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another proof of the prevalence of eastern fable, end was, that Hildigunne was promised to Hioramong the descendants of Odin--for a story pre- vard, and the wedding followed soon aster." cisely similar will be found among the earliest The first Saga is considered apocryphal, as Hindoo legends:
indeed the early history of nations always is. " King On returned to Upsal when he was With .Halfdan the Black's Saga," we enter sixty years of age. He made a great sacrifice, on the historical period, his reign commencing in and in it offered up his son to Odin. On got an
841. The third Saga, relating the deeds and answer from Odin, that he should live sixty
years prowess of his son, Harald Haarfager, who longer; and he was afterwards king in Ŭ psal reigned from about 861 to 931, (succeeding his for twenty-five years. Now came Ole the Bold, father when but ten years old!)—is characteristic a son of King Fridleif, with his army to Sweden and amusing. This Harald has been made against King On, and they had several battles known to the English reader, as the composer with each other; but Ole was always the victor. of a ballad with the refrain of Then On fled a second time to Gothland; and for Yet the Russian maiden scorns me. twenty-five years Ole reigned in Upsal, until he and in this he certainly appears as closely ap
was killed by Starkad the old. After Ole's fall, proximating to the knight of Romance. In his ... On returned to Upsal, and ruled the kingdomsaga, however, no such character is displayed I for twenty-five years. Then he made a great by him, except, perhaps, in valor, and respect
sacrifice again for long life, in which he sacri- for his word—but this is the “true and par: ficed his second son, and received the answer ticular account” of the bold Viking's courtship; · from Odin, that he should live as long as he
“King Harald sent his men to a girl called gave him one of his sons every tenth year, and Gyda, a daughter of King Eric of Hordaland, also that he should name one of the districts of who was brought up as foster-child in the house his country after the number of sons he should of a great bonder in Valders. The king wanted
offer to Odin. When he had sacrificed the her for his concubine ; for she was a remark- seventh of his sons he continued to live ; but so that he could not walk, but was carried on a Now when the messengers came there, and de
ably handsome girl, but of high spirit withal. chair. Then he sacrificed his eighth son, and livered their errand to the girl, she answered, lived thereafter ten years, lying in his bed. that she would not throw herself away even to Now he sacrificed his ninth son, and lived tentake a king for her husband, who had no greater years more; but so that he drank out of a horn kingdom to rule over than a few districts. And like a weaned infant. He had now only one son remaining, whom he also wanted to sacri- here in Norway will make the whole country
methinks,' said she, “it is wonderful that no king fice, and to give Odin Upsal and the domains subject to him, in the same way as Gorm the Old 5. thereunto belonging, under the name of the Ten did in Denmark, or Eric at Upsal. The mes- Lands, but the Swedes would not allow it: so there was no sacrifice, and King On died, and haughty, and asked what she thought would
sengers thought her answer was dreadfully was buried in a mound at Upsal.”
