the fubject that gave me occafion to relate this ftory. In my opinion thefe two difcourfes of Flavian and Theodofius may be propofed as an excellent model in this fpecies of mild and tender paffions. I do not pretend thereby to exclude the ftrong and violent ones with which they are fometimes blended; but, if I am not mistaken, the former are predominant.





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OF THE ELOQUENCE .OF THE BAR. HE rules I have hitherto given upon eloquence, being for the moft part borrowed from Cicero and Quintilian, who applied themselves chiefly in forming orators for the bar, might be fufficient for fuch young gentlemen as are defigned for that honourable profeffion. I thought however that I was obliged to add fome more particular reflections, which may ferve them as guides, to point out to them the paths they are to follow. I fhall first examine what models must be propofed to form the ftile fuitable to the bar, and will afterwards fpeak of the means which youth may employ, to prepare themfelves for pleading. And I fhall conclude with collecting fome of Quintilian's finest observations upon the manners and character of pleaders.




Of the model of Eloquence proper for the Bar.



AD we the harangue and pleadings of the great number of able orators, who for fome years have made the French bar fo famous, and of those who ftill appear at it with so much luftre, we should be able to find in them certain rules and perfect models of eloquence. But the few performances we have of this kind oblige us to have recourse to the fource itself; and to fearch in Athens and Rome for those things which the modefty of our orators (perhaps exceffive in this refpect) does not permit us to find at home.

Demofthenes and Cicero, by the confent of all ages and of all the learned, have been the most diftinguished for the eloquence of the bar; and confequently their ftile may be proposed to youth, as a model they may fafely imitate. It would be neceffary, for that purpose, to make them well acquainted with it, to be careful in obferving the character, and to make them fenfible of the differences in it; but this


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cannot be done without reading and examining their works. Thofe of Cicero are in every one's hands, and therefore well enough known. But 'tis not fo with Demofthenes's orations; and in an age fo learned and polite as ours, it must feem aftonishing, that fince Greece has been always confidered as the first and moft perfect fchool of eloquence and good tafte, we fhould be fo careless, efpecially with regard to the bar, in confulting the great mafters fhe has given uş in that kind; and that in case it was not thought neceffary to bestow much time upon their excellent leffons, that we fhould not, at leaft, have the curiofity to take but a curfory view of them; and hear them, as it were, at a diftance, in order to examine ourfelves if it be true, that the eloquence of those famous orators is as admirable as it is declared to be; and if it fully answers the reputation they have acquired.

In order to enable young people, and those who have. not ftudied Greek, to form fome idea of Demofthenes's ftile, I fhall here transcribe several paffages from his orations, which indeed will not be fufficient to exhibit that great orator in the glorious light he ought to be fhewn, nor perhaps to give models of his eloquence in all its kinds; but they will contribute at leaft to difplay fome part of him, and his principal characterifticks. I fhall add to this, fome paffages from the harangue which Efchines, his competitor and rival, pronounced against him, and borrow M. Tourreil's tranflation; I mean the laft, which is much more laboured, and more correct than the former ones. I fhall however fometimes take the liberty to make a few small alterations, because on one hand, there are a great number of low and trivial expreffions in it,


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and on the other, the ftile is fometimes too fwelling and bombaftica; faults directly contrary to the character of Demofthenes, whofe eloquence was at the fame time very fimple and very magnificent. M. de Maucroy has tranflated fome of his orations. His verfion, though lefs correct in fome paffages, feems to me more agreeable to the genius of the Greek orator. I partly make use of it in the first extract I here give, which is taken from the firft Philippic.

anter.... Vous vous comportez au rebours de tous les autres hommes ... Vous ne ceffez de m'affaffiner de clabauderies éternelles..... Ils vous escamoteront les dix talens... Vous amufer de fariboles



Il fe ménagea un prompt rapatriement.... Que fi le cœur vous en dit, je vous cede la tri bune Mais tout compté, tout rabatu. Non, en duffiezvous crever à force de l'affurer fauffement. Vous vomiffez des charetés d'injures.... Je raporte cepeu d'exemples entre beaucoup d'autres, pour avertir ceux qui liront cette traduction, très eftimable d'ailleurs, de ne point im puter à l'orateur Grec de pareils défauts d'expreffion.

a Je ne citerai qu'un endroit, tiré de la troifiéme Philippique. De la il arrive que dans vos affemblées, au bruit flateur d'une alulation continuelle, vous vous endormez tranquillement entre les bras de la volupté mais que dans les conjonctures & dans les évenemens vous courez les derniers périls. Voici le texte de la premiere partie, qui feule fouffre quelque difficulté: 10 μiv ouμβέβηκεν ἐκ τούτου ἐν μὲν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τρυφῶν καὶ κολατεύεσθαι πάντα πpos idovi'v axoúcusw. Volfius le traduit ainfi: Unde id confequimini, at in concionibus faftidiatis, affentationibus deliniti, & omnia, qua voLuptati funt, audiatis. Ce qui eft le véritable fens, & M. de Maucroy l'a fuivi. Vous vous rendez dif

ficiles dans vos affemblees: vous voulez y être flatés, & qu'on ne vous tienne que des propos agréables. Cependant cette delicateffe vous a conduits fur le bord du précipice. Ce qui a trompé M. de Tourreil eft le mot pugav, qui fignifie ordinairement, deliciis abundare, diffluere, in deliciis vivere. Quand il auroit eu ici ce fens, il n'auroit pas falu l'exprimer par ces pompeux: Vous vous endormez tranquillement entre les bras de la volupté: qui joints aux précédens, au bruit flateur d'une adulation continuelle, forment un stile tout oppofe à celui ce Démofthene, dont l'eloquence mâle & auftere ne fouffre point de ces fortes d'ornemens. Mais les délices & la volupté n'étoient point alors le caractére des Athéniens : & d'ailleurs quel raport pouvoient-elles avor aux affemblées publiques? Au lieu qu'il étoit très naturel que les Athéniens, enflés par les éloges continuels que les orateurs faifoient de leur grande puiffance, de leur mérite fupérieur, des exploits de leurs ancêtres, & accoutumés depuis lon-tems à de telles Aliteries, d'un côté fiffent les importans dans leurs affem. blées, & y priffent des airs Hers & dédaigneux pour un ennemi qu'ils méprifoient : & de l'autre fuffent venus à ce point de delicateffe de ne pouvoir fouffrir que leurs orateurs leurs diffent la verité. Car je croi qu'ici Tupa peut avoir ce double fens.





M. Tourreil places this barangue at the head of the rest.


EMOSTHENES, in this oration, animates the Athenians with hopes of better fuccess hereafter in the war against Philip, in case they will follow his example, by applying themselves ferioufly to the management of their affairs.


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66 If you refolve, fays he, to imitate Philip, which you have not done hitherto; if every one will act "with fincerity for the publick good; the wealthy by contributing part of their eftates, and the young men by their fwords; in a word, if you will de<< pend on yourselves only, and fupprefs that indolent difpofition which ties up your hands, in expectation of fome foreign fuccours; you then will foon, by the affiftance of the Gods, retrieve your loffes, "and atone for your faults, and will be revenged of cr your enemies. For, do not think, gentlemen, "that Philip is a God who enjoys immutable felicity: "He is dreaded, hated and envied by those who are "best affected to his intereft; and indeed, we must prefume they have like paffions with the reft of "mankind. But all these fentiments feem at present extinguifhed, and that because your flow and indo"lent conduct gives them no opportunity of exerting "themselves; and it is to this you must apply a remedy. K 3

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