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gion and reason, of truth, equity and honour, in the human
heart. Voltaire, “ that he signed one of the great misfortunes of France." It proved indeed the lait act of his life, for immediately he fickened and died.
The lying spirit of Popery has been in every nation the fame.' How many promises did Mary queen of Scots give her reforming fubjects ? how many treaties did she make with the Lords of the Congregation, those noble affertors of civil and Christian liberties, merely to deceive them to their ruin, all of which fhe instantly broke, telling them, “ that princes were not always obliged to “ keep their engagments, especially when made to heretics." Did not like. wise the other Mary of Engiand engage to protect the Protestants, and promise to use no force in matters of religion, which she forgot as soon as the was eltablished on the throne, and those who were the tirst to believe her, and espeuse her cause, were among the first whom she committed to fames; the prietts making her believe that the never would have a child unless the rooted out all the heretics of the kingdon)..And did not James II. on his accession to the tbrone, give assurances, that he would preferve the government in church and ftate? How religiously he kept his word all the world knows.
If it was yet needful to recur to the examples of individuals many of thefe might be produced. The instances of John Huss and his fellow martyr Jerom of Prague are well known: both of them came to the council of Constance in consequence of a safe conduct granted them, yet both of them were put to death by the order of the council. The former, particularly, had the emperor's protection with him expressed in the most full and ample manner, allowing him to go and return in safety ; notwithstanding which he was seized imprisoned, condemned, degraded by the council, and burnt alive by the authority of the fame emperor, And after his execution the council established this example into a law, by making the decree of which we formerly gave the substance; declaring, “ that whereas there were several, who privately and openly blamed "the emperor, and even the facred council, saying or inGnuating, that the safe “ conduct granted to John Huss the heresiarch, had been unworthily violated, o contrary to all the rules of honour and justice, although the said John Huis c obftinately opposing (as he did) the orthodox faith, rendered himself un“ worthy of any fafe conduct and privilege, and neither according to the law 6 of nature, divine and human, ought any faith or promise to be kept, if it is « to the prejudice of the Catholic faith; the sacred synod declares by thele « presents, that the said emperor has done with regard to John Hurs, what Rhe could, and what he ought to do, notwithstanding his safe conduct." Another remarkable instance of almost equal baseness and perfidy, though not so commonly known, we have in the case of Moses Charas, a phyfian of great reputation in the last century, whose physical writings were trantlated and ad. mired through all Europe. But having the misfortune to be a Huguenot he was obliged to fly his country, in confequence of the edicts made in France 1680, prohibiting any of that religion from exerciting that function or any other. He retired into England, where he was honourably received by the king; and having continued five years there, went over to Holland, and praca.si
keart, it has driven men and nations to act, cven in a
: visible tised in Amsterdam, with much esteem. The Spanish ambassador there,' from the opinion he hai of his superior skill, endeavoured to engage him for the service and affistance of his master, whose health was then very infirm. But the doctor scrupled to comply through the terror of the inquisition : but the am. bassador relieved him of his' fears, assured him of protection, and carried him and his family with him to Madrid. Yet, though a foreigner drawn thither purely on a design of public utility in the way of his profeflion, though taken under protection, and confiding in the faith of his Catholic Majesty, in whose palace he was employed, he had not continued long there, before he was delivered up to be inquisition, and dragged, at the age of 62, to the frighiful pii. fons of that tribunal,' where he remained four months, and from thence would doubtless have been brought forth to the fire, if he had not, to save his lite, abjured' bis religion. Thus he was rewarded for his benevolent endeavours to save the life of a Catholic king! Basnage, Hift. de la Relig. etc. l. i. ch. 75 Leger. Hift. etc. l. 2. D'Aubignè Hijt. Univ. l. ii. ch. 9. etc. Atl. Geogr. vol. ii. Meteren, l. 3. Jurieu, Seafonable advice to all Proteft. in Europe, p. 6, etc. Lesna Excidium. Clark's Martyr. Erskine, Considerat. on the spirit of Pop. po 14. etc. Heifs, Hift. de l’Emp. l. 4. Historical Collections, viz: Historic. Register for 1720, No. 18. Jurieu. Apol. l. ii. Memoira de Castelnau." Addit. de Laboureur, l. 7. Noüe, Difc. polit. et milit. Mezeray. Bencit, Hift. de l'Edit,"etc. Volt. Siecle, etc, tome. 2. du Calvinisme. Hift. of Scotl. and Engl.' Popery always the same, pref: piso. Moreri, Dic. Hift.