come of such an answer; for Harald was so The following episode resembles the apocry- mighty a man, that his invitation was good enough phal story of Vortigern and the fair Rowena. for her. But although she had replied to their King Hiorvard, sailing with his fleet near Swe- errand differently from what they wished, they den, was invited by King Granmar to a feast, and saw no chance, on this occasion, of taking her royally entertained :
with them against her will; so they prepared to " King Hiorvard's high seat was placed right return. When they were ready, and the people opposite to King Granmar's high seat, and on
followed them out, Gyda said to the messengers, the same bench sat all his men. King Gran-· Now tell to King Harald these my words,-1 mar told his daughter Hildigunne, who was a will only agree to be his lawful wife upon the remarkably beautiful girl, to make ready to condition that he shall first, for my sake, subject carry ale to the vikings. Thereupon she took to himself the whole of Norway, so that he may a silver goblet, filled it
, bowed 'before King rule over that kingdom as freely and fully as Horvard, and said, “Success to all Ylfingers: King Eric over the Swedish dominions, or King this cup to the memory of Rolf Krake, '-drank Gorm over Denmark; for only then, methinke, out the half, and handed the cup to King Hior can he be called the king of a people.' Now vard. He took the cup, and took her hand, and came the messengers back to King Harald, said she must sit beside him. She says, that is bringing him the words of the girl, and saying not viking fashion, to drink two and two with she was so bold and foolish that she well deFomen. Hiorvard replies, that it were better served that the king should send a greater troop for him to make a change and leave the viking of people for her, and inflict on her some dislaw, and drink in company with her. Then Hil- grace." Then answered the king, “This girl digunne sat down beside him, and both drank hath not spoken or done so much amiss that together, and spoke a great deal with each other she should be punished, but rather she should during the evening. The next day, when King be thanked for her words. She has reminded Granmar and Hiorvard met, Hiorvard spoke of me,' said he, of something which it appears his courtship, and asked to have Hildigunne in to me wonderful I did not think of before. marriage. King Granmar laid this proposal be- And now,' added he, 'I make the solemn vow, fore his wife Hilda, and before people of con- and take God to witness, who made me,* and sequence, saying they would have great help * This appears a Christian interpolation ; at and trust in Hiorvard; and all approved of it least we find no such vows among the other saga highly, and thought it very advisable. And the heroes of the Odin religion.
rules over all things, that never shall I clip or got his kingdom, and all that belonged to his comb my hair until I have subdued the whole of high dignity. They had four sons; the one was Norway, with scatt, and duties, and domains: Sigurd Rise; the others Halfdan Haaleg. Gudor if not, have died in the attempt. Guttorm rod Liome, and Rognvald Rettilbeen. Therethanked the king warmly for his vow; adding, after Snæfrid died; but her corpse never chang. that it was royal work to fulfil royal words." ed, but was as fresh and red as when she lived.
The long-haired monarch forth with swept the The king sat always beside her, and thought seas with his fleet, dealing death around, and she would come to life again. And so it went on gaining many battles--all of which are told by for three years that he was sorrowing over her Snorro with a glee and spirit, that shows he death, and the people over his delusion. At last quite entered into the feelings of the hardy Thorlief the Wise succ
cceeded, by his prudence, Viking. There are many snatches of poetry in curing him of his delusion, by accosting him scattered here and there-relics of ballads made thus:- It is nowise wonderful, king, that thou at the very time, and by men who had both grievest over so beautiful and noble a wife, and fought in the fight, as well as celebrated it in bestowest costly coverlets and beds of down on the mead hall-here is part of one:
her corpse, as she desired; but these honors fall “ Has the news reached you ?-have you heard
short of what is due, as she still lies in the same Of the great fight at Hafurdsfiord,
clothes. It would be more suitable to raise her, Between our noble king brave Harald
and change her dress. As soon as the body And King Kiotvé rich in gold ?
was raised in the bed, all sorts of corruption The foemen came from out the East,
and foul smells came from it, and it was necesKeen for the fray as for a feast,
eary in all haste to gather a pile of wood and A gallant sight it was to see
burn it; but before this could be done the body Their fleet sweep o'er the dark-blue sea ; turned blue, and worms, toads, newts, paddocks, Each war-ship, with its threatening throat and all sorts of ugly reptiles came out of it, and Of dragon fierce or ravenous brute,
it sunk into ashes. Now the king came to his Grim gaping from the prow; its wales
understanding again, threw the madness out of Glittering with burnished shields, like scales; his mind, and after that day ruled his kingdom Its crew of udal men of war,
as before.” Whose snow-white targets shone from far;
This story is similar to one told by an old And many a mailed spearman stout
monkish writer of Charlemagne, and which, as From the West countries round about,
the reader may probably remember, is made English and Scotch, a foreign host, And swordsmen from the far French coast.
use of by Southey in one of his ballads. King And as the foemen's ships drew near,
Harald after this had a son in his old age, who The dreadful din you well might hear;
was very beautiful, and he was named Hakon. Savage berserkers roaring mad,
“At this time a king called Athelstan had And champions fierce in wolf-skins clad,
taken the kingdom of England. He sent men Howling like wolves; and clanking jar to Norway to King Harald, with the errand that Of many a mail-clad man of war,
the messengers should present him with a sword, Thus the foe came; but our brave king with the hilt and handle gilt, and also the whole Taught them to fly as fast again."
