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27 · All things are delivered unto me of my Father : and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father ; k neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. j John iii. 35.

k John vi. 46.

the goodness was as conspicuous as the and revealed it to his disciples; yet not as wisdom, because whatever most accredits the prophets, not as a mere man might Christianity as of divine origin and au- receive wisdom from God, by inspiration. thority heightens its influence and extends This supposition he excludes by the imits blessings. To which may be added, portant and deeply mysterious words that it is another affecting proof of the which follow; words which indicate a divine benevolence, that he has made relation between himself, the son, and simplicity and prayer, which all may THE Father, which places an infinite disattain and use, the gates to the knowledge tance between him and the greatest of the of the deepest truths of religion; and not prophets. No man knoweth the Son but human learning and genius, which fall to the Father, which it would have been even the lot of few. Into what rich, hallow- absurd to say, had the Son been a merely ing, and consolatory views of the truth of human being, and therefore as comprethe holy scripture are those led, who, hensible as any other human being. though neither “wise nor learned,” ac- There is a mystery in the Son which the cording to the world's estimate, look up Father alone knoweth. “For no one,” with siinplicity to the Fountain of inspi- says Origen upon this very text, “can ration himself, and read the sacred page know him who is uncreated, and begotten with the sincere desire to do as well as to before every created nature, as the Father KNOW “the good, and perfect, and accep- who begat him, w o gerundas autov namnp." table will of God!” To all such, “the And no man knoweth the Father but the entrance of the word giveth light ;” and Son, the persons in the Godhead alone “ the secret of the Lord is with them that being fully known to each other; and it fear him.” See note on Luke x. 21. is from this perfect and adequate know

Verse 27. All things are delivered to me ledge of the Father which is possessed by of my Father.—Those who interpret this the Son, that he is able to communicate delivering of all things to Christ, of the with absolute clearness and certainty the universal “power given to him ” as Me- will and counsels of the Father. Such is diator, break the connexion of the dis- the basis of the infallibility of the teach. course, and bring in an entirely new sub- ing of Christ : as THE DIVINE son, he ject without necessity. He had been fully knows the divine Father; and of speaking of the revelation of his doctrine him and his designs he revealed all that by “THE FATHER,” but he here states was necessary to the salvation of men to that this revelation from the Father was his disciples, in order to its being taught not immediate or distinct from his own to the world. It is therefore added, and teaching, but made entirely through him, he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him self. Hence all things mean, all things There is no true knowledge of God but contained in this revelation; and delivered through the Son; and he who is taught is to be taken in the sense of being taught of Christ sees “ light in his light.” a doctrine; a meaning which napadovval Instead of no man and any man, in this frequently has. So Mark vii. 13, “mak- verse, the rendering ought to have been ing the word of God of none effect rather, no one or any one ; for every creathrough your tradition, which ye have ted being, and not man only, is excluded delivered,or taught. Christ, therefore, here from the perfect comprehension of received his doctrine from the Father, the Father and the Son

28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls 30 m For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. i i Jer. vi. 16.

m 1 John v. 3.

Verse 28. Come unto me, &c. — Thus case, that he was the true sacrifice for qualified to be the infallible guide of souls, sin, that an entire trust in him, by seour Saviour utters this public and univer- curing the remission of their sins, would sal invitation to every weary and heavy give rest to their souls, and that thus laden spirit. The yoke is the instrument being delivered from guilty fears, and by which oxen are subjected to their la- assured of the divine favour, and renewed bour ; the burden is a weight laid upon in holiness, “his yoke,” the yoke of his beasts or men; and the allusion of each commandments, moral, spiritual, and is to the traditions of the scribes and practical, would be found easy, xpnsos, Pharisees, by which the people were sub- “benign, mild, and gracious ;” and his jected to a variety of onerous and super- “burden," whether of duties or re. stitious observances, which oppressed and straints, founded in the nature and relagalled the sincere but ill-instructed seeker tions of man, and enjoining nothing but of salvation. Nothing indeed could so what is itself “good and profitable to move the compassion of Christ, as the men,” would be “light.” Thus are we spectacle of many awakened souls, earn- taught, that he only can find “rest to his estly desirous of knowing what they must soul,” who comes to Christ as the true do to be saved, being directed only to those propitiation for his sins, in entire trust in Pharisaic observances which, instead of the infinite merits of his sacrifice and megiving them peace of mind, only cheated diation : and whoever has found this rest, and deceived, and led to all the weariness runs with delight and joy the way of his of repeated disappointment. For what had commandments; which are so consonant these blind teachers to offer to troubled with the holy principles that divine consciences ? men who had given up the grace has planted within him, so comtypical intent of their own sacrifices, by mend themselves to enlightened reason, which it had been intended that faith in and so manifestly and powerfully promote the great promised propitiation should the peace of families, and the happiness always be maintained; and who had con- of society, that, though Christ also has verted them into unmeaning and profit. his yoke, and requires subjection to his less ceremonies, besides multiplying the authority, and his burden too, since every number of ritual observances beyond the inan must toil and labour in his service, requirements of their written law? They yet conviction, love, and the strength of bound a harsh yoke upon the necks of grace render the yoke easy and the burtheir followers, and oppressed them with den light; and all his true disciples unite heavy burdens. Such are invited by in the testimony, that his “service is perChrist to come to him, and learn of him, fect freedom.” to learn that which alone can meet their