* After the treaty made by the emperor' with Charles XII. of Sweden at Alt Ranstadt in 1707, in which were some things favourable to the Protestants, Popé Clement XI. wrote a letter to the emperor, of the following tenor; “ We do by these presents denounce, aod by the authority given to us by Alo “ mighty God, we declare, that the foresaid articles of the said treaty of Att " Ranstadt, and the other things contained in it, which hurt the Catholic “faith, the divine worship, the salvation of souls, the ecclefiaftical authority, “ jurisdition and righ's whatsoever, and in what manner foever, with all, and “every present and future consequences of chem, have been from the very “ beginning, are now, and for ever shall be null and void, etc. and that no one " is bound to observe them, or any of them, even though they have been of" ten ratified and confirmed by oath."--The fame Pope wrote to the Abhat of St. Gall in Switzerland concerning his treaty made with the Protestant cana ton of Bern in 1918, telling him, “ that he and his successors were not bound " to observe the articles of that treaty, any more than if they had never been " agreed to :” Juxta illarum literarum terorém, pro comperto habras ; te facocfor efque tuos ad ea qua in predi&ta infausta tradiatione conventa fuerint, obfervanda, perinde ac fi nunquam conventa fuiffent, nullo modo teneri.
To which we shall subjoin part of a Bull of Urban V;-Urban bishop, “ servant of the servants of God, etc. Truly it has come to our ears, that not "only our dearly beloved son in Christ'the illustrious Winceslaus, king of the ff Romans and"Bohemia, but also his father, Charles emperor of the Romans of
· « famous
visible contradiction to their plainest interests *. It has ex
tinguished “ famous memory, did, either conjunctly or severally, enter into certain confe. « deracies, engagements, leagues, anà conventions with divers kings, princes, “ etc. and that some of those kings, princes, etc. either at that time or after 6 wards, became open fchifmatics or heretics, and were separated from the « unity of the holy Roman Church, although they were not declared by us to “ be fo.-- Therefore we, conlidering that such confederacies, engagements, “ leagues and convent ons, , made with those who had become schismatics “ or' heretics, aje rash, uniawful, and of very deed null (although perhaps si they were made before the lapse of those persons into schism or heresy) notso withstanding they may have been confirmed by oath or promise, or the apo. « stolic sanction, or strengthened by any other authority whatsever ; -we, being “ desirous to obviate the danger of souls, as well to the said king, as to all' “ others whom it does or may concern, do therefore, by these presents, Arictly " pronibit them from keeping those confederacies, engagements, leagues, or si conventions in any part, themselves, and from allowing them to be observed cs by others in any manner, etc.". Aita Eruditorum, 1727, p. 199. Pop. alw. the same. Rymer's Phædera, vol, vii. p. 352. Second Let. to Mr. G. H. p.71.' .. Those princes, who, in obedience to the See of Rome, have girded up their loins to extirpate heretics, h ve seldom reaped their rewards in this world; but have bestowed their pains, exhausted their treasure and strength, depopulated and impoverished their kingdoms, and sometimes lost their crowns, merely for the chimerical gains and golden crowns of paradise, promised to them by the mitred impostor. Persecution is ever at variance with the civil interest and prosperity of nations, and all who employ it do it to their own hurt. It gives. not only a deadly wound to the peace and stability of a kingdom, but to the aris, lo, trade, and manufactures, and all that makes a people great and happy.
The violence used in matters of religion in the low countries under Charles V. deftioyed more than 50.000, besides those who left the country and Aled to other places. Sir William Temple says, that many Protestants had come hither being driven from France, Germany and England, by perfecution, who in a little time filled the country, but especially the cities with new inhabitants, who being in favour with the people, because of their doctrine and piety, as well as for the riches and oi her advantages brought them, their 'numbers greatly en. creased; but no sooner was their religious liberty restrained, than they began to, withdraw, and dissipate as fast as ihey came ; upon seeing this the governors, thought it best to suspend the execution of the bloody lau's ;--and particularly áll foreign merchants were declared to be exempted from the inquisi ion. Philip, the scourge of Europe, made the yoke more grievous, the evil effects whereof were soon fenfibly felt. Upon the approach of Alya and his army, the trading people left the country in foch numbers, and with such precipita. tion, that, as the Governess informed the King, above 100,000 of them went off. in a few days with their effects.-Strada says, that 30,000 foreigners came to England and settled there, which were banished again in Mary's days ; belides a great number of the natives to the unspeakable loss of the public. In
pinguished the strongest sentiments of nature, and the moft®
Elisabeth's time, the liberty granted to the Flemings and other refugees brought over again great numbers, to whom many considerable cities of the nation owed the origin of their riches, trade and greatness, as Norwich, Col. chester, etc.
Philip II. a beast of priefly burden, after having been employed the greater part of his reign in a kind of religious wars and croisades, and in scattering abroad Rome's vengeance, had, in the end, nothing but losses and disappointments for his reward ; having weakened and dismembered, the empire, and impoverished his treasures without any substantial advantage. He spent in France alone, during the short reign of Charles IX. 4,000,000 of gold, against the Huguenots: and from the year 1985 to 1593, 6,000,000, at the least. The league, first and lait, is said to have cost him a roo,co0,000 of livres, from which he never derived the smallest compensation. A litile before his death, he declared to the prince his fon who fuccceded him, that from the year 1565, be had spent on the civil wars of France, those in the low countries, and in his other enterprizes of the same nature, more than 594,000,000 of ducats, without having made any conquest or acquisition except that of Portugal, which was of small account and yielded no latting advantage.