sheath adorned with gold and silver, and set
with precious jewels. The ambassadors preAt length Norway was subdued, and their sented the sword-hilt to the king, saying, 'Here : King Harald“ remembered what that proud is a sword which King Athelstan sends thee, girl had said, and sent and took her.” King with the request that thou wilt accept it.' The Harald, however, only made her one of many king took the sword by the handle; whereupon wives, for polygamy-another Asiatic character- the ambassadors said, "Now thou hast taken the istic-prevailed among the kings, at least, to a sword according to our king's desire, and therevery late period of Scandinavian history. All fore art thou his subject, as thou hast taken his Norway being now subdued, “at a feast given sword.' King Harald saw now that this was a by Earl Rognvald, King Harald bathed and jest, for he would be subject to no man. But had his hair cut, which had been uncut and un-lhe remembered it was his rule, whenever any combed for ten years, and therefore the king thing raised his anger, to collect himself, and let was called 'ugly head.? But then Earl Rogn- his passion run off, and then take the matter vald gave him the distinguished name, Harald into consideration coolly. Now he did so, and Haarfager, and all who saw him agreed to its consulted his friends, who all gave him the adtruth, for he had the most beautiful and abundant vice to let the ambassadors, in the first place, go head of hair."
home in safety. The following summer King One Christmastide, King Harald was sitting Harald sent a ship westward to England, and down to table, when a Laplander came, and gave the command of it to Hauk Haabrok. He prayed the king to go with him. The king fol- was a great warrior, and very dear to the king. sowed him to his hut, and there stood his daugh-Into his hands he gave his son Hakon. Hauk ter, a most beautiful girl, who presented a cup proceeded westward to England, and found the of mead to him. No sooner did he touch the king in London, where there was just at the cup and her hand, than he fell most violently in time a great feast and entertainment. When love with her; and then her father demanded they came to the hall, Hauk told his men how that she, although so mean in station, should they should conduct themselves; namely, that become the king's wife :
he who went first in should go last out, and all “Now King Harald made Snæfrid his lawful should stand in a row at the table, at equal diswise, and loved her so passionately that he for- tance from each other; and each should have
his sword at his left side, but should fasten his, in this banishment. Sigurd, the son of Eric, cloak so that his sword should not be seen. (Astrid's brother,) came into Esthonia from NoThen they went into the hall, thirty in number. vogorod, on King Valdemar's business, to colHauk went up to the king and saluted him, and lect the king's taxes and rents. Sigurd came the king bade him welcome. Then Hauk took as man of consequence, with many followers the child Hakon, and set it on the king's knee. and great magnificence. In the market-place The king looks at the boy, and asks Hauk what he happened to observe a remarkably, handsome the meaning of this is. Hauk replies, ‘Harald boy; and as he could distinguish that he was a the king bids thee foster his servant girl's child.' foreigner, he asked him his name and family. The king was in great anger, and seized a He answered him, that his name was Olaf; sword which lay beside him, and drew it, as if that he was the son of Tryggve Olafsson; and he was going to kill the child. Hauk' says, Astrid, a daughter of Eric Biodaskalde, was his 'Thou hast borne him on thy knee, and thou mother. Then Sigurd knew that the boy was canst murder him if thou wist; but thou wilt his sister's son, and asked him how he came not make an end of all King Harald's sons there. Olaf told him minutely all his advenby so doing. On that Hauk went out with all tures, and Sigurd told him to follow him to the his men, and took the way direct to his ship, and peasant Reas'. When he came there he bought put to sea,- for they were ready, -and came both the boys, Olaf and Thorgils, and took them back to King Harald. The king was highly with him to Novogorod. But for the first, he pleased with this; for it is the common observ- made nothing known of Olaf's relationship to
