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shire; has been in many wars and businesses abroad and at home; - was in Hamilton's Engagement, for one thing; and accompanied Dugald Dalgetty or Sir James Turner in those disastrous days and nights at Preston, * though only as a common Colonel then, and not noticed by anybody. In the next Scotch War he received affronts from the Covenanted King; remained angrily at home, did not go to Worcester or elsewhither. The Covenanted King having vanished, and Lockhart's connexions being Presbyterian - Royalist, there was little outlook for him now in Scotland, or Britain; and he had resolved on trying France again. He came accordingly to London, seeking leave from the Authorities; had an interview with Oliver, now newly made Protector, - who read the worth of him, saw the uses of him, advised him, to continue where he was.,

He did continue; married “Miss Robina Sewster," a Huntingdonshire lady, the Protector's Niece, to whom, in her girlhood, we fonce promised "a distinguished husband;" ** has been ourfAmbassador in France near two years now; *** - does diplomatic, warlike, and whatever work comes before him, in an effectual and manful manner. It is thought by judges, that, in Lockhart, the Lord Protector had the best Ambassador of that age. Nay, in spite of all considerations, his merits procured him afterwards a similar employment in Charles Second's time. We must here cease speaking of him; recommend him to some diligent succinct Biographer of insight, should such a one, by unexpected favour of the Destinies, turn up. : To Sir William Lockhart, our Ambassador in France + : SIR,

Whitehall, 31st August 1657. I have seen your last Letter to Mr. Secretary, as hart's own Letters' are his best Memorial; – for the present, drowned, with so much else, in the deep slumber-lakes of Thurlue; with or without chance of recovery. * Antea, vol. ii. p. 25.

** Antea, vol. i. p. 266. *** Since 30th Dec. 1655 (“Family Memoirs" in Noble, ii. 244).

† Now with the Court at Peronne (Thurloe, vi. 482, 487); soon after at Paris (ib. 496).

also divers others: and although I have no doubt either of your diligence or ability to serve us in so great a Business, yet I am deeply sensible that the French are very much short with us in ingenuousness it and performance. And that which increaseth our sense 'of this' is, The resolution we ‘for our part' had, rather to overdo than to be behindhand in anything of our Treaty. And although we never were so foolish 'as' to apprehend that the French and their interests were the same with ours in all things; yet as to the Spaniard, who hath been known in all ages to be the most implacable enemy that France hath, - we never could doubt, before we made our Treaty, that, going upon such grounds, we should have been failed towards' as we are!

To talk of 'giving us Garrisons' which are inland, as Caution for future action; to talk of 'what will be done next Campaign,' - are but parcels of words for children. If they will give us Garrisons, let them give us Calais, Dieppe and Boulogne; - which I think they will do as soon as be honest in their words in giving us any one Spanish Garrison upon the coast into our hands! I positively think, which I say to you, they are afraid we should have any footing on that side of the Water,' though Spanish.

I pray you tell the Cardinal from me, That I think, if France desires to maintain its ground, much more to get ground upon the Spaniard, the performance of his Treaty with us will better do it than anything appears yet to me of any Design he hath! - Though we cannot so well pretend to soldiery as those that are with him; yet we think that, we being able by sea to

* "ingenuity," as usual, in orig.

strengthen and secure his Siege, and 'to' reinforce it as we please by sea, and the Enemy 'being' in capacity to do nothing to relieve it, – the best time to besiege that Place will be now. Especially if we consider that the French horse will be able so to ruin Flanders as that no succour can be brought to relieve the place; and that the French Army and our own will have constant relief, as far as England and France can give it, without any manner of impediment, especially considering the Dutch are now engaged so much to Southward* as they are.

I desire you to let him know That Englishmen have had so good experience of Winter expeditions, they are confident, if the Spaniard shall keep the field, As he cannot impede this work, so neither will he be able to attack anything towards France with a possibility of retreat. ** And what do all delays signify but 'even this:' The giving the Spaniard opportunity so much the more to reinforce himself; and the keeping our men another Summer to serve the French, without any colour of a reciprocal, or any advantage to ourselves!

. And therefore if this will not be listened unto, I

desire that things may be considered-of To give us • satisfaction for the great expense we have been at with

our Naval Forces and otherwise; which out of an honourable and honest aim on our part hath been in

curred, thereby to answer the Engagements we had , made. And, in fine,' That consideration may be had

* Spain-ward: 80 much inclined to help the Spaniard, if Montague would let them; a thing worth Mazarin's consideration too, though it comes in irregularly here!

** You may cut off his retreat, if he venture that way. Carlyle, Cromwell. IV.



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how our :Men may be put into a position to be returned to us; — whom we hope we shall employ to a better purpose than to have them continue where they are.

I desire we may know what France saith, and will do, upon this point. We shall be ready still, as the Lord shall assist us, to perform what can be reasonably expected on our part. And you may also let the Cardinal know farther, That our intentions, as they have been, will be to do all the good offices we can to promote the Interest common to us. *

Apprehending it is of moment that this Business should come to you with speed and surety, we have sént it by an Express. Your very loving friend,


LETTER CCXXIU. . Same date, same parties; an afterthought, by the same Express. "To Sir William Lockhart, our Ambassador in France.'

SIR, Tedi Whitehall, 31st August 1657. We desire, having written to you as we have, that the Design be Dunkirk rather than Gravelines; and · much more that it be: - but one of them rather than fail.

We shall not be 'wanting, To send over, at the French charge, Two of our old regiments, and Twothousand foot more, if need be, — if Dunkirk be the design.** Believing that if the Army be well entrenched, and if La Ferté's Foot be added to it, we shall be · able to give liberty to the greatest part of the French 1 • "thereof" in orig.

$ Thurloe, vi. 490. • ** Gravelines is to belong to them; Dunkirk to us; Dunkirk will be much preferable.

Cavalry to have an eye to the Spaniard, – leaving but convenient numbers to stand by the Foot.

And because this action will probably divert the Spaniard from assisting Charles Stuart in any attempt upon us, you may be assured that, if reality may with any reason be expected from the French, we shall do all reason on our part. But if indeed the French be so false to us as that they would not have us have any footing on that side the Water, — then I desire, as in our other Letter to you, That all things may be done in order to the giving us satisfaction ‘for our expense incurred,' and to the drawing-off of our Men.

And truly, Sir, I desire you to take boldness and freedom to yourself in your dealing with the French on these accounts. Your loving friend.

OLIVER P. 8 • This Letter naturally had its effect: indeed there goes a witty sneer in France, “The Cardinal is more afraid of Oliver than of the Deyil;" — he ought indeed to fear the Devil much more, but Oliver is the palpabler Entity of the two! Mardike was besieged straightway; girt by sea and land, and the great guns opened on the 21st day of September" next: Mardike was taken before September ended; and due delivery to our General was had of Mardike. The place was in a weak state; but by sea and land all hands were now busy fortifying and securing it...

LETTER Ccxxiv. HERE has an old dim Letter lately turned up, — communicated, for new editions, by the distinguished General Montague's Descendant, - which evidently relates to this operation. Resuscitated from its dim Archives, it falls with ready $ Thurloe, vi. 489.

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