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per transmitted 49 parts, and thin ever mode these surfaces are are post 62.* Our-author next pro- ranged, they can only reficct the ceeds to the consideration of the light in an angle equal to that of theory lately advanced by some incidence, which, thus reflected, English philosophers, respecting may strike on other surfaces, and the calorific and de-oxidizing so- be reflected ad infinitum without lar rays.t of this he is an unbe- any change of properties, and at liever, and of course is very brief. length will reach the eye, where He has mentioned neither the they will excite sensations differing, names, nor the experiments of not in nature, but only in intensity. Herschell, Wollaston, Ritter, and It will be evident to all, that a disEnglefield; and he dismisses the ference of motion of the rays of subject almost without comment, light can only excite corresponding with this single observation, that it stronger or weaker impressions on is too complex to be true! the retina, and consequently that
We shall now present our read- these can be followed by percepers with Dr.Ewell's own theory of tions only of different degrees or colours. He observes, that, our quantities of light. In support of ideas of the colour of bodies appear his opinion, our author brings as to depend solely on the peculiar proofs, that coloured liquids vary modification or motion of light give in colour as their position, with reen by the reflective surfaces. These gard to the eye, is altored ; and, ?, reflective surfaces probably receive the appearance which the clouds their respective powers, in conse- present before the rising, and after quence of peculiarities in their me- the setting, of the sun. chanism or organization.' Upon necessary, we presume, io take up the supposition, that light is a lo- more of the time of our readers in mogeneous body, which it seems answering these objectio:s. We is the idea of our author, we can have already exceeded inc limits of conceive of no other physical al- a common review, and have reason teration it may undergo, by its ap- to fear that it has become as tedious pulsion on a hard body, than some as a “ tale twice told.” We s'all, change in the figure of its particles. therefore, finish the subject of light, But we have no proof, that this by noticing another hypothesis of change of form does take place, nor Dr. Ewell, on the agency of this that the surfaces of bodies are ca substance in the production of the pable of producing this effect. We yellow fever. We mean not to cannot conceive that colour should enter on the discussion of its merdepend on any peculiar mechanism its. It will be sufficient to observe, of matter. All the particles, how. that from the nature of liglit, it apa ever small, of a substance, when ag- pears inadequate to the effects asgregated must form a mass, whose cribed to it in this theory, and that reflective surfaces are at least equal the phenomena can be more rationin number to the molecules of that ally explained on the principle of body. Now each of these, we pre- the action of caloric on putrescent sume, is a plane surface with re- animal and vegetable substances. gard to the incidence of the rays It remains for us, therefore, only of light ; consequently, in what to advert to the two other uncori
finable substances, electricity and Leslie on heat, p. 445.6.
galvanism. We could not help ad+ Nicholson's Philoso; hical Journal, miring the lucid manner in which
Vol. IV. No. 3.
our author defines the latter. Gal- This theory is plausible and ingePanism,' says he, resembling, in a nious ; but there is one strong obfew of its properties, the electrick jection, which is, that the luminous fluid, is one lately and accidentally spark often appears stationary on discovered by an Italian, and which the point of the conductor, and in is generally termed galvanism, that situation it is apparently as or animal electricity.' In fewer brilliant, as when moving with words, galvanism is a fluid, gene- great velocity through the air. In rally'termed galvanism !
this state, it is difficult to conceive, Under the head of electricity that the air should be so forcibly Dr. Ewell attempts to account for compressed, as to lose its capacity, the production of light, during the and consequently evolve the light passage of the electrick fluid from and caloric, with which it was one conductor to another, or from combined. the clouds to the earth, by suppos We have thus finished the reing that the latter diminishes or view of those simple elementary destroys the capacity of the air for substances, which are termed by the former. He quotes no author. Dr. Ewell, on the authority of ity in support of his opinion, nor Thompson and Fourcroy, uncondoes he mention the names of any finable. We have been more difof those philosophers, from whom fuse in our examination from a behe probably first received it. In- lief, that they contained much false deed, from the manner in which it theory and incorrect statement, is introduced, his readers might be and this is the only apology we disposed to believe, that he was the bave to offer for our prolixity. In person, in whom it first originated. our next number we shall finish Now Vir. Berthollet was the first, our observations on this work by who attempted to account for the considering its more immediate evolution of light and caloric from object, the application of the prinsubstances, acted upon by the ciples of chemistry to domestick electrick fluid, by supposing, that affairs or to those arts, on which thwir capacities for these elements the ease and comfort of society were very much diminished in con- essentially depend. sequence of the sudden and violent
(To be continued.] compression of their particles.* This idea was more fully devel
ART. 11. oped in a paper, read to the National Institute of France, by M.
