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Miscere, et tantas audetis tollere moles?

Venti, miscere colum Quos ego — Sed motos præstat componere fluctus.

135 terramque
Pòst mihi non simili penâ commissa luetis.
Maturate fugam, regique hæc dicite vestro :
Non illisimperium pelagi, sævumque tridentem,

138. Imperium pelagi, Sed mihi sorte datum : tenet ille immania saxa,

sævumque

tridentem Vestras, Eure, domos : illâ se jactet in aula 140 non datum esse illi, sed

mihi Æolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet.

Sic ait ; et dicto citiùs tumida æquora placat, Collectasque fugat nubes, Solemque reducit. Cymothoë simul, et Triton adnixus, acuto Detrudunt naves scopulo : levat ipse tridenti, 145 Et vastas aperit syrtes, et temperat æquor; Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas. Ac, veluti magno in populo cùm sæpe coorta est Seditio, sævitque animis ignobile vulgus ; Jamque faces et saxa volant; furor arma ministrat: 150 Tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si fortè virum quem 151. Tum, si fortè conConspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant.

spexere quem virum gra

vem pietate et meritis, Ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet.

silent Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor; æquora postquàm 153. Ille vir regit aniProspiciens genitor, coloque invectus aperto,

155 mos Flectit equos, curruque volans dat lora secundo.

158. Contendant peDefessi Æneadæ, quæ proxima litora cursu

tere litora, quæ sunt Contendunt petere, et Libyæ vertuntur ad oras. proxima in cursu

NOTES.

manner.

135. Quos ego. Here puniam, or some

and could calm and embroil the sea at his word of the like import, is understood: pleasure. Many of the marine gods were whom I will punish, or chastise. But it is called Tritons, but the name is properly apbetter to still the raging waves, before I plicable to those only that were half man do it.

and half fish. Levat : assists lightens. 136. Pòst non luetis mihi: hereafter ye 148. Ac veluti cùm : as when in a great shall not atone to me for your offences crowd, a tumult often rises, and the ignoble with a like punishment. Neptune here in- throng rages in their minds, &c. timates it to be a matter of clemency in him This comparison is extremely beautiful, in permitting them to escape; but they must as well as just. Nothing can be more probeware; the next ne they thus presume, per to represent the disorder and havoc of he shall chastise them in an exemplary a violent hurricane, than the rage and the

desolation occasioned by an incensed mob. 138. Imperium pelagi. In the division of The suddenness, with which the noisy waves the world between the sons of Saturn, the subside, and sink into a calm, as soon as sea fell to Neptune, the heavens and the Neptune surveys them, is finely marked by earth to Jupiter, and the regions below to the awe and silence, with which the sedi. Pluto. Suvum: in the sense of potentem. tious multitude is immediately struck, at

139. Tenet immania : let him possess the sight of a man of superior merit and those wild and uncultivated rocks, thy ha- authority. bitations, O east wind. Immania saxa are 150. Arma: in the sense of tela. Grathe realıns of Æolus, mentioned verse 52, vem: in the sense of insignem. Arrectis : supra.

with listening, or attentive ears. 140. Jactet se : boast, or glory. Aula: 155. Colo. Cælum here means simply, in the sense of regia.

the air. He was wasted in the open air, 142. Citiùs dicto: sooner than said. The just above the surface of the ocean. Fracomp. ciliùs governs dicto, in the abl. Pla- gor: the raging, or tumult. cat: calms.

156. Curru: the dat. for currui. See 144. Cymothoë: a nymph of the sea, the Ecl. v. 29. Secundo : light-easy-moving. daughter of Nereus and Doris. Trilor : 157. Æneadæ : the Trojans; so called the son of Amphitrite. His upper part was from Æneas, their leader. Contendunt : like a man, and his lower part like a fish. they strive to reach, or get to the nearest He was very powerful among the sea-gods, shore.