The long civil wars of France, before the settlement of the edia of Nantes, coft the kingdom, in 12 or 15 years, the lives of a million of people, and redu. çcd it to the brink of ruin; that it had nearly become a province to Spain, if the arms of Henry and the Protestants had not in the end prevailed. The bad effects of the impolitic violations, and repeal of the edi&t upon the temporal peace and prosperity of that kingdom were long and severely felt. Besides the new civil broils which they occafioned, they drove away great multitudes of useful members of the state never to return. The author of Politique du Clergé de France, printed in 1681, declares, that, in the course of 15 years preceding, the severe arrets of the king had banished 60 or 80,000. All the frontier provinces were greatly depopulated, as Normandy, Picardy, Champagne, Gr. When the church of the Protestants in the city of Amiens was condemned, and taken from them, the greater part of their merchants removed to other countries, with their money and effects to the amount of 12 or 15,000 lives, But this was nothing to the great desertion and depopulation which ensued, when all their temples were razed, their ministers banished, and none but dra. goons left to be their spiritual instructors, whose word was Death or muss. Yet, when 'thus used at home, they were prohibited under the pain of the gallies for the men, and confiscation of body and goods for the women, from attempting to fly abroad. Yet no authority or precautions could prevent multitudes from seeking that poor consolation. Every country, where they could have access, (warmed with refugees. In three weeks time 17,500 persons were reckoned to bave passed unto Lausanne. “ In vain” (lays a writer, no friend to Calvinifts) a were orders given to guard the frontiers, and all the coasts, against thuse who 5 thought it a duty to fly. Near 50,000 families in thiee years time left the
kingdom, and were afterwards followed by others, They carried with them
common and prevalent feelings of humanity *. It has inie
• duced " among Arángers the arts; the manufactures; riches. Almost all the north of " Germaniy, a country beiore wild and void of industry, assumed a new appcar“ ance from the numbers transplanted thither. They peopled whole cities, ! The stuffs, the laces, the hats, &c. which formerly were bought of France, " were manufactured by them. One quarter of the suburbs of London was “ entirely peopled with Frenchmen, workers in fik: others carried there the “ art of finishing chryftals, which was then loft in France. The gold is yet to “ be found very common in Germany, which the refugees dispersed there. “ Thus France lost about 500,000 of inhabitants, a prodigious' quantity of lli Specie, and, above all, the arts with which her enemies were enriched. Hol. “ land hereby gained excellent officers and soldiers. The prince of Orange “ had entire regiments of refugees. Some of them fled as far as the Cape of « Good Hope, and settled a colony in that extremity of the earth. In vain “ were the prisons and galleys filled with those who were apprehended in their “ Aight. What could be done with so many unhappy persons confiimed in “their belief by their sufferings? How send to the galleys lawyers, and infirmi
old men. Some hundreds were embarked for America: At length the “ counsellors imagined, that; when emigrations should be no longer prohibited, * fewer would emigråte. But in this they were again deceived; and, after s the passes were opened, they were shut again to no purpose.”
But all this to an orthodox Romanift will be accounted no lofs at all, seeing what is lost to the state is gain to the church. A court commisioned by the empress queen of Hungary, in 1751, to inquire into the growth of Lutherana ism, announced to'fome who were lying in irons for the profeflion of that seligion, “That the queen would rather that the land hould beat thorns and thistles, « than that it should be ploughed by Lutherans.” Furieu, Apol. loii. cb. 8. Mom ter. f. 30. Sir Will. Temple, Remarks, &c. Strada, decad. i. Filay concerning the Power of the Magistr. &c. ch. vii. $ 6. Remiargi sur la Sat. Menip. D. 301. Franc. le Petit, His: des Païs bas, t. ii. 1. 8. Politique, &c. p. 199. Quick; Synod. p. 14ú: Voltaire, Siecle, &c. tóme'ii. du Calvin, p. 209, ca Considerat. on the Spirit of Pop. p?is!
Make It has been observed by some, that, in the countries where the Inquifition is elab ished, the spectators behold the execution of those condemned by it with every mark of joy and satisfaction, instead of reftifying the least' pity or commi: seration. These sad spectacles are resorted to by perfons of every age, sex, and quality, from the prince to the peasant; many' coming from a great distance to hive the pleasure of attending them :'a'farce of a bull-feaft is reckoned a dull entertainment in comparison with an auto da fe. Yet the same spectators will be affected with the usual sensatious, in as 'high a degree as any other people, at the public'execution of ordinary malefactors. The emperor Sigismund, who had protected John Huss, went sổ far into the spirit of the Constantian' council as to declare before it, concerning the opinions maintained by Huss, *That there *10' was not a single one among them that did not call for the punistment of 6 fire;- and ibat he would with his owothards kindle the fire to burn him,