ation of all people, that the man who fosters him, but treated him well. Olaf Tryggvesson ku: another's children is of less consideration than the was one day in the market-place, where there Tother. From these transactions between the two was a great number of people. He recognized
kings, it appears that each wanted to be held Klærkon again, who had killed his foster-father greater than the other; but in truth there was Thoralf Lusiskfæg. Olaf had a little axe in his no injury to the dignity of either, for each was hand, and with it he clove Klærkon's scull down the upper king in his own kingdom till his dying to the brain, and ran home to his lodging, and
told his friend Sigurd what he had done. Sigurd King Athelstan acted a father's part toward immediately took Olaf to Queen Allogia's house, his unwished-for foster child. He caused him to told her what had happened, and begged her to be baptized, and well educated, and he also protect the boy. It was reported that he gave
him a splendid sword, with the character- was in the queen's house, and that there was a istie name of “Quern Biter," because with it|number of armed en there. When this was " Hakon cut down a mill-stone to the centre.” told to the king, he went there with his people, No wonder was it that the possessor of such a but would allow no blood-shed. It was settled sword should be chosen king, when at length at last in peace, that the king should name the his father, after so many bottles, peaceably died fine for the murder; and the queen paid it. in his bed.
Olaf remained afterwards with the queen, and A period of great confusion seems to have fol- was much beloved." lowed the death of Hakon; and in the opening Meanwhile his mother underwent equal vicisof King Olaf Tryggvesson's Saga, a vivid pic-situdes ; having been twice sold as a slave, but
ture of the reverses to which the greatest were at length redeemed by a rich merchant. In this Lime exposed, is given. Queen Astrid and her infant Saga of King Olaf, we are introduced to an im
child take refuge on a small island in a lake, portant personage in Anglo-Saxon history, until winter compels them to seek shelter; she Sweyn, the father of Canute. But we must conis pursued from place to place, and after two clude for the present: hereafter we shall trace years' wanderings, at length determines to seek the progress of Olaf, the wars and reign of out her brother in Russia.
Canute the Great, and the deeds of the Vikings " Astrid had now a great inclination to travel in England.
to her brother there. Hakon the Old gave her bai good attendants, and what was needful for the
journey, and she set out with some merchants She had then been two years with Hakon the Old, and Olaf was three years of age. As they sailed out into the Baltic, they were captur- The Scott MONUMENT AT EDINBURGH.--A ed by vikings of Esthonia, who made booty meeting of the contributors towards the erection of both of the people and goods, killing some, and the monument of Sir Walter Scott in Prince's-st., dividing others as slaves. Olaf was separated and of the public generally, is to be held on Monfrom his mother and an Esthonian man called day next, at the request of the committee, for the Klerkon got him as his share along with Thorall purpose of laying before the meeting a report on and Thorkils. Klerkon thought that Thorall was the progress of the structure, state of the funds, &c. too old for a slave, and that there was not much. We believe it will be shown that there is still a work to be got out of him, so he killed him ;
deficiency of funds to finish the monument on the but
magnificent plan of the architect; but we have no took the boys with him, and sold them to a man doubt the call of the committee on this occasion called Klærk for a stout and good ram. A third will be promptly answered. It is impossible to man, called Reas, bought Olaf for a good cloak. look on that portion of the noble structure already Reas had a wife called Rekon, and a son by her built, its magnificence of design, and richness of whose name was Rekoni. Olaf was long with ornament, and to entertain for a moment the idea them, was treated well, and was much beloved that it can be left in an unfinished
state for want of by the people. Olaf was six years in Esthonia means to complete it.-Caledonian Mercury.