Est in secessu longo locus : insula portum 160. Quibus lateribus Efficit objectu laterum : quibus omnis ab alto 160 omnis unda veniens ab Frangitur, inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos. alto frangitur, scindit quo sese

Hinc atque hinc vastæ rupes, geminique minantur
In cælum scopuli : quorum sub vertice latè
Æquora tuta silent : tum sylvis scena coruscis

Desuper, horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbrâ. 165 166. Est antrum in Fronte sub adversâ scopulis pendentibus antrum : pendentibus scopulis

Intus aquæ dulces, vivoque sedilia saxo;
167. Intus sunt dulces
aquæ, sediliaque è vivo Nympharum domus : hìc fessas non vincula naves
saxo: videtur domus Ulla tenent; unco non alligat anchora morsu.
Huc septem Æneas collectis navibus omni

170
Ex numero subit : ac magno telluris amore
Egressi, optatâ potiuntur Troës arena,
Et sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt.

Ac primùm silici scintillam excudit Achates, 175. Circumdedit ari- Suscepitque ignem foliis, atque arida circùm 175 da

Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite flammam. 177. Tum fessi rerum Tum Cererem corruptam undis, Cerealiaque arma expediunt Cererem

Expediunt fessi rerum : frugesque receptas
Et torrere parant flammis, et frangere saxo:

Æneas scopulum intereà conscendit, et omnem 180
Prospectum latè pelago petit, Anthea si quà
Jactatum vento videat, Phrygiasque biremes,
- Aut Capyn, aut celsis in puppibus arma Caïci.

NOTES.

cess.

159. Longo secessu: in a long or dark re- drenched with salt water-dripping with

This description of the port and salt water. harbor is beautiful in itself, and seasonably 176. Arida nutrimenta : dry fuel. Ignem: introduced to relieve the reader, and com- the spark struck from the fint. Rapuil: pose his mind, after having dwelt upon the he quickly kindled a flame among the fuel. former images of horror and distress.

177. Cererem corruptam: their grain da160. Objectu : in the sense of oppositu.

maged by the water-wet. For Ceres, see

Ecl. v. 79. 162. Rupes : properly, a precipice, or

Arma : properly, the instrubroken rock. Scopulus, a high, sharp rock.

ments or tools of any art or profession. Ce

realia arma, therefore, we'll be the instruments Saxum, any rock, or stone. Minantur :

or utensils used in breaking corn, and prereach, or extend to heaven.

paring it for eating. 164. Scena sylvis : an arbor formed of

178. Fessi rerum: weary of their misforwaving trees, and a grove dark with its awful tunes—their toils—their dangers. Fruges shade, hangs over it from above. Ruæus receptas : the grain saved. The same with interprets scena by umbraculum.

Cererem, just mentioned. 166. Sub adversa fronte. This cave was 179. Parani lorrere. Ruæus takes torrere right in front, or opposite to them, as they in the sense of coquere ; and in that case it entered the harbor, and approached the follows frangere, which must be connected shore. Pendentibus : its roof was arched with fruges receptas : they prepare to break with rocks. Ruæus says suspensis, for pen- the corn, and to bake it into hread. But dentibus.

torrere may be taken for the act of drying 169. Non ulla vincula tenenl. The mean

the corn that had been wet, and partially ing is: the harbor was so safe and secure, damaged by the water; which must prethat ships needed neither cables nor anchors. cede its being broken, or prepared for maMorsu: the Auke.

king bread. Expediunt: they unlade, or 170. Huc Æneas : here Æneas entered fetch it out of their ships. with seven ships, collected, &c. He left 181. Anthea: a Greek acc. of Antheus. Troas with twenty ships. One he had just 182. Biremes: biremis is properly a gallost, and the rest were scattered in the ley of two banks of oars. See Æn. v. 119. storm, but were not lost.