The Wanderer of Switzerland, and Biot, which has since been translat
other Poems, By James Monted and re-published in Nicholson's gomery. Boston : Greenough, Philosophical Journal.t It was af Stebbins, & Hunt, and J. F. terwards noticed by the editor of Fletcher. 1807. 18mo. 111. 177. this periodical publication, and
We claim some regard for havséems to have attracted the atten- ing first brought this beautiful coltion of Mr. Leslie, who had even lection from the solitary corner of written an essay on the subject, a shop into general notice, by pubthough it was never published. lishing some of the shorter odes in * Berthollet's Chemical Staticks.
our poetical departinent. The † Vol. 12. p. 212.
Muses of England do not often ut# Vol. 13. p. 89--90.
ter sweeter notes, than these, comŚ Leslie on Heat. Note 17.
bining the simplicity of Burns
with the tenderness of Rogers. defective, like all our great poets, Those, who have been delighted in some matters of inferiour imwith « The Daisy,' « The Snow- portance ; but he has a magniliDrop,' • The Lyre,' and « The cence of imagery, and a dignity of Grave,'extracted into several num- sentiment, that few have equalled. bers of the Anthology for the last He has the life-giving stamina of year, will purchase this little vol- originality, and will be numberume with readiness. We easily ed, by after ages, in the ranks of discern, that the author is little genius. versed in the writings of his brother bards, and perhaps wholly igno
Ollis igneus vigor, cælestisque origo.
VIRG. rant of the works of antiquity ; · but, if his natural taste has not yet
They have a ficry force, and their ori
gin is from heaven. been cultivated to the utmost, we find, perhaps on that very account, more of originality of thought and simplicity of language. The first
ART. 12. poem is pathetick, almost beyond Economica : a statistical manual for whatever our language can boast
the United States of America. By in its ancient or modern ballads.
Samuel Blodget, Esq. Printed at However animating may have been
Washington. 1806. 8vo. the strains of Tyrtæus, of whom Horace tells,
AS the profession of a statesman ..........manes animos in Martia bella
is generally the ambition of few, Versibus exacuit,....................
the science of finance, which re
gulates the publick revenue and we cannot believe, they would bear expenditures, and the interesting the palm from the Battle of Alex. study of political economy, have andria. The · Remonstrance to been but little attended to, and but Winter' contains the only verse in partially understood. When it is the volume, eminently exposed to considered, that the publick treasucensure.
ry is filled by contributions from
all classes of citizens, in different 'Spring, the young cherubim of love, An exile in disgrace,
proportions, and in various forms, Flits o'er the scene, like NOAH's dove,
an investigation of the principles Nor finds a resting place.'
and progress of accumulation must
be acknowledged highly important. Without a knowledge of Hebrew, A wise statesman, however, will the author might have learned, that not confine himself to the mechanour best writers use cherubim'ical business of levying and receivonly in the plural number. The ing taxes, and expending them for offence against prosody, in the third the support of government. He line, is grating to the ear, and jus. will rather create new channels of tifiable by no example. The beau- industry, and open new fields for tiful thought, in this passage, will the employment of useful labour, always be degraded by this mistake and all his exertions will be to of quantity ; but this single fault change the unproductive labour of ought to be forgotten in the general his fellow-citizens, for more valuaharmony of the verses, The poem, ble employments. For this purwhich pleases all, must possess in- pose, he will naturally turn his at. trinsick merit. Montgomery is tention to manufactures, internal
navigation, and other subjects,tend they have always been found neing to facilitate land or water cessary for the maintenance of transportation.
government, and all the ingenuity The Economica seems to have and wisdom of ancient or modern been undertaken with a laudable legislation have not been able to zeal to excite inquiries concerning free the people from paying them, such subjects, and had the work either in the form of imposts, dubeen more conformable to the ties, excises, customs, or subsidies, titie, or, which would have been &c. Since taxation therefore, unless clifficult, the title better adapted der one form or another, is the to the work, its aspect would have inevitable result of the social combeen less deceptive, and the reader pact, an enlightened government less disappointed.