CHAPTER XII. i Christ reproveth the blindness of the Pharisees concerning the breach of the sabbath,

3 by scriptures, 9 by reason, 13 and by a miracle. 22 He healeth the man pos. sessed that was blind and dumb. 31 Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven. 36 Account shall be made of idle words. 38 He rebuketh the unfaithful, who seek after a sign : 49 and sheweth who is his brother, sister, and mother.

1 At that time * Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.

2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.

a Mark i. 23; Luke vi. 1 ; Deut. xxiii. 25.

CHAPTER XII. Verses 1, 2.On the specting it, which the political laws of sabbath day through the corn, 8:c.—The plu. Moses contained, passed away with the ral oaßBaoi is used for the singular; so in Jewish polity itself; and as to those addithe LXX. naw is rendered both oaßBaloy, tions which were founded on mere human and oaßBala. Through the corn, dla TWV OTO- traditions, Christ by his own example has pluwy, through the corn-fields, which often taught us, that the sabbath of the Lord, had public paths along or through them. which is “ a delight and honourable,” is The action itself of plucking the ears of not to be converted into “a yoke of sucorn was lawful, as appears from Deut. perstitious bondage.” But, on the other xxiii. 25: “When thou comest into the hand, it is to be remarked, that the er. standing corn of thy neighbour, then ample of Christ guards with equal care thou mayest pluck the ears with the true limit of Christian liberty. It is thine hand; but thou shalt not move a not liberty to apply the sabbath to secusickle unto thy neighbour's standing lar purposes, or to spend it in sloth or corn." The question then simply was pleasure. He himself devoted it to reliwhether this action of the disciples was gion by teaching in the synagogues on lawful on the sabbath, which the Phari. the sabbath, and was probably on this ocsees denied. They regarded plucking, as casion travelling from synagogue to synait would appear from Maimonides, as a gogue with his disciples, when they, from kind of reaping, which, being servile mere hunger, plucked the ears of corn. work, was utterly prohibited on the sab. Thus he has taught us to apply the leibath. Very numerous and oppressive sure of the sabbath to its sacred end, the indeed were the regulations as to the ob. worship of God, and attendance upon servance of the sabbath which the Jewish public instruction. Nor is there any inteachers had superstitiously grafted upon stance of his giving the slightest sanction the original law; and our Saviour takes to worldly labour or listless recreation on frequent occasion to show his disregard that sacred day. Works of necESSITY, of them, in order to place the duty of ob- such as supplying the demand of hunger, serving the sabbath upon its true ground, and drawing a beast out of a pit, are the and thus the more forcibly to commend only examples of exception to which he it to the convictions of reason and the re- refers for the justification of his own congards of a true piety. As it stood in the duct; and works of MERCY, such as healdecalogue, he came “not to destroy but ling the sick, when actually present before to fulfil it;” but the other regulations re. Rim, are the only instances in which he

3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him ;

4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shew bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

5 Or have ye not read in the d law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless ?

6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple.

b 1 Sam. xxi. 6. c Exod. xxix. 33 ; Lev. viii. 31; xxiv. 9. d Num. xxviii. 9.

suffered his own example to be pleaded and the regular sacrifices, which were for any seeming departure from its strict doubled on the sabbath, could not have observance,-instances which only con- been offered. This was an argument firm the sanction of its hallowed charac. which the Pharisees could not resist ; for, ter, and universal obligation.