133. Arma Caïci: the arms of Caïeus; 173. Artus tabentes sale : their limbs that is, Caïcus himself.

à toigo

Navem in conspectu nullam; es litore cervos
Prospicit errantes : hos tota armenta sequuntur

185 185. Hos tres ductores
A tergo, et longum per valles pascitur agmen.
- Constitit hic, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas
Corripuit, fidus quæ tela gerebat Achates.
Ductoresque ipsos primùm, capita alta ferentes
Cornibus arboreis, sternit : tum vulgus, et omnem 190
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam.
Nec priùs absistit, quàm septem ingentia victor
Corpora fundat humi, et numerum cum navibus æquet.
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes.
Vina, bonus quæ deinde cadis onerârat Acestes 195 195. Deinde dividit
Litore Trinacrio, dederatque abeuntibus heros,

vina, que bonus Acestes

onerârat in cadis TrinaDividit, et dictis mærentia pectora mulcet :

crio litore, herosque deO socii, (neque enim ignari sumus antè malorum) derat illis abeuntibus O passi graviora : dabit Deus his quoque finem.

199. O vos passi graVos et Scyllæam rabiem, penitusque sonantes Accêstis scopulos ; vos et Cyclopea saxa Experti : revocate animos, mestumque timorem

202. Vos experti estis Mittite : forsan et hæc olim meminisse juvabit. Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum, Tendimus in Latium ; sedes ubi fata quietas 205 Ostendunt: illic fas regna resurgere Trojæ. Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Talia voce refert: curisque ingentibus æger, Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem. Illi se prædæ accingunt dapibusque futuris.

210

200 viora

NOTES.

trees.

186. A tergo. This might seem mere 198. Antè malorum: of past evils, or distautology, but it is consistent with the tresses. Ruæus takes antè here in the sense purest Latin. Cicero says: Adolescens cursu of præteritorum. Or perhaps, malorum quæ à tergo insequens. Longum agmen : the fuerunt antè. long, or extended herd.

200. Vos accêstis : ye have approached 189. Ferentes alta : bearing their lofty both the rage of Scylla, and the rocks roarheads with branching horns. The poet fine- ing within. See Ecl. vi. 74, and Æn. iii. ly describes the leaders. They move with 420. Opposite the rock of Scylla is Chaà degree of majosty, having their heads rybdis, a dangerous whirlpool; which, taken erect, and their horns branching out like together, render the passage of the straits

Gerebat: in the sense of ferebat. between Sicily and Italy very hazardous. 191. Agens telis vulgus: pursuing with Hence arose the proverb: Incidit in Scyllam, his weapons the herd and the rest of the qui vull vitare Charybdem. This Charybdis, throng, among the leafy groves, he disperses as fable says, was a voracious old woman, them-he puts them into confusion by who stole the oxen of Hercules. For which, breaking their ranks. The word misceo, as being struck by the thunder of Jove, she was here used, is beautiful and expressive. Om- turned into this whirlpool. Accèstis : by nem turbam: in the sense of reliquam mul- syn. for accessistis. titudinem.

203. Olim: hereafter. Discrimina : in 194. Partitur: he divides them among the sense of pericula. all his companions. He had killed seven 207. Secundis rebus : preserve yourselves huge deer, so that there was one for the for prosperity. Durate : persevere. erew of each ship.

203. Æger ingentibus : oppressed with 195. Acestes. See Æn. v. 35. Onerârat: heavy cares, (full of anxious solicitude for had put in casks, and given them.

his friends,) he dissembles hope on his coun196. Trinacrio: an adj. from Trinacria, tenance, but represses, &c. Refert : in the a name of Sicily, derived from its triangular sense of dicit. form. Its three promontories are: Pachy- 210. Accingunt se: they prepare themnum, on the south; Lilybæus, on the west; selves for. T'ergora: the skins or hides of and Pelorus, on the north.

the slain deer.

Tergora diripiunt costis, et viscera nudant :
Pars in frusta secant, verubusque trementia figunt
Litore ahena locant alii, flammasque ministrant.