ACQUEDUCTS AND CANALS-DUKE OF guide we have recommended, he finds that BRIDGEWATER.
this massive pile, with its triple tier of
arches, from whose summit he has looked From the Quarterly Review.
down on the Gard beneath at the risk of ver1. Nismes et ses Environs à vingt Lieues tigo, was reared to convey a rill to the town
à la ronde. Par E. B. D. Frossard, Pas- of Nismes, and this probably for the holiday teur. Nismes, 1834. 2 vols. 8vo.
purposes of the Naumachia rather than for 2. Illustrations of the Croton Aqueduct. By domestic uses, he may be at first disposed to
F. B. Tower, of the Engineer Department. cavil at the insignificance of the result as New York, 1813.
compared with the means. If practised, as 3. Histoire du Canal du Midi. Par le Gén- English gentlemen are wont to be, in directéral Andréossi. Paris, 1804.
ing provincial public works in his own coun4. Memoir of James Brindley. By Samuel try, he will perhaps wonder at the oversight
Hughes, C. E. Published in Weale’s of those who neglected to combine in a Quarterly Papers on Engineering.' Part structure of such tabor and expense the usual I. London, 1813.
purposes of a bridge with the original inten5. A Description of the Canals and Rail-tion of an aqueduct; an omission which
roads of the United States. By II. S. modern utilitarian skill has supplied with a Tanner. New York, 1840.
vengeance, and to the great detriment of the We have included in our list the work of picturesque. If he possesses a smattering of Mr. Frossard, rather for the sake of recom- hydraulics, he will perhaps talk to his wife mending it to notice as one of the most in- or daughter of pipes and syphons, and pity teresting topographical publications we have the ignorance of Agrippa and his forgotten met with, than with any purpose of detailed architect. Now with respect to iron pipes
, review. As a hand-book for the antiquarian our countryman will have it all his own way who visits a district scarcely rivalled in Italy -but if he comes to lead, let him beware. itself for its wealth of Roman remains, or for We, or any other Martinus Scriblerus who the naturalist who explores the scorched rocks stands up for antiquity, will brain him with where the mason-spider builds his guarded the inverted syphon used in the Claudian domicile, and those marshes of the Rhône aqueduct of Lyons, a fragment of which is : still colonized by the beaver and haunted by preserved in thc Museum of that city. Nearer the ibis and flamingo, this work will be too at hand, in the Museum of Arles, he will : found invaluable. Nor will the moralist find find a most respectable length of leaden pipe inatter less interesting in the reflections de- fished up from the Rhone by the anchor of a rived by the Protestant pastor from a state of trading vessel, and with the name of the Ro-5 society which, scarcely less than Ireland man plumber who made it at every juncture. itself, displays the open wounds of yet unex- It is supposed to have been used to convey hausted religious strife. Letno traveller water across the bed of the Rhône, there decline to purchase the volumes, if still pro- some 600 feet wide and 40 feet deep, from a curable at Nismes. The purchaser will source at Trinquetaillade to Arles. It was not thank us for our advice, and, reading, will then entirely from ignorance of hydraulics, but learn, among other things, the curious fact partly at least from choice, that the Romans that there exist in that city many respectable employed the mason at such expense, and persons who have never once paid a visit to that choice was perhaps wisely governed by the neighboring and wondrous relic of Ro- their knowledge of the dangerous properties man magnificence, the Pont du Gard. Let of lend when used for the transport of water him equally avoid the example of the French for long distances. We have indeed other resident who, as he lounges about some Pro- works of public utility to boast of, which testant or Romish café-(for in Nismes these may vie with any of ancient times. We resoris are as rigidly distinguished as the may without unbecoming pride rejoice that churches)—cares to see nothing beyond the we belong to an age and country in which smoke of his cigar, and of the British tra- the wasteful magnificence of imperial and veller, who sees every thing and nothing other despots is rivalled by the better-directed well. Even should his after residence at energies of free subjects. When the first Rome be curtailed by a day, that period of barge passed over the Barton aqueduct, time will have been well employed in exploring Bridgewater and Brindley might have still this most graceful monument. Scarcely from better reason for pride than Agrippa and his the Coliseum or from the surviving aqueducts architect, when from the last stone of the of the Carnpagna will he derive a deeper im- Pont du Gard they looked down on the savpression of the bygone greatness of Rome. age ravine on which a freak of Roman vanity
When indeed, referring perhaps to the had chosen to exert its art pontifical. Al