first, our Lord appeals to the law, “ Have Verses 3, 4.-What David did when he ye not read in the law,” that sacrifices was an kungred.—The example to which are commanded to be offered on the sabour Lord here refers in order to silence bath by the priests? who must therefore the Pharisees shows that the case of the profane the sabbath; that is, do that which disciples was one of real hunger, not to but for this authority, and in respect of be sustained without faintness and being the end for which it was done, would have unfitted for duty, as was that of David been a profanation; and yet, for these reaand his companions; and the argument sons, are blameless. And, second, as they is, that the law, rightly understood, never no doubt held the opinion of their more did exclude the consideration of such recent doctors, that “the servile works instances of necessity, and was therefore which are done about holy things are not to be interpreted according to the inten- servile ;” and that, as Maimonides extion of the Legislator. “The shewbread” presses it, “there is no sabbatism at all taken by David and his followers, con- in the temple ;" so upon their own prinsisted of twelve cakes, which were placed ciples it followed, that every work done upon the altar of shewbread every sab- on the sabbath was not unlawful. The bath, the old cakes being at the same natural objection which the Pharisees time removed and eaten by the priests would raise to this argument as intended "in the holy place.”

to justify the disciples, would be, that the Verse 5. The priests in the temple pro- priests were exempted from the rest of fane the sabbath, and are blameless. — the sabbath in the temple, under the This was another argument from necessity authority of Him who was greater than as connected both with piety and charity. the temple, even God; for they esteemed Had the law of the sabbath been inter- nothing more holy and venerable than preted as rigidly as the Pharisees would the temple, save God himself. This obhave it understood; if “doing no manner jection our Lord evidently anticipates in of work,” which evidently means work the next verse. for secular advantage, was to be taken to Verse 6. In this place is one greater signify an almost absolute cessation from than the temple.-Some mss. read ucisov bodily exertion; then the temple service instead of uerfw, which makes the an. must have been interrupted; the shew. swer of our Lord to be, “a greater bread could not have been “set in order;" work” than the work of the temple is

7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, • I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.

8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.

9 ? And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: 10 I And, behold, there was a man which had his hand e Hosea vi. 6; Matt. ix. 13.

f Mark iii. 1; Luke vi. 6.

that in which my disciples are employed; giver himself; and he seems to have and they are therefore entitled to be ex- chosen thus to put the argument to give empted, as well as the priests, from a him an opportunity of asserting, in the strict sabbatical observance. This makes midst of his lowliness and humility, the a plausible sense; but the mss. in which glory of his Divine Majesty : but the fact the reading occurs are not of the first au- was, that, rightly interpreted, they had not thority, and it does not accord with the violated the law at all, as he shows by context. The common reading is there- justifying them on the principle, first, of fore to be preferred, and is established in- necessity, from the example of David, deed by what follows, -"for the Son of and then of mercy, by his quotation from Man is Lord even of the sabbath-day.” Hosea vi. 6, “ I will have mercy, and Taking these passages together, they not sacrifice ;" so that on either ground amount to a declaration, that Christ, being he defended them from the inculpation. greater than the temple, was the Lord of Verse 7. I will have mercy, and not sathe temple; and therefore God; and, as crifice.-That is, when the claims of the such, was the “Lord of the sabbath-day,” one come into competition with those of having authority to institute it, to pre. the other. The last argument was pescribe the rules of its observance, and to culiarly reproving to the Pharisees, who limit and relax them according to his so shamefully relaxed the laws of morality vereign pleasure. This conclusive argu- by their subtle interpretations, and set ment therefore, fully exhibited, is, that as themselves at liberty to commit acts of you, the Pharisees, acknowledge, that only rapacity and cruelty under the colour of he who is greater than the temple could sanctity and zeal, whilst they gave a prorelax the sabbatical law as to the service portionably rigid interpretation to every of the temple, and on this ground justify rule which respected external and cerethe servile works of the priests ; I am monial observances. This is an hypogreater than the temple," and, as the crisy in which they have been often fol“Lord of the sabbath,” have the right lowed ; for many in all churches and in to permit my disciples to pluck the all ages have been found zealous for forms ears of corn and eat them on the sabbath just in proportion as they have been reday; and they, as acting under my autho. gardless of practical holiness. Such are rity, like the priests of the temple, are “the refuges of lies” into which the wil. “blameless." So explicitly does our fully deluded consciences of men often Lord assert his divinity! It is, however, fly for shelter ; but from all which they to be observed, that our Lord argues must sooner or later be dragged by the here on the concession that the disciples “light which makes all things manifest." had violated the strict rule of the sabbath, See notes on Mark ii. 23—28. as charged upon them by the Pharisees. Verse 10. Is it lawful to heal on the sabGranting even that, he pronounces them bath-day?- This was a question debated “guiltless," as acting under bis authority among the Jews; and many distinctions as “the Lord of the sabbath,” the Law. were set up as to the cases in which me

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