Tum victu revocant vires : fusique per herbam, 212. Figunt frusta Implentur veteris Bacchi, pinguisque ferinæ. 215 adhuc trementia verubus

Postquàm exempta fames epulis, mensæque remotæ, 216. Exempta est

Amissos longo socios sermone requirunt, 218. Seu credant eos Spemque metumque inter dubii : seu vivere credant,

Sive extrema pati, nec jam exaudire vocatos. 220. Æncas gemit se- Præcipuè pius Æneas, nunc acris Orontei,

220 cum nunc casuin acris Nunc Amyci casum gemit, et crudelia secum Orontei; nunc

casum Fata Lyci, fortemque Gyan, fortemque Cloanthum. Amyci

Et jam finis erat: cùm Jupiter æthere summo

Despiciens mare velivolum, terrasque jacentes, 227. Atque Venus Litoraque, et latos populos; sic vertice cali 225 tristior, et suffusa quoad Constitit, et Libyæ defixit lumina regnis. nitentes oculos alloquitur illum jactantem

Atque illum tales jactantem pectore curas, 229. O tu, qui regis

Tristior, et lachrymis oculos suffusa nitentes, res hominumque Alloquitur Venus : O, qui res hominumque Deúmque

NOTES.

cum.

211. Viscera : neu. plu. of viscus, or vis- panions an example of magnanimous forti

It properly signifies all the parts of tude only, which rises superior to dangers the animal within the skin. Here it means and misfortunes. the flesh.

224. Velivolum: navigable. Jacentes ter212. Pars secant: a part cut into pieces. ras : the earth may be said to be lying (jaNouns of multitude may have verbs in the cens) still, dead and at rest, in opposition to singular or plural.

the sea, which is always in motion. The 213. Ahena : neu. plu. brazen dishes or poet considers here the sails of a ship under vessels. An adj. taken as a substantive.- the notion of wings, by which it flies over Ministrant flammas : tend the fires. the sea, as a bird moves through the air.

215. Implentur. This is in imitation of Ruæus takes jacentes in the sense of humithe Greeks, with whom verbs of filling go- les: low-lying low. Populos : in the sense vern the genitive. Bacchi: in the sense of of gentes. vini.

225. Vcrtice : the pinnacle of heaven: 217. Requirunt: they inquire after their the zenith, or point over our heads. lost companions—converse about them. 226. Deficit oculos. Dr. Trapp observes,

219. Pati e:ctrema : to suffer death- that nothing to him breathes the soul of padeath being the last of all earthly things.- etry, particularly Virgil's, more than this Pati : the present in the sense of the perf. delightful passage, in which the majesty of Vocatos nec jam: being invoked, should not Jupiter, and the beautiful grief of Venus are now hear. This alludes to a custom among so finely contrasted. She still remembers, the Romans, of calling the dead three times in all the abruptness of extreme sorrow, by name: which was the last ceremony in that she is addressing the almighty Thunfuneral ubsequies. After which, the friends derer, and yet maintains all the sweetness pronounced the word Vale, three times, as of female complaint, and tender expostulathey departed from the tomb. The same tion. Jactantem : in the sense of volvenwas observed of those, who perished by tem. shipwreck, or otherwise, when their bodies 228. Suffusa oculos : wet, as to her shicould not be found.

ning eyes, with tears. See Ecl. i. 55. Fe220. Æneas gemit: Æneas laments now male beauty never appears so engaging, and the fate of brave Orontes, now, &c. The makes so deep an impression upon the bemost exalted and heroic minds are the most holder, as when suffused with tears, and susceptible of humanity and compassion.— inanifesting a degree

of anxious solicitude. Virgil therefore says: Præcipuè pius Æneas The poet therefore introduces Venus in that gemit. But at the same time, he conducts situation, making suit to her father. The his grief with prudence, and carefully avoids speech is of the chastest kind, and cannot whatever would tend to discourage the rest; fail to charm the reader. and therefore it is said, that he grieves pri- 229. Venus. The goddess of beauty and vately, secum, keeping his sorrow and grief love. She is said to have sprung from the in his own bosom; and showing to his com- foam of the sea, near the island of Cyprus:

Æternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres,
Quid meus Æneas in te committere tantum,
Quid Troës potuere? quibus tot funera passis,
Cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis ?
Certè hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis,
Hinc fore ductores, revocato à sanguine Teucri,
Qui mare, qui terras omni ditione tenerent,
Pollicitus: quæ te, genitor, sententia vertit ?
Hoc equidem occasum Trojæ tristesque ruinas
Solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens.