should endeavour to render it light The author's plan is displayed as possible, explaining the mode in a letter to a young member of in which it is accomplished ; alcongress, in which he gives his though, at the same time, it may own system of legislation, and be ai ways good policy to impose earnestly calls upon the represen some direct taxes, that the people tatives to pay more attention to may not forget their occasional netheir duty, and modestly inureats cessity. If, instead of this, we ad« all our young legislators to forget, mit the odiousness of expense, and at least for the time of their ses- then, with a kind of state legerdesion, a part of their extreme local- main, contrive to conceal its imity; and to fancy, if possible, the aginary deformity, and create a reapron-string of COLUMBIA as natu venue by a course of smuggling, ral a tie to their affections, as that we give occasion to jealousy and of an amiable mother or a beloved discontent, and all the evils which wife.'
a dark and mysterious policy beHaving long been engaged in gets, but which an open and unstatistical studies, and enjoying disguised system of measures can many opportunities of acquiring alone avoid. authentick data, the writer might Next to the prefatory, address have compiled a very valua the author presents us with a ble set of tables, with more ease • brief chronological detail of interand convenience to himself, and esting facts, relative to the discormore entertainment and instruc
ery and progress of the American tion to his readers, if he had de states ;' with the constitution, and voted less time to legislation, and a statistical table of the population confined his ingenious speculations and general wealth of the union. to the pursuits of political econo- This table consists of 6 pages, my. But legislation is not liis which serves as the text for 130, fort. In page 18 he says,
pages of notes, without any divi* All taxes being hated, as if obnos.
sion, arrangement, or very inteliiious to the people, exrept in times of gible application. Many valuable imminent danger, or when some noble
tables are interspersed among the m nument, or charity, or university, or notes, which form admirable restschool, excites a noble emulation, they ing places to the reader ; and the should be kept out of sight, and of fecl.
occasional extracts from other auing, it possible.
thors, frees his muind from the perNow, whatever imay be the ideas plexities and confusion in which conveyed by the term taxes,' ihe long periods, obscure senten
ces, and inconclusive reasoning of consequences directly the reverse the writer, involves him.
of those the author contemplates. In page 81, in note B. he says, After having represented the at
tachment which the Romans mani. * Another law, for each and every fested for their capital city, and the state, would have an excellent tendency to extend neat husbandry....viz. After the enthusiastick love the French bear year ****, no citizen, or single free. to Paris ; after relating the lamentholder, should hold more than **** able sacrifice, made in the sale of cres in any one county or state.' publick lots at Washington, in
1802 ; and after calling the attenThis, to be sure, might assist tion of congress, to the project of oneat husbandry,' but does not seem opening canals and turnpike-roads calculated to preserve neat liberty, from the seat of government, in The impolicy and absurdity of such radial lines, to all parts of the union, a law, requires no comment ; and he thus addresses them : when he proceeds to state the impending dangers of over-grown • Fathers of the American people ! be landholders, we want better evi- assured of this sacred truth! until you dence than he has yet adduced. can agree, with heart and hand, to love He says,
THE HEART OF OUR UNION, the peo
ple will never respect their head. *If it be true, that all republicks are finally ruined by the monopoly and ty
To love with the heart is natural ranny of their over-grown landlords, we enough ; but when love becomes cannot be too well guarded against the
so intense as to require the assisdanger in the older counties of the se
tance of the hands, the lover is in veral states. All this will occur in due time, or an Agrarian must be the con- a deplorable situation. We must sequence, as in times of antiquity, un- confess, this apostrophe seemed a less the minor republicks, or monied as. little strange at first, but the author sociations, and generally commercial has informed us in the prefatory habits, should secure and perpetuate the address, that he owned several glorious freedom of America.'
hundred house lots in the city of From this passage we may infer, Washington : that the writer entertains a com
Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere fortable hope, that, in due time,' the republick will be in danger of
Wecannot acknowledge the great being overthrown by the power and utility of a national debt, which the influence of land-holders ; but as his work is intended for the United author appears to think so highly States, he either reasons wrongly, lick loans, for the purpose of es
advantageous. His ideas of pub. or he forgets the innumerable a. cres in the western states, yet un- ed on an imaginary basis, and can
tablishing publick credit, are foundoccupied, together with the unex
not have the effect of increasing plored and unknown territory of
the confidence in government. In Louisiana. If any republick can be in danger from the land-holders, page 82, he shortly states the ad
vances we make in population, and and such an opinion is not authorised by the history of any country, proposes, by foreign loans, to in ised by the history of any country, crease our numbers to such a pitch it must be a small one, and very
as to defy foreign invasion : populous ; bu:, in a country where so much land remains unimprov
• We repeat, that our population in ed, an Agrarian law would produce creases at least 3 per cent. by an annual