lowing all this, we shall still have to confess | 22,000. Various plans were proposed from that in this particular matter, not of the use time to time, but successively abandoned. of water for the conveyance of goods, but of Meanwhile population increased, yellow fever its own conveyance, we have little cause for paid occasional visits, but it was not till that triumph. It is not in England that we can very potent scavenger, the cholera, appeared find a fit subject of direct comparison with in 1832, that the energies of the Town Counthe Pont du Gard or the aqueducts of Italy. cil were effectually roused. At the instance We fear our science has only taught us to be of this body a Commission was appointed by niggardly in its application, to substitute for the Legislature early in 1833, which in 1835 value in use, value in exchange, and to sell finally reported in favor of the plan since by the quart what Romans supplied gratis executed, and received authority to underby the tun. Till London with all its water take the work. As might be expected in a Companies is as well supplied with accessi- country rich in what Americans call water ble water as modern Rome is by only two of privileges, various plans had been considered the aqueducts, whether fourteen, as some by the commission during its two years of count them, or twenty, which ancient Rome deliberation. Some were dismissed on the possessed, we must content ourselves, Anglo- ground of engineering difficulties; one, which Saxon as we are, with resorting to New York promised a supply from sources some twenty for our wise saw and modern instance, and miles nearer than the Croton, failed because, must lead our readers to drink at the Croton among other reasons, it involved an arrangeaqueduct.
ment with the state of New Jersey; another, The advantages of such an undertaking as as interfering with the navigation of the Hudthis great public work are not confined to the son to an extent which might call for the incommunity which executes it. Its history terference of Congress. A captious critic furnishes a most profitable study to the phi- might adduce these instances as examples of lanthropist and the engineer, the deviser and the vexatious working of a Federal Union. the instrument of similar schemes of public We notice them rather as illustrative of the benefit of other countries. For a very able manner in which the members of a free compendium of that history, and well illus- community, however limited in territory, trated description of the work, we stand in- can meet and overcome difficulties. The debted to Mr. Tower. May we add that our difference between their proceedings and obligation to him would be increased, if to those of an arbitrary government is that any future edition of his work a map were ap- which Schiller describes when he compares pended, showing not only the localities at the course of the cannon-ball with that of the present concerned, but as much of the neigh- winding highway :borhood as would enable us the better to un
My son, the road the human being travels, derstand the summary he gives us of the That on which blessing comes and goes, doth folvarious schemes to which the present was
low ultimately preferred. We are almost led by
The river's course, the valley's playful windings,
Curves round the corn-field and the bill of vines, rumors to fear that the obligation science
Honoring the holy bounds of property, will be under to the American engineers
And thus, secure though late, leads to its end.'* be greater
than for their sakes we could wish. In some particulars, which we sin
The Croton river finally triumphed over cerely hope may prove unimportant, their skill all competing sources. This stream derives is disputed and their full success questioned. lits waters from some twenty natural reHot discussion has commenced, we believe, in servoirs, presenting an aggregate surface of America, but we have no defence before us nearly 4000 acres. At a spot forty miles by the parties whose skill is impugned, nor from New York, where the minimum flow will it probably be possible to arrive at posi- equals 27,000,000 gallons in twenty-four tive conclusions till further progress shall hours, aud the medium 50,000,000, it was have been made in the distribution of the found possible, by a dam raised thirty-eight supply hitherto obtained. Under these cir- feet above the natural level, to throw back cumstances we are content to take Mr. Tow- the waters six miles, and form a fountain er's description as it stands for the purpose reservoir of 400 acres. of calling the attention of our readers to a The next point for consideration was the work which, whether completely successful mode of conveyance:- 'The following or not, is worthy of great admiration. modes,' says Mr. Tower (p. 783), 'were pre
The subject of an additional supply of sented. A plain channel formed of earth, water to the city of New York bad forced it like the ordinary construction of a canalself on the attention of its inhabitants so ear- * Schiller's Piccolomini,' Act I., Scene 4 : Colely as 1744, when their numbers only reached ridge's translation.