230 230. Terres mundum

fulmine : quid tantum scelus potuit meus Æneas committere in te !

234. Certè pollicitus

es Romanos orituros esse 235 hinc olim, annis volven

tibus, fore ductores hinc à

revocato sanguine Teucri, qui tenerent

238. Equidem hoc promisso solabar occa

NOTES. or according to Hesiod, near the island of 235. Revocato, &c. Commentators are Cythera. She was taken up to Heaven, divided in opinion, on these words. Corrawhen all the Gods were struck with her dus takes sanguine Teucri, for the Trojans, beauty, and became jealous of her superior the offspring of Teucer; and revocato, in the attractions. Jupiter attempted, in vain, to sense of restituto. Ruæus rejects this in gain her affection; and as a punishment to part. By sanguine Teucri, he understands her, for the refusal, bestowed her upon his the Trojans ; and by revocato, their return deformed son Vulcan. She, however, had into Italy, whence Dardanus, the founder many intrigues with Mars, Mercury, and of their race, originated. The blood of TeuBacchus. Her partiality for Adonis, indu- cer, and that of Dardanus, were united in ced her to leave Olympus. She also had the Trojans, their descendants. Revocato : an affection, it is said, for Anchises, and for recalled-called back to take possession of his sake, often visited the Groves of Mount the land of their ancestor. Ida. By him she had Æneas.

236. Ditione : sway-authority. TeneVenus possessed a mysterious girdle or rent: in the sense of regerent. Sententia : cestus, which gave to any, however ugly and in the sense of consilium. deformed, beauty, elegance, and grace. Her 238. Hoc quidem: with this promise, I worship was universally established. The was mitigating the fall, and sad catastrorose, the myrtle, and the apple, were sacred phe of Troy :- I was consoling myself, at, to her. The dove, the swan, and the spar- &c. row, were hcr favorite birds.

239. Fatis rependens contraria : to these She had various names, derived chiefly fates balancing, (or placing) fates contrary, from the places where she was worshipped; or of an opposite nature. Fatum, as here or from some property or quality she was used, may mean, either the purposes of the thought to possess. Some of which, are the gods concerning the Trojans, or simply, their following: Cypria, from the island Cyprus: fortune or destiny. Their city had been Paphia, from Paphos: Cytherea, from the rased, and a numerous train of ills had beisland Cythera ; in each of which places fallen them. These, we are to understand she had splendid temples. She was also by fatis. By fata contraria, it is plain, we called Telepegcma, because she presided over are to understand prosperity, or a state of marriage : Verticurdia, because she turned things different from their former one. Or, the hearts of women to chastity : Etaira, if fata be taken for the purposes of the because she was the patroness of courtezans: gods toward them, the interpretation will Acidalia, from Acidalus, a fountain in Beo- be the same. tia : Basilea, because she was the queen of The downfall of Troy was a very afflictlove: Myrlea, because the myrtle was sa- ing circumstance to Venus. She strove cred to her: Libertina, on account of her hard to prevent it. And after the event, she inclinations to licentious amours : Pontea, consoled herself with the consideration, that Marina, Lemnesia, and Pelagea, because she Troy was destined to rise again—that their sprung from the sea. The word Venus is race was to be restored to the land of Daroften taken for beauty and love; also for danus, and there become the rulers of the the object of love the person loved. It is world. This lightened her sorrow, and asused sometimes for any sensual passion, or suaged her grief. Here, perhaps, it may be lust—the intercourse of the sexes. Imperiis: asked, if she knew that the future glory of in the sense of potentia.

the Trojan race had been decreed and fixed 233. Quibus passis : against whom, suf- by fate; why does she appear to express so fering so many deaths, the whole world, much anxiety and solicitude upon that sub&c.

ject? It may be said, that the opposition 234. Hinc: hence-from the Trojans. which Juno made to it, might make her Ductores: probably, as Heyne observes, we doubt, and her mind waver. For, Jupiter are to understand JuliusCæsar, and Octavius. alone had a perfect insight into futurity, and

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